Midterm 1 Study Guide
Midterm 1 Study Guide MKTG 4900
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This 21 page Study Guide was uploaded by Minjee Kong on Monday May 9, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to MKTG 4900 at George Washington University taught by Donna Hoffman in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 62 views. For similar materials see Integrated Marketing Communications (IMC) in Marketing at George Washington University.
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Date Created: 05/09/16
Integrated Marketing Communications Midterm 1 Study Guide Class 1a Introduction and IMC Overview Modern perspective of marketing communications: ● The Customer Perspective ○ What are customers and prospect seeing and/or hearing about your company/brand/team or organization? ■ Unified, unique and compelling message → target audiences → internally and externally ■ Clear, consistent message → interesting and relevant → connects with needs/wants → interesting value proposition ○ Where are customers/prospects seeing or hearing our messages? ■ Traditional mass media: TV, radio, magazines, newspapers, outdoor ■ Digital media: Internet, social media (Facebook/Twitter) accessed through mobile devices ■ Articles: magazines, trade publications, newspapers, stories on local/national news ■ Instores at pointofpurchase displays or from retail sales personnel ■ Events: trade show, exhibit, sporting contest ■ Nontraditional media: product placements, branded entertainment ○ How are they responding to your marketing messages? ■ Aware of company/brand/team/organization ■ Know about company/brand/team/organization ■ Have positive attitude orfeeling about company/brand/team/organization ■ Is your company/brand/team/organization in their consideration se? ■ Are marketing communications resulting in purchase intention andsales? ● The Financial Perspective ○ Are you spending your company’s marketing budget effectively and efficient? ■ Spending enough to have an impact on customer? ■ Spending budget in the right way? ■ Is the budget having the desired impact in terms of communication effects? ■ Getting a favorable ROI for marketing communication expenditures? What is IMC? ● A strategic business process ● Plan, develop, execute and evaluate coordinated, measurable, persuasive brand communications programs over time ● Involves consumers, customers, prospects, employees, associates and other targeted relevant external and internal audiences ● Goal: to generate shortterm returns and longterm brand and shareholder value Growing importance of IMC: ● Value of IMC ○ Avoids duplication of marketing efforts ○ Synergy among promotional tools ○ More efficient and effective marketing ● Role in Branding ○ Helps develop and sustain brand identity and brand equity ○ recognizes the need for companies to connect with consumers based on trust, transparency, and authenticity ● Rapidly changing environment ○ Consumer behavior ■ Constantly broadened with messages ■ Consumers want a lot of info and can make better choices; have more control ■ UGC user generated content ■ Consumers are more aware, more selective, more participative ○ Technology ■ Less forced; don’t have to see the ads ■ Consumer choice ■ More intimate you can wear it; more personalized 1 ○ Media consumption behavior ■ More digital; always on ■ Targeted advertising (Facebook) ■ Retargeting ■ Appointment TV is over ■ Online I choose how to consume ○ Proliferation of media ■ Tied to technology → personalized → lots of platforms ■ Platforms: TV, radio, premium radio, social media, print, wearables, direct mail, streaming services, tablets, mobile, billboards, films, digital signage, computers, word of mouth, eword of mouth, out of home, sporting events, user generated content Why IMC is on the rise: ● Marketers are decreasing the use of mass media advertising and increasing the use of IMC ● Internet and social media is changing how companies interact with customers ● Value of using multiple contact points to reach consumers as their lifestyle changes IMC contact or touch points: control vs impact: ● Companies/brands connect to customers through c ontacts ○ Contact each and every opportunity the consumers has to see or hear about the company’s product/brand or have an experience/encounter with it ○ Contacts are not neutral conveyors of messages they can add or subtract value ○ Not all contacts are equal some are more influential than others (ex. instore demo will have more impact than a TV or print ad) ● Touch points: control vs impact IMC Planning Model: 2 Class 1b IMC in