Exam 3 Notes (personality)
Exam 3 Notes (personality) PSYC 331
Cal State Fullerton
Popular in Psychology of Personality
Popular in Psychlogy
This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Marisol Murillo on Monday May 9, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC 331 at California State University - Fullerton taught by Timothy Tran in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see Psychology of Personality in Psychlogy at California State University - Fullerton.
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Date Created: 05/09/16
Chapter 11: Self Actualization and Self Determination Self-Actualization (Carl Rogers) - Actualization tendency to develop capabilities in ways that maintain or enhance the organism (present in al living creatures) - Self-actualization promotes maintenance or enhancement of the self o Moves person toward greater autonomy and self sufficiency o Promotes congruence*, organization, wholeness and integration in the person - People will get better on their own if you remove barriers - Organismic value process mechanism that evaluates whether experiences are actualizing o If not, nagging sense that something isn’t right o If yes, person is operating as “fully functional person” Needs for Positive Regard - Strong motive for love, friendship and affection from important others o Unconditional positive regard given without any conditions or contingencies o Conditional positive regard given only in situations that meet particular conditions Conditions of worth conditions under which a person is considered worthy of regard Makes it hard to self-actualize Conditional self-regard application of conditions of worth to self Implications of Conditions of Worth - Conflicts between self- actualization and fulfilling conditions of worth o Example: Desire to be a musician in conflict with recognition of parent’s aspirations for their child to be a doctor - Sometimes hard to tell true desire from conditions of worth o Condition of worth is a precondition for acceptance and is always coercive Self Determination (Ed Deci and Ryan) - Three needs that must be satisfied for a life of growth, integrity and well being o Autonomy (self determination) o Competence o Relatedness - Self-determined actions done because of intrinsic value of self o Longer interest is maintained - Controlled actions done to gain payment or satisfy external pressure o Rewards can undermine intrinsic value of some activities and turn them into controlled actions Activities are resistant to this effect if the reward informs you about your competency* Introjection and Identification - Introjected Regulation o Applies standards of “should” and “ought” to behavior o Behavior done to avoid guilt or to get self-approval o Control exerted from external sources - Identified Regulation o Process whereby behavior comes to hold personal meaning and value (often for growth) over time o Not as self-determined as intrinsically motivated behavior, but it’s close Need for Relatedness - Represents an intrinsic need - Characterized by genuine connectedness with others and unconditional acceptance - Not a need based on pressure or demand - Not in conflict with autonomy Self-Concordance - Related to self determination - Pursuit of goals that are consistent with core values - These bring more contribution to a sense of well being - Creates a positive spiral benefit - Pursuit of goals greater effort higher success more satisfaction higher well being Free Will - Emphasizes that people are free to determine: o How they act o What to become o If they are to be self-actualized or accept conditions of worth o Reactance assertion of freedom when a threat to freedom is perceived o Perceptions of free will can be experimentally manipulated The Self - Development of the self represents gradual differentiation during infancy - Self- Concept: set of qualities a person sees as being part of herself/himself o Actual perception of the way they really are o Ideal what you really want to be - Self-actualization created a closer fir between the actual and ideal selves Incongruity, Disorganization and Defense - Incongruence: A disorganization in the self that is detected by the organismic value process o Leads to anxiety o Can cause low self- esteem - Ways to defend against anxiety of incongruence o Distortions of the experience Rationalization o Prevent from reaching awareness Denial Avoid situations that trigger perceptions of incongruence Self Esteem Maintenance and Enhancement - Defenses protect and maintain self esteem - Conditions necessary for an event to have an effect on self-esteem* o Event attribute to you o Event must be interpreted as good/bad - Defense against failures o Minimize negativity of event (wasn’t so bad) Rationalizing o Resist attributions to stable qualities of self Blame others, lack of effort, excuses - Enhancement through success o Attribute to stable characteristics of self o Claim control of those characteristics Self-Handicapping - Acting in a way that created condition for failure - Hard goals and substantial risk of failure represent threats to self esteem - Create an external situation on which potential failure can be attributed and self-esteem can be maintained - No threat to stable qualities of the self Hierarchy of Motives - Abraham Maslow o Focused on most well-adjusted, fully functioning people o Examined motivations and how they are organized o Lower needs are deficient and motivate you to get something o Upper levels (love and belonging and up) are growth needs Self Actualizers - Deep ties, but only with a few people - May appear temperamental and ever ruthless because they only care about their needs and don’t care what others think about them Peak Experiences - Times