Midterm 2 Study Guide
Midterm 2 Study Guide MKTG 4900
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This 15 page Study Guide was uploaded by Minjee Kong on Monday May 9, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to MKTG 4900 at George Washington University taught by Donna Hoffman in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see Integrated Marketing Communications (IMC) in Marketing at George Washington University.
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Date Created: 05/09/16
Integrated Marketing Communications Midterm 2 Study Guide Class 7b Creative Strategy I: Developing the Big Idea Distinction between creative strategy and creative tactics: ● Advertising creativity advertising market is cluttered and competitors are getting more and more creative ● Creative Strategy ○ Determining what the advertising message will say or communicate ○ What you’re going to do the point of what you’re going to do in your communication ● Creative Tactics ○ Determining how the message strategy will be executed ○ Exactly how you’re going to execute the strategy Two perspectives on advertising creativity (rationalists vs creatives): ● Managers’ perspective (rationalists) ○ Advertising is creative only if it sells the product ○ Ads are promotional tools used to communicate favorable impressions to the marketplace ○ Someone who wears a suit point of the ad is to move the product ● Cr eative people’s perspective (creatives) ○ Creativity of an ad is in its artistic value and originality ○ Ads are communication vehicles for promoting their own aesthetic viewpoints and personal career objectives ○ People say “that’s a great ad” “poets” vs suits (managers) Question: The rationalists of creative advertising argue that: advertising must sell the product or service . Determinants of creativity: ● Creativity has two dimensions: ○ Divergence ■ Creativity is something that diverges from the normal ■ Novel, unique, unusual, original ■ Traditional sense of the word “creative” ○ Relevance ■ Meaningful, useful, relevant, valuable ■ Adtoconsumers has to make sense to the target market being focused on ■ Brandtoconsumer has to be consistent and relevant to the brand as a whole 1 Young’s Creative Process Model: 123 Wallas’ Creative Process Model: Advertising campaigns are centered around themes: ● Big idea one single theme/focus ● Set of interrelated and coordinated marketing communications activities that center on a single theme or idea ○ Appear in different media across a specified time period ● Campaign theme ○ Central message communicated in all the advertising and promotional activities ○ Expressed through a slogan or tagline ● Slogan ○ Summation line that briefly expresses the company or brand’s positioning and the message it is trying to deliver to the target audience Criteria for effective slogans: ● “Just do it” ● “There are some things money can’t buy. For everything else, there’s MasterCard” 2 Creative strategy approaches underlying the big idea: ● Inherent drama ○ Example: Google search Study Abroad Pari ■ https://www.youtube.com/watch?c=et_BFRbgoSs ● Unique Selling Position (USP) ○ Specify a product that has a unique benefit no one else can do it, and it’s so strong that you’ll want to do it ○ Example: Colgate Total toothpaste highlights unique benefits and selling points for the toothpaste ■ Healthy Mouth Healthy Body ■ Diabetes and Oral Health ■ #1 Recommended Most by Dentists & Hygienists ■ Improve mouth health in 2 weeks ● Positioning ○ Example: Pepsi Max as a Diet Cola for Men ■ “Save the calories for bacon.” ■ “The first diet cola for men.” ● Brand Image ○ Example: “A diamond is forever” The Big Idea: ● Strongest singular thing a company can say about its product or service ● Communicates the key benefits to the particular target market segment ● Incorporates communication objectives ● Must be adaptable in today’s rapidly changing world ● Does it work across the variety of media we will use in the IMC campaign? ● Does it connect with consumers ? ● Marketers have to be able to engage consumers and enter into dialogues with them, not just push messages at them InClass Exercise: Domino’s Turnaround: ● Tagline: “You’ll never guess it’s from Domino’s” ○ All new pizza higher quality ingredients, accountable, customer focused ○ Emphasize the social experience of ordering and eating pizza ● Creative strategy (balance between rationalists and creatives): ○ Blind taste tests consumers given different types of pizzas from competitors and asking if consumers think the quality and ingredients are exceptional; surprise consumers by showing that “restaurant quality food” is actually from Domino’s ○ Transparency showing the kitchen, cooking process, meet employees 3 Class 8a Creative Strategy II: Ad Appeals and Ad Execution Styles Distinction between advertising appeals and creative execution styles: Appeals: ● Informational/rational ○ Feature focus on the dominant product traits ○ Competitive advantage makes comparisons to other brands ○ Favorable