Action: Communication Strategy and Media Plan Execution Steps in the IMC Planning Model: 1. Executive Summary 2. Situation Analysis Get the lay of the land ● Company/Product Analysis ○ Company history ○ Product lines ○ Brand ■ Previous promotional programs? ■ Relative strengths and weaknesses? ■ Fit with the product portfolio ■ Capacities of the company to change the brand and/or its image? ● Competitor Analysis ○ Who are our competitors and how are their brands positioned? ● Customer Analysis ○ How is the market segmented? Who are the consumers within each segment? ○ What is the consumer problem or issue? ○ Needs and benefits south of consumers in each segment ○ What do they know and perceive about positioning of products in the marketplace? ○ How are they influenced and persuaded? ● Environmental Analysis ○ What is happening in the industry generally? ○ What macroconsumer trends are occurring? 3. Communication Strategy Figure out what to do ● Target Market Selection which segment(s) will you select as your target market? ● Positioning what image do we want to develop for our brand? ● Communication Objectives what goals do we want to achieve? ● Communication Budget how much money do we need to spend? ● Creative Strategy : The Big Idea what is the overall concept that will guide the campaign? 4. Execution (Tactics) Specify how to do it ● The media mix is created by selecting the best combination of traditional and nontraditional media tools to reach the targeted stakeholder audiences ○ Advertising (print, internet, broadcast), etc., Website Marketing, Sales Promotions, Direct Marketing, Social Media and Publicity ● The media plan includes: ○ Target market to whom to promote ○ Timing strategies when to use each tactic ○ Geographic strategies where to promote ○ How to reach the target market most efficiently which specific media vehicles are used ○ Scheduling strategies how long and how often a given tactic will be used 5. IMC Plan Implementation Do it 6. IMC Plan Controls (Measures) Did it work? Inclass Exercise: Revitalizing a Tired Brand Canadian Club Whiskey ● Communication Strategy: What would you do? ○ Positioning ■ Masculinity of cocktails ■ Capitalize on the history of company and recognition ■ A drink for mature, male adults who are past the college drinking days ■ A classic “goto” drink ○ Slogan ■ “Join the Club” ■ “Boldness in a Glass” ■ “Be a Man, Join the Club” 3 ● Tactics: How would you do it? ○ Key tactical elements ■ Utilize different advertising mediums to enhance brand awareness and image ■ Emphasis on fatherson relationship and right of passage ● Passing a baseball, buying a first car, first job ■ Join “man club” on website (lifestyle club) man tips, drink tips, pick up lines, style tips ■ Celebrity endorsement ○ Preferred mediums ■ Digital commercials and social media campaigns ■ Radio ■ Print ads ● The Big Idea: ○ Bring masculinity back to whisky cocktails (Rat Pack vs Sex in the City) ○ Demographic focus: males 3039 ○ Psychographic target: every guy moving beyond postfrat days looking for strong and simple expressions of manhood ○ Too hard for brand to fight its image and too expensive to create a new identity ○ Enthusiastically embrace the image as something “your dad drank” ● What Canadian Club did: “Damn Right Your Dad Drank It” ○ “Damn Right” ads that highlighted a younger, cooler, hip version of your dad ■ Made dad more relatable by portraying him as a young “stud” ○ Interactive advertisements: consumers can go online and create their own ads by inserting pictures and quotes ○ Provided cocktail recipes using Canadian Club that were “manly” ○ Total media expenditure: $25 million ■ Radio, Print (trade/professional, consumer magazine) ■ PR ■ Packaging ■ Interactive (website, social networking sites, other) ■ OOH transit ■ Retail experience (POP, instore merchandizing, retailtainment) ■ Consumer involvement (consumer generated, viral) ○ Results: 1. Immediately stem the longterm sales decline by 4.4% 2. Restore topofmind awareness to the brand 3. Increase consideration around bar call ○ Doubled the likelihood that consumers would purchase a drink or bottle of Canadian Club during their next visit to a restaurant or store Class 2a Opportunity Analysis, Market Segmentation, Target Marketing Revisit the steps in the IMC Planning Process: 1. Executive Summary 2. Situation Analysis 3. Communication Strategy ● Use objectives to measure whether or not it worked 4. Execution (Tactics) 5. IMC Plan Implementation 6. IMC Plan Controls (Measures) 4 Target marketing process: ● The market segmentation process divides a market