when actualization is clearly occurring - Heightened sense of connection to elements in surrounding environment - Clarity of perception - Distortion of time - Subjective feelings of awe, wonder and ecstasy - More common during work than leisure* Existential Psychology - Emphasis on individual’s personal experience in life with a focus on the existential dilemma - Central construct “Dasein” o Translates to “being in the world” o Conveys a sense of experience as an autonomous, separate, evolving entity in the world o Key issue in life is the inevitability of death Results in angst How to respond to this realization Nothingness-----------------> authentic being Terror Management - Attempt to construct lives imbued with meaning and value as a response to the potential terror of mortality - Often define meaning by social and cultural processes o Group identity is important o Rejection of indications of animal nature Assessment - Interview o Content analysis organizes responses into meaningful groups - Q sort o Sort items into piles that correspond to particular criteria (most like you to least to you) o Inventories for self-actualization, autonomy, and control Problems in Behavior - Problems arise from o Incongruity and the negative affect that results o Living in order to meet conditions of worth o Not living in ways that promote self-actualization Therapy - Client Centered Therapy o Responsibility for improvement lies with the client o Removes distractions, so self-actualization processes can move client toward greater integration o Therapist demonstrates unconditional positive regard and empathy o Non evaluative, rather therapist reflects with: Clarification of feelings Restatement of content Chapter 12: The Cognitive Perspective Schemas and Their Development - Schema: a mental organization of information o Perceptual images o Abstract knowledge o Feeling qualities o Time sequence info - Includes information about: o Exemplars (specific examples) o General characteristics - Theories of formations o Generated around construct of prototype (best actual or idealized member) o Represent a composite of characteristics that are relevant, but not necessary (fuzzy set) Effects of Schemas - Facilitate coding of new info - Fill –in information lacking from events - Influence what info in remembered - Can be self-perpetuating o Schemas guide what is remembered o What you remember confirms schema o Schema continuous to guide what is remembered Organization of memory - Schemas are organizations of memories - Semantic memory organized by meaning - Episodic memory organized by sequence of events (space, time, personal memories) - Script: schemas for episodic events o Results from multiple episodes of a given type Socially Relevant Schemas - Social cognition: cognitive processes focusing on socially meaning stimuli - People from cognitive categories for: o Types of people o Gender roles o Environment o Social situations o Social relations - Social cognitions differ in content and complexity from person to person, depending on experience Self- Schemas - Larger and most complex schemas than other schemas* - Schematic representation of the self - Has more emotional elements - Effects of self-schemas: o Make it easier to remember things that fir it o Provides default information o Identifies where to look for new information o Can bias recall of past information o May be used as a default for strangers Entity and Incremental Schemas - Entity views: abilities seen as unchanging o Goal of task performance is to prove ability o Failure results in distress and desire to quit o Attend to and remember information concerning consistency - Incremental views: abilities seen as increasing with experience o Goal of task performance is to extend ability o Failure seen as opportunity to increase ability o Attend to and remember information indicating change Attribution - Inferring the cause of an event - Provides information important to understanding o Indicated kind of event o Hints at likelihood of future occurrence - Schemas assist in making attributions beyond information that is available - Self- success attributed to stable internal causes (ability) - Self-failure attributed to unstable causes, bad luck or too little effort Activation and Memories - Memory is organized in a network of interconnected nodes (areas of storage) - Information from activated memory nodes is represented in consciousness - As a node is activated, partial activation spreads to related (linked) nodes - Partial activation makes it easier for information to move into consciousness o Priming: activation of a node of information in a task prior to a task of interest (experimental uses) o Schematic information varies in the ease of activation depending on frequency of use Connectionism - Representations exist in patterns f activation across a neural network, rather than in nodes - Patterns reflect simultaneous satisfaction of multiple constraints - Particular relevance to social perceptions and decision making o Requires selection of one possibility from many o Output takes the form of only one representation at a given time - Organization of patterned network can be destabilized by new inputs (ambiguous figures, self-concept) Dual Process Models - Two kinds of thought involved in cognition o Conscious processing: effortful reasoning and programs of instruction Implements rules and carries out logical steps of interference and action Cool system slower, conscious, rational, evolutionarily newer Explicit knowledge o Intuitive processing: intuitive problem solving, heuristic strategies, automated processes Insights often shake out of the system Hot system quick, automatic, experiential, evolutionarily older Implicit knowledge Cognitive Person