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CLA 250 Cumulative Final Exam Review

by: Kristin Wehrum

CLA 250 Cumulative Final Exam Review CLA 250

Kristin Wehrum


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About this Document

This is a comprehensive review of the material covered in CLA 250.
Classical Art and Archaeology
Melissa G. Morison
Study Guide
Greece, Bronze Age, Pottery, Minoan, Mycenaean, classical greeks, Hellenistic Period, Roman, Augustan, Julio-Claudian, Flavian, Trajan, Hadrian, Antonine, Tetrarchy, Severan, sculpture, Architecture
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This 81 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kristin Wehrum on Monday May 9, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to CLA 250 at 1 MDSS-SGSLM-Langley AFB Advanced Education in General Dentistry 12 Months taught by Melissa G. Morison in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 25 views. For similar materials see Classical Art and Archaeology in Classical Studies at 1 MDSS-SGSLM-Langley AFB Advanced Education in General Dentistry 12 Months.


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Date Created: 05/09/16
CLA 250 Final Review ● Bronze Age ○ Minoan ○ Mycenaean ● Dark Ages ● Geometric Greek ● Orientalizing ● Archai ● Classical ○ Early Classical ○ Late Classical ● Hellenistic Bronze Age Typical features: - Central administration -Hierarchy -Specialization Archaeological evidence: -Settlement pattern -Burial practice -Storage practice -Access to resources Bronze Age Pottery Affordance: what does the shape enable you to do? Constraint: what can I not do with it? Pottery from this period mostly “tea kettle” type → emphasizes spout (purpose) Early Minoan -Secondary products revolution -Storage -Zoned use of space -“Peak sanctuaries” -Special religious sanctuaries only on mountain peaks Construction technique for palaces: ❖ Ashlar masonry: quarried large blocks of stone; Middle Minoan smoothed so all the stones would fit together ❖ Lustral basin: at the entrance of the palace; similar to -Population increase pool w/ steps; used to clean feet, refresh self, etc. ❖ Post & lintel: combination of horizontal (lintel) & -Change in settlement vertical (post) elements; doors/doorway pattern/settlement hierarchy ❖ Rubble & timber: rubble fills in between the timer; door posts -Expansion of urban centers ❖ Light well: essentially a skylight; empty room/well -Emergence of palaces surrounded by stairways that flood in light -Trade and stockpiling of raw ❖ Pier & door: uses tripartite division of space ❖ Hallways in thick layers of plaster; art images/murals materials depict movement down the halls ❖ Throne is an attention-focusing device ❖ Storage “magazine” ❖ With Pithoi ❖ Water & drainage systems in palace through AQUEDUCTS!!! Palace Repeating visual motifs: -Sea/marine life -Bull -Double axe (labrys) -Painting style -Clothing, jewelry, hair, gestures, processions -Attention-focusing devices Knossos Minoan Painting Women: pale colorsnes Snake goddess figurine Flying Fish Fresco La Parisienne Fresco ● Found at Phylakopi ● Minoan ● Minoan ● Found at Palace of Knossos ● Scenes from nature (popular Minoan subject) ● Naturalistic but with distorted shapes ● Bright colors expresses love of life, spontaneity Bull Vaulting Fresco Boxing Children ● Minoan (blue scalps to show shaved part of head/hair style)● Minoan ● Found at Thera ● Found at Palace of Knossos ● Earliest representation of childish anatomy in Western art ● Shows 3-stage process of leaping over a bull ● Red for men, white for women ● Shows gender equality between men and women (both are participating in bull games) ● Bull distorted to emphasize power ● Could relate to religion; some sort of ritual or initiation Room of the Monkeys ● Minoan ● Found at Thera ● Shows love for nature ● Bright colors (monkeys are blue) Minoan Pottery Snake Goddess ● Minoan How do you know? ● Upraised hands, bared breasts, flounced skirt, snakes significance ● possibly represented a “fertility deity” Mycenaean Period The Liongate Tholos Tomb ● constructed of great blocks of cut stone; deep circular cut in a ● Entrance to citadel hillside lined with blocks laid in corbel style; entrance ● Big blocks of stone, corbelling, constructed of large blocks is approached by a sloping dromos. ● Significance triangular arch, post & lintel ● Royal burial vaults associated with the palace sites Terracotta Figurines ● Mycenaean; found in cemeteries and settlements ● Represent women dressed conservatively, either disc-shaped or armless or with their arms extended in a crescent; covered with vertical stripes ● may represent divine beings while others were perhaps simple dedications *Mycenaean Pottery* Collapse of Mycenaean society (theories): Early Iron Age ❖ Economic factors ❖ Climate change Mycenaean collapse, “Dark Ages”, ❖ Internal social change “Geometric Period” ❖ Invasion from outside the Aegean ❖ Changes in technology of warfare Greece in the “Dark Ages” ❖ Systems collapse -Decreased # of settlements (depopulation) -Loss of external trade contacts in most areas (loss of connections) -Loss of literacy A way that communities developed identity: The “Dark Ages” ● Stories found around certain locations ● Maintain descent from a common ancestor ● Often remember ancestors of a glorious past ❖ New settlements Hero cult: have important figure buried at ❖ Tomb Cult: gave offerings new grace, then leave offerings at new burial outside the burial space to space several hundred years later honor those from hundreds of years ago ● Between gods & regular humans ● Receive sacrifices ❖ Worship focuses on Bronze Age burial New Pottery Styles: ● People are portrayed with bc shapes ● Design enhances appreciation of the shape; illustrates decorative principle Belly-handled Amphora Footed cup ● Design enhances appreciation of the shape; ● Drinking cup on high feet were popular… they illustrates decorative principle are unique to the unique to the protogeometric ● Held ashes in graves period Lefkandi Centaur ● From Aegean area ● One of the largest known terracotta centaurs ● Second half of 10th century ● Significance —> First instance of pottery since Bronze Age. Terracotta idols from Karphi ● Wheel-made bell skirts ● Upraised hands ● Elaborate headdresses ● Prominently displayed feet = an unusual feature Funerary practice in Athens: Women’s burial pot ● Handles are on the belly of the pot ● Buried with a person of great importance Dipylon Krater → → → → → → ● Funeral pyre; mourners Orientalizing Religion: Worship Period ● Altar; sacrifices that were public ● Continuing importance of and large-scale hero cult ● Temple; dwelling of the deity ● Emergence of Pan-Hellenic (small hut/house) sanctuaries ● Dedications ● Re-establishment of trade Pan-Hellenic sanctuaries: networks, literacy ● Rise of the polis system ● Olympia ● Began learning how to cast ● Held both political and bronze sculpture economic importance Sculpture Nikandre ● Earliest example of full scale sculpture ● Woman named Nikandre gave this to a male (God) Pottery ● More interested in showing bodies of animals ● Black figure emerges 1st; red figure 2nd ● Scenes of warfare (both real and mythological); competitions; daily life/real life scenes depicted ● Carries stories and heritage through the art Temples Cella or Naos: main room that houses the deity Pronaos: entrance porch Colonnade: row of columns around building Opisthodomos: Storage room for all of the gifts to the deity Stylobate: platform on which the structure is built Metopes: a panel with an image carved into it (like a comic book) Frieze: decorate whole space w/ continuous line Pediment: where roofline is coming down, triangular space filled w/ larger than life sized sculptures Doric column: Ionic column ● Project power and strength ● Used to project elegance & ● Column sits on steps, not on a sophistication base ● Columns rest on a base ● Architrave is plain and (stylobate) undecorated ● Curled capital (volute) ● Capital = rounded ● Architrave is decorated ● Ex: Temple of Apollo ● Flutes are close together (Corinth) ● Like girl dancing → projects more elegant image Archaic Period New York Kouros Anavysos Kouros ● Defined arms & legs ● More defined muscles; face looks more ● Defined facial features (very symmetrical) natural ● Powerful stance ● Archaic smile (grin) ● Grave marker Kore (woman) ● Almost fully clothed ● One hand down & one out (holding something) ● Given to a goddess by a man ● Chastity as opposed to promiscuity ● Treated as a gift from one man to another man Transitional Period Bronze statue of Zeus or Poseidon Sculpture ● Balance changes; still not very anatomically natural ● Trying to communicate the meaning of a moment-not aiming to achieve realism ● Gods in midst of extraneous activities maintain very calm disposition → shows the power of gods and how whole thing is “effortless” Temple of Hera Temple of Zeus ● Transitioned from wood to stone ● No columns going down center columns (structural achievement) Temple of Athena Parthenon Not a temple; giant clubhouse Classical Period Pottery Sculpture “The Charioteer” ● More realistic, better depiction of the face, still rigid clothing ● Humans/Gods/Animals Hellenistic Period Alexander the Great ● Picture of him on coinage ● Worshipped as a God ● First human to be depicted as a God; considered disrespectful before that ● Horns on the head Two main features of his images: ● Eyes directed upward-looking up to “dad” (Zeus) ● Full, bushy head of hair-shows his strength & youth ● Republican ● Augustan era ● Imperial period ○ Julio-Claudian dynasty ○ Flavian dynasty ROMAN ○ Trajan ○ Hadrian ○ Antonine dynasty ○ Severan dynasty ○ Tetrarchy ○ Constantine Architecture ● F-frontality: line of sight, you know where the front is—clear and direct. ● A-axiality ● S-symmetry: everything is symmetrical around central axis Republican Republican Temple Architecture Italic core Interaction & adaptation FAS Italic Temple Plan → ● Podium ● Tufa construction ● Tuscan columns ● Deep pronaos Temple of Portunus Sanctuary of Fortuna