into distinct groups that will respond similarly to marketing actions ● Key concepts in the Marketing and Promotions Process Model: Targeting Marketing Process ○ Segmentation ■ Group customers based on similar needs ■ Profile each segment ○ Targeting ■ Assess attractiveness of each segment ■ Select segments to target ○ Positioning ■ Define value proposition for target segments ■ Develop an action plan Bases for market segmentation: ● Market segmentation is key to IMC strategy ○ M arket segment a specific subset of customers who share a similar set of unique needs, purchase behaviors, and identifying characteristics ○ Market segmentation the action of subdividing your market into distinct segments, where any segment may conceivably be selected as amarketing target to be served with a distinct marketing mix ■ Need a different campaign for each segment, otherwise they aren’t different market segments ● Dividing a market into distinct groups with common needs, who respond similarly to a market situation ● Bases: 5 ○ Behavioral is the key segment ■ User status: loyal vs occassional user Segmenting Millennials and Consumer Market Analysis: Target market selection: ● Determine how many segments to enter ● Determine which segments offer the most potential ● Effective targeting requires that you can: ○ Identify and profile distinct groups of buyers who differ in their needs and preferences (segmentation) ○ Select one or more market segments to enter (targeting) ○ Establish and communicate the distinctive benefits of the market offering (positioning) Inclass Exercise: Millennial Segments and Under Armour Running Shoes Segments Demographics Behavioral/Usage Needs/ Positioning Competition and characteristics Benefits Sought psychographics Hipennial Female; wants Charitable; SM heavy Protecting the active lululemon brands to have a world; looking Good social commitment on social media Millennial mom Female; high Very loyal to the Long term use; not Lululemon; income; 2835; in brand; high quality; interested in fads or nike the suburbs big researchers trends; more about before purchase comfort 6 Antimillennial Conservative; Doesn’t want to Comfort; conservative nike hispanic; western spend more; low conservative; not US; skews female usage faddish or trendy Gadget guru Single wealthy male Innovative shoe; IoT Hightech; wearable Top quality; innovative nike tech; topquality brand Clean & green Mostly students; Work out and want Durable and Value oriented; best Nike; under millennial male; younger; shoe for everyday use comfort; also bang for buck armour hispanic and class ecofriendly Oldschool Older; hispanic Better health High quality with High quality and Rebok; new millennial benefits; more charitable aspect durability; best bang for balance support for back or buck; not flashy; foot conservative Class 2b Agencies and IMC Firms Participants in the IMC process: Centralized vs decentralized advertising departments: ● Which of the following differentiates a centralized organization from a decentralized organization? ○ In a centralized organization, an advertising manager controls the entire promotions operation for all the products of a company, whereas in a decentralized organization, each product is assigned to a different brand manager. ● The advertising department under a centralized system 7 ● Decentralized brand management system ● Comparison of advertising organizational systems Evolution of agency compensation: ● Feebased compensation dominates ○ Feebased compensation continues to rise replacing commisionbased compensation of the past ○ Other methods like valuebased compensation, which is laborintensive and timeconsuming haven’t taken off ● Size matters ○ The bigger the advertiser, the more likely they are to use feebased compensation ● Use of performance incentives has increased more than doubled since late ‘90s (13% to 61%) ● Agencies risk downside to underperforming ○ In riskreward structure, agency reaps upside if it meets goals, but loses compensation if goals not met ● Annual reviews now dominate 8 Inclass Exercise: Reddiwip Big Idea ● Positioning: what the consumer thinks about or associates with the brand when they think about it ○ Kids eating fruit and being healthy ○ Product is not artificial ○ Compared to other brands lower in sugar/calories ○ Sweet topping on anything; fruit; taste ● Tagline: catchy motto ○ “Fruits best friend” ○ “ReddiWip, double the sweetness” ● Target market segment ○ Moms (millennial moms age 2840) who want kids to eat healthy will likely eat fruit with ReddiWip on it ■ Moms are the ones that do the