price makes price offer the dominant point ○ News news announcement about the product ○ Product/service popularity stresses the brand’s popularity ● Emotional target personal states or feelings ○ Psychological : safety, security, fear, love/affection, happiness/joy, nostalgia, sentiment, excitement, sorrow/grief ○ Social : recognition, status, respect, involvement, embarrassment, affiliation, rejection, acceptance, approval ○ Example: MasterCard and Budweiser (horse) commercials ● Transformational ads ○ Ads create feelings, meanings, images, beliefs ○ It makes the product use experience richer, more exciting, warmer, more enjoyable ○ Example: Corona & Skyy Vodka ads ● Other types (reminder, teaser, UGC) Question: Advertising appeals that focus on functional or utilitarian needs and emphasize product features and benefits are known as informational appeals Ad execution techniques (many, but lecture highlighted some of the most popular): Straight sell or factua Neutrogena ad (highlights benefits of the product) Testimonials celebrities often used in ads (Adam Levine for Proavtiv “Proactiv+ is a game changer”) Sliceoflif consumers can relate to the ad on a personal level Personality symbol Dos Equis beer & Allstate Imagery Humor Inclass Exercise: Executing the Big Idea for Burberry’s Social Media Campaign ● Social Media Campaign Ad Appeal & Execution Style: “The intersection of Bond” personality symbol ○ Pierce Brosnan older films vs. Daniel Craig newer films ○ “Which Bond are you?” engagement 4 Class 8b & 9a Media Planning in Practice Media Planning Process: ● A series of decisions made to answer the question, “What are the best means of delivering marketing communications messages to prospective and current users of my brand?” ○ How many targetedprospects do I need to reach? ○ How frequently do I need to reach them? ○ In which medium (or media) should I place ads? ○ When should the ads appear? ○ Where should the ads appear? In which markets and regions? ○ How much money should be spent in each medium? Media terms and concepts: ● Media planning a series of decisions involving the delivery of messages to audiences ● Media objectives goals to be attained by the media strategy and program ● Media strategy decisions on how the media objectives can be attained ● Medium general categories of delivery systems, including broadcast and print media Developing the Media Plan: ● Four basic steps: 1. Targeting ● To w hom should we advertise? ● Through which media and media vehicles can I get my message to prospective buyers? ● Where should we advertise? 2. Objectives ● Media objectives a statement of what goals the chosen media are expected to accomplish ● Objectives should: ○ Reflect the brand’s marketing objectives ○ Specifically identity the target market ○ Specify how many times those people should see the message during the introductory and sustaining periods ○ Reflect a balance between how many people will see a message and how many times they will see it (fresh vs. frequency) 3. Tactics 4. Scheduling Using index numbers: 5 Using the Brand Development Index (BDI) & Category Development Index (CDI): Media terms and concepts: ● Media vehicle the specific carrier within a medium category ● Reach number of different audience members exposed at least once in a time period ● Coverage the potential of audience that might receive the message through the vehicle ● Frequency number of times the receiver is exposed to the media vehicle in a time period Reach, frequency and GRPs, effective reach: ● Reach vs. Frequency ○ How much reach is necessary? ■ How many members of the target audience should be exposed to your message? ■ Reach thenumber or percentage of individuals receiving at least one exposure from a media vehicle or media plan within a specified period of time ● Ideal goal: 100% reach ● Reality check: 100% reach among the target audience is difficult to achieve 6 ○ What frequency level is needed? ■ How many times should the average audience member be exposed to your message? ■ Frequency theaverage number of times those who are reached have an opportunity to be exposed to a brand message within a specified time period ● Frequency to be effective: 310 exposures by target audience ● Varies widely by brand; can also vary by vehicle ○ A reach priority is often used when: ■ The objective is brand recognition ■ The brand is national ■ Consumers are diverse ■ Product has a short lifecycle ○ A frequency priority is used when: ■ Objective is brand recall ■ Product or service is directed to special consumer segment ● Impressions or Gross Rating Points (GRPs) : the combined measure of reach and frequency indicating the weight of a media plan The more GRPs, the more “weight” a plan has 7 ● Effective Reach Curve: CPMs and media selection: ● Cost per thousand (CPM): what a communication vehicle charges to deliver a message to 1,000 members of its audience ○ Used commonly for print media Characteristics of TV, Radio and Print (high level pros and cons): 8 Characteristics of