Primigenia ● Engaged columns ● First temple built in marble ● Exterior looks Greek, but floorplan is not Greek Forum of Caesar ● Only 1 cella ● Temple of Venus (Goddess he is “descended” from Republican Sculpture ● “Veristic” because it aims to project something truthful; realistic features of an individual ● Face was like a map to the person’s soul ● Often hairless Julius Caesar ● Big lips, sexy ● Characteristic ears ● Later descendants attempt to connect themselves to him politically by these features. Augustan Era Sculpture Prima Porta ● Pose signals he is a conquering general ● Shows himself as ageless ○ Looks effortless Forum of Augustus ● Hemicycle - semi-circle used to expand a space ● Great men of Roman history lined up along sides ○ Trying to remind people of prior greatness ● Strong secondary perpendicular axis Ara Pacis- “altar of peace” Moral museum ● Put up by August & his wife ● Bunch of children, shows that it will continue for future generations Imperial Period Julio-Claudian Dynasty Blood relatives of Caesar & Augustus ● Tiberius ● Caligula ● Claudius ● Nero Domus Aurea (Colossus of Nero) ○ Reduction of taxes, new building project, peace w/ Parthia ○ Great Fire ○ More than ⅔ of city damaged ○ Building of the Domus aurea ○ Colossus of Nero Flavian Dynasty Vespasian ● Family gained wealth as tax collectors ● Established peace after civil war ● Head sculpture/bust ○ Returns to traditional roman portrait style ○ Shows wrinkles & age (experience & wisdom) Titus ● Popular for generosity and building Domitian ● Arch structure dedicated to popular predecessors Vespasian Flavian Sculpture (Women) ● Elaborate hair styles ● Considering the immense time & effort spent on hair says a lot about the person’s prestige. ● Statement about wealth and power Arch of Titus ● Commemorates Vespasian’s and Titus’s victories in the Jewish war ● A political and religious statement expressing the divinity of Titus ● Shows process of Titus becoming a deity ○ Initial step in showing people as gods Templum Pacis: “Temple of Peace” Forum of Vespasian Trajan Born in Spain Expands empire Forum of Trajan ● Trajan’s column (btwn. 2 libraries) ○ Represents victory in Dacia Column of Trajan ● Represents victory in Dacia; very few scenes of brutality; Romans presented in noble, positive light Adamklissi Monument Trophy monument in Dacia Much more gruesome depiction of war in Dacia Hadrian Took tours of the Provinces; only emperor to visit every province Building projects: ● Olympieion in Athens; Mausoleum in Rome ● Villa at Tivoli ● Pantheon Olympieion Hadrian’s Wall Pantheon Temple to all gods → all gods have equal importance Symbol of Hadrian’s vision of empire - everybody matters Roman Domestic Life Roman Cities ● Always divided into “districts” ○ Residential ○ Entertainment ● Every district has a characteristic landmark ● Node: intersection btwn. Districts ○ Monumentalized in Rome ● Channels: roads, hallways, etc. ● “Strong grid” ● Romans built walls around their cities - boundaries ● Cultural legibility: how well you can “read” an area based on nodes, Pompeii channels, landmarks, boundaries, etc. ● Water: aqueducts, baths, sewers, toilets, laundry ○ Public fountains and baths ● Landmark: Thermopolium (snack bar) Domestic Architecture Roman House Function, Aesthetic, Ideology Good FAS Fauces: entry hallway Atrium: open to sky (skylight) Implurium: skylight Ala: small rooms/bedrooms Tablinum: office space Hortus: garden Peristyle: garden, enclosed Triclinium: outdoor dining space Ideology of a Roman House Public vs. Private Grand vs. Humble Lines of sight: symmetry and axiality divide the house into 4 areas: -Grand public -Humble public -Grand private -Humble private Access limited by visitor’s social standing and degree of acquaintance with the family Aesthetics of a Roman House ● Decoration supports multiple axes ● Grand mosaics and wall paintings in grand public & private areas ● Frescoes on the wall as decoration ● Lararium (shrine) → ○ boundary btwn. Public and private Antonine Dynasty ● Shifts in imperial representation ○ Internal psychology ○ “Plebian” art → art made on street by common people ● Marcus Aurelius statue/bust → ● Column of Antoninus Pius (side 1 & 2) Column of Antoninus Pius Side 1 - Antoninus & wife being deified; Side 2- Plebeian art Goddess Rome in foreground Completely impossible perspective Severan Dynasty ● Shifts in imperial representation ○ Definitive break w/ classical style ○ Simplification ● Forma Urbis - “map of the city” ○ Located in Temple of Peace ● Caracalla - edict of citizenship ○ “Everyone in our borders is a Roman citizen” Arch of Septimus ● Characterizes Plebeian art piece ○ Folds become much simpler ○ More of facing towards front Forma Urbis - “map of the city” ● Exact street plan of Rome during Severus’ reign ● Carved into marble Tetrarchy ● Empire split up into 4 divisions ● 2 Caesars; 2 Augustus ● Each has its own capital, court, bodyguard, and coinage Milvian Bridge Maxentius vs. Constantine


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