grocery shopping ○ Young, healthy focused people and kids Class 3a & 3b Consumer Behavior and the Buying Process Stages in the consumer decision making process and internal psychological processes accompanying each stage: ● Consumer behavior the process and activities that people engage in when searching for selecting, purchasing, using, evaluating and disposing of products and services so as to satisfy their needs and desires ● Basic model of consumer decision making Problem recognition and motivation (needs hierarchy): ● Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Information search and perception (selective perception process): ● Commercial sources advertising, POS, Internet, salespeople ● Personal sources ● Public sources ● Internet sources ● Personal experience 9 Alternative evaluation and attitude formation (evoked sets, multiattribute model of attitudes, attitude change strategies): ● There are a number of important factors and processes that are important during the alternative evaluation stage: ○ Evaluate criteria and consequences ■ Criteria: Objective (price, warranty, size/weight) vs Subjective (style, performance, image) ■ Consequences: Functional (concrete outcomes sweetness of a drink, car acceleration) vs Psychosocial (abstract outcomes more intangible, subjective and personal) ○ Attitudes ■ Learned predispositions to respond to an object ○ Integration processes and decision rules ■ Integration processes combining product knowledge, meanings, and beliefs to evaluate alternatives ■ Decision rules strategies used to decide among alternatives ● Formal Integration Strategies ● Heuristics (affect referral decision rule) Purchase decision and integration: ● Decision → purchase intention/purchase → brand loyalty Postpurchase evaluation and learning (cognitive learning theory vs behavioral learning theory): ● Post evaluation → satisfaction → dissatisfaction → cognitive dissonance ● The FiveState Decision Process Model relies on Cognitive Learning Theory ○ Consumer as problem solver and information processor ○ Engages in variety of complex mental processes to evaluate and choose among alternatives ● Consumer learning is the process by which individuals acquire the purchase and consumption knowledge and experience they apply to future related behavior Behavioral learning theory approach: ● Based on the StimulusResponse Orientation (SR) ● Emphasizes the role of external or environmental stimuli in causing behavior while minimizing the significance of internal psychological processes: ○ Classical conditioning (association) ○ Operant or instrumental conditioning 10 InClass Exercise: How Can Marketers Influence Attitudes ● Use the multiattribute model of attitudes to complete the table below: ● Choose one of the brands as the target brand and treat the other brands as competitors. Develop specific marketing communications examples for each of the following: Chanel ○ Change the strength of consumer beliefs about an important attribute ■ Control over counterfeits hand stitching cannot be replicated; one of a kind. Identifiable by everyone due to quality of materials and design. ○ Change perceptions of the importance of an attribute ■ Instore experience customizing products instore is a luxury that only Chanel can offer ○ Add a new attribute to the attitude formation mix ■ Timeless never goes out of style and always lasts; no falling apart bags with Chanel ○ Change perceptions or beliefs about a competing brand ■ Downgrading the quality of Gucci mass production vs handmade/overwornsaturation of market InClass Exercise: The Consumer Behavior Decision Process in Action 1. Use the stages and motivations to evaluate a real purchase. Problem Recognition/Motivation: You want a winter shade for your nails and a professional looking nail color Information Search/Perception: Stores Sephora, Ulta, CVS, online reviews, Instagram, Facebook, YouTube, Birch Box Alternative Evaluation/Attitude Formation: Essie, OPI, Sally Hansen Purchase Decision/Integration: The price, color, brush shape, quality, brand loyalty 2. Metrics for each stage. Problem recognition: Esteem needs how does nail polish make me feel? Recognition do people recognize like/dislike? Do you like the color of your nail polish? Information search: Reviews 15 stars on Amazon, friends’ perception of color/brand, beauty bloggers’ ratings Alternative Evaluation:Is the brand in the evaluation set? What are the top brands individuals think of? Purchase: How do the attributes compare to other brands? (price, color, brush shape, brand meaning, quality) Postpurchase: Customer satisfaction