scheduling methods (flighting, continuous, and pulsing patterns): ● Media Schedule: a plan for the pattern of times during which a given message will appear ○ Popular approaches include: flighting patterns, continuous patterns, pulsing patterns InClass Exercise: RBB Sporting Goods Power Flight Golf Clubs: ● Target : regular golfers who play at least once per month (men 3564) ● Primary medium : television (network & cable; golf & weekend sports programs) ● Secondary medium: magazines (golf & newsweeklies) ● Broad national reach (81%) of target immediately prior to and during the beginning of the golf season (50% @ 3+) ● Continuing support throughout golf season Class 9b Alternative Media OutOfHome (OOH) advertising: 9 Generally good for: ○ Wide local coverage ○ High frequency ○ Geographic flexibility ○ Creativity ○ Creation of awareness ○ Efficiency ○ Sales effectiveness ○ Production capability ○ Timeliness ● Negatives: ○ Waste coverage, limited message capability, wearout, cost, measurement problems, image problems Question: A major reason for the continued success of outdoor advertising is: its ability to communicate complex messages Branded entertainment: ● A brand appears at least every 3 minutes in primetime TV shows ● $3.46 billion in paid placement and only increasing in usage and importance ● Entire branded entertainment industry estimated at around $44 today ● Branded entertainment is how advertisers are responding to connected viewing trends ● Hard to measure : it complicates traditional media metrics, goals and institutional relationships ● Business models are evolving : the advertising and entertainment industries will need to evolve new models of production, distribution and formats to serve brands’ needs for this form of advertising Goals and effectiveness of product placement and product integration: ● Product placement ● 3 categories of placement: ○ Visual onscreen presence of the brand (53% of placements) ○ Verbal brand mentions in dialogue (33% of placements); recall is higher for verbal vs visual placement ○ Plot Connectedness integration of the brand into the plot ● Product placement in TV is branded entertainment effective? ○ Brand placement in a successful movie can increase stock price : ■ Consumers connect with certain movies and map their aspirations to products depicted in these films ○ Brand placement can lead to higher sales : ■ Increases brand recall by enhancing brand accessibility in consumers’ mind and becoming part of the evoked brand set ○ Brand must be meaningfully incorporated into the story/plot : ■ Visual presence of the brand with a verbal mention has a positive impact ■ However, when the placement is blatant or forced, it negatively affects stock price ■ Context has to be consistent with brand image Kramer tries to force Jerry to eat Junior Mints and in the final scene the candies fall into a patient during surgery. Still, the quirky context was a good fit with the positive associations and humor with Seinfeld ○ Brand placement can increase brand recall and brand attitudes : ■ Exposure leads to higher recall through priming brand placement in the movie or TV show ‘primes’ the consumer so they are more likely to remember an ad for the brand later ■ Even though consumers know in general that paid placement occurs, they are still influenced when it’s covert ■ However, disclosing paid product placement decreases the effect, especially when consumers learn after exposure ○ Even a brief presence of the brand can lead to positive effects : ■ Mere exposure to the brand enhances its accessibility ● Product integration works best when product is incorporated into the lives of the characters and fits with their personalities and the storyline ○ Holy grail brand is incorporated into the storyline for the character ○ Product integration is a good goal: ■ Strong presence in justifiable context is most effective 10 ■ Consumer doesn’t react against the placement and that creates a stronger, positive association with the brand and higher preference ■ Incongruent placement can hurt because while consumers might recall the brand, they will note the incongruity and generate negative thoughts about it ○ Brand considerations: ■ Unfamiliar brands can be hurt in cluttered placement environments ■ Unique and distinctive brands are more likely to be remembered compared to less unique brands → Apple vs HP Question: In a movie, the lead actor is shown wearing Zelus Running Shoes in several scenes. Marketers of Zelus are using the nontraditional support medium of: p roduct placement Class 10a Direct Marketing and Online Media InClass Exercise: Zappos More Than Shoes Campaign ● Develop a Digital/Social Media IMC campaign for Zappos targeting the Happy Hunters segment ○ Using YouTube, Facebook, and Google AdWords ○ Wizard of Oz theme: “Shoes, and clothes, and bags, oh my! Your one stop shop for all your fashion needs.” ■ Central online location women can go to purchase not just shoes, but clothing and other fashion accessories. Going along the