Variables - Adequate theory of personality must take into account 5 classes of variables that are influenced by learning (Mischel) o Competencies social skills and problem solving strategies o Encoding strategies and personal constructs schematic influences on individualized perspectives of the world o Expectancies important for understanding actions o Subjective values o Self-regulatory plans and systems Chapter 13: The Self-Regulation Perspective Schemas Revisited - Schemas for events include information about behavior o Helps understand others behavior o Help determine what to do in situations - Mirror neurons o Active when doing behavior or watching same behavior o Strong link between thinking and doing Intentions - Not all behavior derives from situational schemas for action - Some behavior is purposeful and results from intention Personal beliefs, desire for outcomes personal attitude intentionbehavior Belief about other’s desires, desire to do what others want subjective normintention behavior Types of Intentions - Goal intention: intent to obtain a particular outcome or goal - Implementation intention: intent to take specific actions (process) given a specific situation o Serves goal intentions (subordinate to) Goals and Goal Setting - Goals of central feature of human behavior o Energize activities o Direct movements o Provide meaning for life - Path of goal pursuit varies from person to person - Setting higher goals results in higher performance o Greater effort o More persistence o Greater concentration o Caveat: as long as a goal is realistic Feedback Control - Basic components of a discrepancy reducing feedback loop (negative feedback loop) - Goal reference value comparator output functions (changes to - make) effect on environment input function (perception of behavior) Implications of Feedback Control - Behavior is purposeful - Self-regulation is continuous - Goals may be dynamic over time Self-Directed Attention - Idea is that directing attention toward yourself engages the comparator in the feedback loop o Individual differences in self-directed attention o Experimental manipulations (mirror, video camera, audience) - Increases evaluation of current behavior to goals o Difficult to evaluate directly o Information seeking behavior - Behavior more closely matches goals o Evidence across a range of behaviors Hierarchical Organization of Goals - Provides a way to link physical action to higher order goals - Assumptions: o Higher level and low level goals o Feedback loops are arranged in layers o Behavioral output of high level loop provides goal for next lower level loop - Higher levels of hierarchy o System concepts- ideal self Highest o Principle control-broad overriding guidelines (traits) o Programs control-vague scripts Lowest o Ideal self-image (system concept) Be healthy (principle) Exercise (program) (definition of principle) Issues Related to Hierarchical Organizations - Not all levels may be functional all the time o Much behavior is guided by program levels of control (functionally superordinate) - Higher level goals can be satisfied by a number of lower level goals - A single lower-level activity can service multiple higher level goals - Goals of any one level may be compatible or incompatible with each other o Being frugal and environmentally responsible o Being frugal and being well dressed Is Behavior Organized in Hierarchies? - Action identification asking people to think about their actions - People identify their behavior as high level a way as they can o Example of different identifications associated with playing tennis: Running, sweating, hitting a ball, swinging a racquet, lifting an arm, playing tennis - When difficulty occurs at a higher level, people retreat to lower level identification Emotions - Provide crucial information about goal priority - Serve as a cue for repriorization (Simon) o Anxiety personal well-being o Anger autonomy - Reflect “rate of progress” toward goals o Positive rate of progress positive affect o Negative rate of passage of progress negative affect o Faster rate of progress greater intensity of affect - Implications of Behavior o Negative affect triggers trying harder o Positive affect may influence coasting and repriorization Stimulus Based Action - Goals can be activated without a person’s awareness - Research on subliminal stimuli o Stimuli presented outside of awareness o Stimuli affect subsequent behaviors o The idea is that behavioral schemas have been activated by the subliminal prime Obstacles to Goals - Expectancies influence engagement Difficulties Stop, generate expectancy of success Confidence of Absolutely success no Absolutely yes Complete Reward Disengagemen effort Assessment - Individual differences in self-regulatory process o Private self-consciousness: tendency to think about your feelings, motives and actions Two aspects: Reflection suggesting curiosity fascination and inquisitions Rumination suggesting negative feeling states and not being able to put something behind - Behavioral Identification Form: identifies the level at which people tend to view their behaviors Problems in Behavior - Conflicts among goals - Specified Goals o Identification of abstract, high level goals but lack of know- how to reach them - Inability to disengage o Particularly relevant to self-defining goals o Periods of sporadic effort, distress, disengagement and confrontation with goal Therapy - Reduce atomicity of problem behavior more careful monitoring of actions - Making new behaviors automated o Role playing, imagery - Means-ends analysis o Assess difference between current and desired state o Identify actions o Break actions into sub goals o Seek accurate feedback
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