reviews, sales, demand trends 3. Facebook or Twitter strategy for that stage. Twitter ● Use beauty bloggers to communicate about the color, celebrity makeup artists, celebrities ● Use alternative evaluation ● Make some of the bloggers/celebrities brand ambassadors 11 Class 4a Brand Positioning Revisit the steps in the IMC Planning Process: 1. Executive Summary 2. Situation Analysis 3. Communication Strategy ● Target Market Selection → which segment(s) will you select as your target market? ● Positioning → What image do we want to develop for our brand? ● Communication Objectives → What goals do we want to achieve? ● Communication Budget → How much money do we need to spend? ● Big Idea → What is the overall concept that will guide the campaign? 4. Execution (Tactics) 5. IMC Plan Implementation 6. IMC Plan Controls (Measures) What is brand positioning: ● Positioning is not what you do to a product, it’s what you do to the mind of the prospect ● Creates a desired image for a company and its products in the minds of a chosen user segment ○ Concerns brands, the company itself, or individual products, and helps to control brand image ● Involves designing an offering so that the target segment members perceive it in a distinct and valued way relative to competitors ● Brand Position : the image, along with its associated attributes that comes to consumers’ minds when they think about the product ● Market Positioning : fitting the product or service to one or more segments of the broad market in such a way as to set it apart from the competition Brand identity vs brand equity: ● Brand identity : combination of name, logo, symbols, design packaging and image associations held by the consumer ● Brand equity : added value or goodwill that results from favorable image, impressions of differentiation and/or the strength of consumer attachment to a company name, brand name or trademark Developing positioning strategies: ● Product attributes or benefits (low carb, Bimmer handling) ● Price/quality (premium & value brands. Four Season vs Motel 6) ● Use (associate with specific applications Bose noise reduction headset, Dayquil vs Nyquil) ● Product class (transportation from planes to trains) ● Users (Johnson’s baby shampoo, University of Phoenix) ● Competitors (United Airlines Reward card) ● Cultural symbols (Jolly Green Giant, Pillsbury Dough Boy, Ronald McDonald, Keebler Elves, Tony the Tiger) Analyzing positioning maps/brand association maps: 12 Repositioning strategies: ● Shift consumer preferences toward your brand ○ Highlight new dimension or change relative importance of existing dimension ● Shift perception of your brand in preferred direction ○ With communication if brand is “misperceived” ○ With product design to modify product attributes ● Shift perception of competitor away from preferred direction ○ Negative political advertising ● Consider relative importance of dimensions when repositioning Evolution of Nike’s brand: ● A master of repositioning Brand positioning statements based on a brand audit: 1. How is the market target specified? Demos, usage behavior 2. What consumer needs is it based on? Can the brand fulfill that need better than the others? 3. What competitive set does the framework suggest? Is it too narrow or broad? Does it permit the use of a superior benefit? 4. What is the intended net takeaway from the benefit statement? 5. If there is more than one benefit, are they aligned? 6. Are the “reasons why” aligned with each benefit? Do the reasons ring true with the main POD benefit or simply with the additional product benefits? 7. Does the benefit link with the target users’ needs? Does the “reason why” add credibility to the benefit? 8. Does it include a brand character statement that is consistent with the product attributes? With the target users’ aspirations? 9. How does the main benefit deliver a POD? 13 Example: Gatorade ● Target segments/needs: ○ Demographics/psychographics attitudes ○ Active athletes of all ages who love to compete ○ Usage behavior ○ Rely heavily on liquid replenishment (especially water, juice, and other isotonics) ○ Needs: to stay at competitive best physically and mentally ● Competitive framework: ○ Who else competes in this space? ○ What are the substitutes or replacements? ○ How is the brand similar to and different from t these competitors? Target segments and positioning strategies of competitors? ○ Emotional benefits could expand the frame of reference. ○ Gatorade: T hirstquencher, body replenisher ● Point of differentiation benefit : ○ Pointsofdifference (PODs) are attributes or benefits