Wizard of Oz theme, tapping into the idea of children moms can also shop for their kids on Zappos. Wizard of Oz is relatable to everyone. Class 10b Virality Defining virality: ● Unique and original content ● Creates positive associations in the consumer’s mind ● Engaging and entertaining Why people share content: ● What kind of content gets shared? ○ Positive framings are more viral ○ Shock and inspiration are more viral ○ The keys are p ositivity and arousal ● Advertising symbiosis advertisers should create videos that not only make the product look good but, if shared, will make the viewer look good, too ○ Advertiser and the viewer mutually benefit from the act of sharing ● Persuasion ○ The challenge is to entertain while maintaining brand connection ○ Brand pulsing brand or product is shown repeatedly but not too intrusively throughout the course of the video ○ Goal is to create an emotional connection to encourage attention, retention, sharing and persuasion Berger’s six STEPPS for contagious content: 1. Social currency we share things that make us feel smart and in the “know.” Yes, even cat memes! 2. Triggers we share what we’re thinking about and those tend to be things we can remember. (lists and bizarre stories) 3. Emotion communications with emotional components are more likely to be shared. “When we care, we share.” 4. Public content must be easily shareable in all relevant channels. “Built to show, built to grow.” 5. Practical value communication messages have to be relevant. Lists, “did you know.” News people can use. 6. Stories what promises is the brand making to consumers across touch points? People love stories and the more brands can craft their stories in the context of a broader narrative, the better 11 Teixeira’s Four Steps for making viral ads: 1. Attracting viewers’ attention 2. Retaining attention 3. Getting viewers to share the ad with others 4. Persuading viewers InClass Exercise: Evaluating the Viral Success of the Volkswagen Force Ad: ● Why was this ad shared? (Use Berger’s STEPPS): ○ Social currency because most people know Star Wars ○ Triggers hearing the theme song will make you think VW ○ Emotion adorable and nostalgic ○ Public can share on many platforms because it is a video ○ Practical value you can turn on car from inside the house ○ Stories story of a little kid and using “the force” ● Is this a successful viral ad? (Use Teixeira’s steps): YES ○ It attracts viewers attention by being about a kid and not a car ○ Keeps attention because you want to see if the kid can use “the force” ○ You want to share this cute and funny anecdote ○ Shows that this is a family car and the father is clearly a bit higher up, which makes it seem like a nicer car 12 Definitions and Concepts Chapter 8 Creative strategy determines what the advertising message will say or communicate Creative Tactic how the message strategy will be executed Advertising creativity the ability to generate fresh, unique, and appropriate or relevant ideas Divergence the extent to which an ad contains elements that are novel, different, or unusual. 5 ways divergence can be achieved: 1. Originality : Ads contain elements that are rare, surprising, or move away from the obvious and commonplace. 2. Flexibility: Ads that contain different ideas or switch from one perspective to another. 3. Elaboration : Ads that contain unexpected details or finish and extend basic ideas so they become more intricate, complicated, or sophisticated. 4. Synthesis : Ads that combine, connect, or blend normally unrelated objects or ideas. 5. Artistic value : Ads that contain artistic verbal impressions or attractive shapes and colors Relevance The degree to which the various elements of the ad are meaningful, useful, or valuable to the consumer. Advertising campaign is a set of interrelated and coordinated marketing communications activities that center on a single theme or idea that appears in different media across a specific time period. Slogan/tagline expresses the theme of an advertising campaign ● Reduces the key idea into a few words or a brief statement Creative brief Specifies the basic elements if the creative strategy Major selling idea the strongest singular thing you can say about your product or service. ● Unique selling proposition ad must highlight the benefit, how it’s different from competitors and have mass appeal. ● Brand image : Every advertisement should be thought of as a contribution to the complex symbol which is the brand image. ○ Especially important when there are greater similarities between brands. ● Inherent Drama : characteristics of the product that makes the consumer purchase it. ● Positioning : Establish the product or service in a particular place in the consumer’s mind. Dominos? Chapter 9 Advertising appeal : the approach used to attract the attention of consumers and/or influence their feelings toward the product. “ Something that moves people, speaks to their wants or needs, and excites their interest.” Creative Execution style : is the way a particular