that consumers strongly associate with a brand, positively evaluate, and believe that they could not find to the same extent with a competitive brand. ○ What attributes should we associate with the brand? ○ Why this brand over all others? ○ Benefits can be functional, performance oriented, emotional, tangible, intangible, any combination ○ Must be consistent with product’s physical attributes and what consumers like best about the brand ○ Gatorade: Best satisfies thirst and replenishes you so you can keep achieving your personal best ● Reason why: ○ Support for the POD claim ○ Gives consumers a reason to believe ○ Could be related to experience (challenges or acid test that supports the POD benefit), product (design, ingredient, formula, etc)or people (person or expert who endorsed it) ○ Gatorade: It’s the only brand endorsed/used by all major US prosports (NBA, NFL, NHL, MLB). It contains Gatorade’s wellknown, athletically proven formula. ● Brand character : ○ Strategic element of positioning ○ Focused on the emotional elements of the brand and the personal meaning of the product to consumers ○ Who is your brand? ○ Gender? Age? How would it express itself? Caring? Tough? ○ What people, role models or celebrities best exemplify the brand ○ InClass Activity: The Brand Audit and Brand Positioning Analysis Class 4b Consumer Response to Communications Traditional hierarchical response models: ● Key assumption: Cognitive development precedes affective reaction which in turn precedes behavior (conative) ○ Learn → Feel → Do Stage Effect Measure Learn (Cognitive) Ads provide info and facts Attention, awareness, comprehension, What you know or perceive about the perception and knowledge brand Feel (Affective) Ads change attitudes and feelings Interest, desire, liking, preference and attitude 14 Do (Conative) Ads stimulate a direct desire Conviction, purchase, trial, intention, and What action or behavior you take toward adoption the brand ● Standard response hierarchy: ○ Consumer is active participant, gathering information through active learning ○ High involvement ○ Differentiated brands ○ IMC program focused on providing detailed information to aid in evaluation and decisionmaking ● The Response Process Alternative response hierarchy models: ● Dissonance/Attribution hierarchy: ○ Do → Feel → Learn ○ Consumers experience feelings of anxiety over highticket, highinvolvement purchases Did I make the wrong choice? ○ More cognitive effort when social identity is related to the product ○ Need to defend the purchase more aware of ads for the brand than nonusers ● Low involvement hierarchy: ○ Learn → Do → Feel ○ Advertising influences behavior by tapping feelings generated by an experience, rather than by consumers actively processing the information ○ Learning is passive and information is “caught” randomly rather than being actively sought ○ Symbols, jingles, characters, music and other appeals focused on making an association in the consumer’s mind without requiring cognitive effort 15 The social consumer decision journey updates the consumer decision making process: Cognitive response model and cognitive response categories: ● Cognitive Response Model ● Cognitive Response Categories 16 Elaboration likelihood model (ELM) and the central vs peripheral routes to attitude change: ● Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM) ● Implications of the ELM ○ Consumers’ motivation and ability to process information is really important ○ When consumer is highly involved, messages should contain arguments that are difficult to refute ○ When consumers are less involved, the peripheral cues will be more important than detailed arguments InClass Exercise: Evaluate the Super Bowl 50 Axe commercial with the Cognitive Response Model ● Product/Message Thoughts directed at the product or service and/or claims being made: ○ Counterarguments: A certain scent cannot necessarily boost an individual’s confidence (their low selfesteem is not something that can be overcome by materialistic goods) ○ Support arguments: A strong, attractive scent like Axe can help a guy feel more confident and “smooth” when it comes to talking to girls. They can feel better about themselves in general knowing they smell great. ● SourceOriented Thoughts directed at the source of the communication: ○ Source derogations: People don’t like Axe because they relate it to a bad memory; belief that “Axe isn’t for me” ○ Source bolsters: Relatable/inclusive: the ad targets a wide variety of people ● Ad Execution Thoughts thoughts about the ad itself: ○ Affect/attitude toward the ad: The