appeal is turned into an advertising message presented to consumers. Appeals: ● Informational/rational appeals focus on the consumer’s practical, functional or utilitarian needs for the product or service and emphasizes features of a product or service and/or the reasons for owning or using a particular brand. Emphasizes facts, learning and the logic of persuasion. ● Emotional appeals relate to the customers’ social and psychological needs for purchasing a product or service. Transformational Ad one which associates the experience of using (consuming) the advertised brand with a unique set of psychological characteristics which would not typically be associated with the brand experience to the same degree without exposure to the advertisement. Reminder advertising has the objective of building brand awareness and keeping the brand name in front of the consumer. 13 Teaser advertising designed to build curiosity, interest and/or excitement about the product or brand by talking about it but not actually showing it. User generated content (UGC) ads are created by the consumer. Ad execution: ● Straight sell or factual relies on a straightforward presentation of information concerning the product or service. Focus of message is specific attributes/benefits ● Scientific/Technical Evidence cite technical information, results of scientific or lab studies, or endorsements by specific bodies or agencies to support claim ● Demonstration illustrate advantages by showing it in actual use or in some staged situation. ● Comparison communicating a brand’s particular advantage over its competitor. ● Slice of life problem/solution approach. Shows problem or conflict then how product will solve problem ● Animation you know ● Personality symbol developing a central character or personality symbol that can deliver the ad message ● Imagery ad consists primarily of visual elements rather than info. Used to encourage consumers to associate the brand with the imagery. ● Dramatization storytelling with the product or service as the star. Uses excitement and drama to draw the viewer in ● Humor you know ● Combinations combining different executions Chapter 10 Media planning is a series of decisions involved in delivering the promotional message to the prospective purchasers and/or users of the product or brand. Media objectives Media strategy plans of action to obtain the objectives Medium is the general category of available delivery system, which includes broadcast media, print, direct marketing, other Media vehicle is the specific carrier within the medium category. Ex: In Style is a print vehicle. Reach Measure of the number of different audience members exposed at least once to a media vehicle in a given period of time. Coverage the potential audience that might receive the messages through a vehicle. Frequency refers to the number of times the receiver is exposed to the media vehicle in a specific period. Index Good indicator of the potential market ● # over 100 means use of the product is proportionally greater in that segment than in one that is 100 or less. Survey of buying power index Helps determine which geographic area to target. Conducted in every major metropolitan area. Based on population, income and retail sales weighed to drive buying power. Brand development index (BDI) Helps marketers factor the rate of product usage by geographic area into the decision process. Compares the percentage of the brand’s total US sales in a given market area with the percentage of the total population in the market to determine the sales potential for that brand in the market area. Category development index (CDI) is computed in the same manner as BDI except it uses info regarding the product category (instead of brand). Determines potential for product category instead of brand. Waste coverage Overexposure Unduplicated reach Exposed once 14 Duplicated reach overlap Program rating potential reach on TV or radio Gross ratings points (GRPs) summary measure that combines the program rating and the average number of times the home is reached. Target ratings points (TRPs) – the number of people in the primary target audience the media buy will reach and the number of times Continuity a continuous pattern of advertising, which may mean everyday, week, or month. No gaps in ad periods ongoing basis without regard for seasonality Flighting less regular schedule with intermittent periods of advertising and nonadvertising. Pulsing combo of continuity and flighting continuity is maintained, but at certain times promotional efforts are stepped up. Effective reach represents the percentage of a vehicle’s audience reached at each effective frequency increment. Cost per thousand (CPM) Chapter 13 Out of home advertising outdoor billboards, street furniture, alternative media and transit. Branded entertainment a form of advertising that blends marketing and entertainment through TV, film, music talent and technology. EX. Product placement 15
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