ad did a phenomenal job in incorporating a wide variety of different people. It portrayed a sense of confidence across all types of males; including those not known to usually be “confident.” Class 5a Communications Theory Source attributes and receiver processing models: ○ If the source is credible, attractive, and has power, they can be strong communicators ○ Internalization the process whereby I adopt the position of the credible communicator ○ Attractiveness works because I’m motivated to adopt their message because I identify with them identification ○ Power the ability that the communicator has either real or perceived power, it leads to compliance ○ Compliance don’t want to be punished for disagreeing or want to be rewarded 17 ● Source Attribute: Credibility ○ For a source to be considered credible, they need the knowledge, skill, and expertise ○ The information also needs to be trustworthy, unbiased, and objective ○ Celebrities, CEOs, and presidents can be perceived as credible ● Limitations of Credible Sources: ○ High and low credibility sources are equally effective when arguing for a position opposing their own best interest ○ If receiver attitude is initially favorable, highly credible source may lead receiver to attribute opinion to the source rather than the message ○ If source is moderate or low credibility, then receiver can focus on the message ● Source Attribute: Power ○ Power is less relevant in advertising and more relevant in politics ○ Internal psychological component compliance ○ If the source seems to have power, will lead to compliance ● Source Attribute: Attractiveness ○ Source attractiveness can work through any one of these three attributes Issues and risks with celebrity endorsers: 18 Qscores to understand celebrity familiarity and likeability: ● QScore Formula: ○ The percent of those who say “one of my favorites” ○ Divided by the percent who have heard of him/her ○ The average sports personality has a positive Q of 15 and negative Q score of 24 Meaning transfer model of celebrity endorsement: ● The marketers of Cirrus shoes received negative publicity when the company’s brand ambassador Adrian Richardson was convicted of sexual assault. The company was forced to rescind their association with him as they feared a conveyance of negative cultural perceptions to consumers. This scenario can be best explained using the _______________ model. ○ Meaning transfer Message appeals: ● Comparative ads help new brands or brands with small market share get into evoked set ● Fear appeals and the protection motivation model to understand fear response Severity of the threat Probability of its occurrence Effectiveness of a coping response Ease with which the response can be implemented ● Humor appeals and ad wearout ○ Attract and hold consumers’ attention ○ Put consumers in a positive mood ○ Increase consumers’ liking of the ad and their feeling toward the product ○ Distract the consumer from counter arguing against the message ○ May wear out faster than serious appeals ■ Wearout : tendency of a commercial to lose effectiveness when seen or heard repeatedly ■ Super Bowl 50 Dorito Commercial eating Doritos during sonogram and baby pops out 19 InClass Exercise: Applying the Meaning Transfer Model to the “Walken Closet” Stage 1: How did Christopher Walken acquire his meaning? He is an actor playing intense roles; uses products that are as tough as he is; masculine voice Stage 2: Does it transfer well to the 2016 Kia Optima he is endorsing? His character made the advertisement interesting, but the commercial was fundamentally bad. It went from an ad that seemed like it was for elegant socks to actually being a KIA Commercial. Stage 3: How does the meaning transfer to the consumer? The meaning did not transfer to the consumer. The ad steered away from what it initially could have been. Class 5b Communication Objectives Traditional purchase funnel and the communication effects pyramid: Dagmar & characteristics of good objectives: ● DAGMAR A model for setting advertising goals ○ D efiningAdvertisingGoals forMeasured AdvertisingResults ■ Set ad objectives and measure results of ad campaigns based on hierarchical model of the communications process:Awareness, comprehension, conviction, and action ● Characteristics of good objectives 20 Traditional purchase funnel and relationship to objectives setting: The social consumer decision journey objectives and strategies: ● The Social Consumer Decision Journey ● Objectives and Strategies in the Social Consumer Decision Journey 21
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