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Midterm 1 Study Guide

by: Savannah McNealy

Midterm 1 Study Guide SPCM 100

Savannah McNealy

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Primarily Class notes
Communication in Popular Culture
Amanda Wright
Study Guide
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Popular in Communications

This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Savannah McNealy on Monday May 9, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to SPCM 100 at Colorado State University taught by Amanda Wright in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see Communication in Popular Culture in Communications at Colorado State University.


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Date Created: 05/09/16
Midterm  1  Study  Guide Sunday,  October  2,  203:03  PM What  is  your  definition  of  pop  culture? DANESI Culture  by  the  people  and  for  the  people   -­‐culture  for  everyone,  not  just  for  an  elite   class  of  designated  artists  or  authority  figures SMITH,  SMITH,  &  WATKINS   Any  product,  lifestyle,  environment,  idea,  or  event  that  is  widely  known  or  received  by   many  people Examples Products Lifestyles Environment Ideas People Event Concept  of  popular  is  relative -­‐every  culture  is  different Origins  of  US  pop  culture • Roaring  20s ○ Jazz  music ○ Charleston ○ Etc • Term  pop  culture ○ 1950s § Bolstered  by  the  pop  art  explosion  of  the  1960s What  are  the  5  eras  of  communication? • Oral   • Written • Print Yohan  gutenburg What  are  the  5  eras  of  communication? • Oral   • Written • Print ○ Yohan  gutenburg • Electronic   • Digital Mass  Media • The  cultural  industries,  the  channels  of  communication,  that  produce  and   distribute  songs,  novels,  new,  movies,  online  computer  services,  and  other   cultural  products  to  a  large  number  of  people Mass  Culture (pop  culture) • Culture  that  is  widely  distributed  by  the  mass  media  (tv,  radio,  movies,  etc.) • Can  be  considered  insulting • Often  used  as  a  synonym  for  popular  culture High  Culture • Sophisticated,  quality  texts  and  activities,  classical  music,  art,  and  literature,   opera,  jazz,  etc • Seen  to  raise  the  character  of  its  users • Specialized  knowledge  is  often  presumed  to  be  needed  to  "best"  understand  &   appreciate • Cost  is  often  seen/used  as  barrier  to  mass  audience Folk  Culture • Lifestyles,  artifacts,  and  traditions  of  a  specific  group  of  people • Often  determined  by  locale • Often  passed  generation  to  generation Subculture • Cultural  development  or  advancement  that  takes  place  outside  of  popular   culture • Often  crosses  over  into  popular  culture How  are  we  influence  by  popular  culture? • Language ○ "tweet" ○ "lol" • Interests • Activities • Environments • Language ○ "tweet" "lol" ○ • Interests • Activities • Environments • Beliefs • Opinions • Identities We  also  influence  pop  culture. Pop  culture  is  Fluid • It  can  move  from  high  culture,  a  subculture,  or  folk  culture  to  popular  culture Media  Literacy-­‐Reading • 8  companies  own  the  media  in  the  US • Programming  as  product • Financial  risk  keeps  companies  from  releasing  new  programming • These  companies  are  promoting  themselves • There's  a  conflict  of  interest  when  news  covers  things  the  parent  company  has   interests  in • Owners  of  these  companies  have  political  ties  as  well,  creating  more  conflict • The  drive  to  maximize  profit  will  occasionally  but  the  public's  interest  and   health  at  risk • Internal  Structure ○ Resources:  for  production ○ Organizational  framework:  different  departments,  lines  of  responsibility ○ Process  of  decision  making § Has  become  so  bureaucratic  it  strains  the  creative  process • VNRs ○ Video  news  packages ○ Sold  to  local  news  stations  short  on  cash ○ Contain  "news"  that  really  promotes  bigger  corporations ○ Source  is  hard  to  find • The  First  amendment ○ Protects  free  speech  except  the  following: § Obscenity § Defamation § False  advertising § Fighting  words,  inciting  riot ○ These  definitions  change  over  time ○ Protects  free  speech  except  the  following: § Obscenity § Defamation § False  advertising § Fighting  words,  inciting  riot These  definitions  change  over  time ○ • Broadcasting  is  regulated  by  the  FCC,  Federal  Communications  Commission ○ Makes  it  obligatory  to  serve  public  interest ○ This  seems  to  be  at  conflict  with  profits ○ It's  easier  to  have  more  non  conformist  content  on  cable  tv  because  the   FCC  regulations  are  based  on  dated  technology • Copyright ○ Hard  to  enforce  internationally,  can't  really  make  other  countries   establish  copyright    laws Media  Ownership  (Class) • Who  owns  the  media? ○ Viacom ○ CBS   ○ Disney ○ News  Corp  (21st  century  fox) ○ Comcast/NBCUniversal ○ Time  Warner • The  exception  to  the  ownership  situation  is  the  internet ○ Good!  It  is  not  owned  by  these  conglomerations § Everyone  can  contribute  to  pop  culture ○ Bad,  not  edited  or  regulated § Can  you  trust  it? § Copyright  infringements • Other  players  in  pop  culture ○ Gatekeepers § Media/people  who  influence  messages  en  route □ Editors,  writers,  producers,  directors,  networks,  companies ○ Regulators § Non  media  groups  who  monitor  messages □ Government  agencies FCC ® □ Ratings  industry □ Watchdog  gropus ® Parents  television  council ◊ Denounced  Gossip  Girl's  'Threesome  episode" ○ Scorekeepers □ Ratings  industry □ Watchdog  gropus ® Parents  television  council ◊ Denounced  Gossip  Girl's  'Threesome  episode" ○ Scorekeepers Media  trackers,  surveyors,  and  researchers § □ Billboard  (music) □ New  York  Times □ Rotten  Tomatoes • New  players ○ Influential  people  who  set  public  opinion § Bloggers § Media  personalities § CEOs § Teenagers Impact  of  the  consolidation  of  media  ownership  on  content -­‐silverblatt • Homogeneity  of  content • Support  of  status  quo • Programming  as  "product" ○ The  new  industry  and  VNRs • Derivative  Programming • Cross-­‐Promotion • Conflicts  of  interest • Ignoring  public  service  responsibilities Folk/Mass  Culture • Transition  from  Folk  to  Mass  culture ○ Late  19th  century § Modernization  -­‐ rapid  increase  in  new  technological  innovations □ Electricity,  recording  and  transmitting  sounds,  photos,  etc ○ Early  20th  century § Industrialization -­‐mass  production  of  items □ The  assembly  line  (1903) ® Henry  ford • Leisure   ○ 1820s-­‐1880s § First  daily  newspapers □ Sensationalism □ The  assembly  line  (1903) ® Henry  ford • Leisure   ○ 1820s-­‐1880s § First  daily  newspapers □ Sensationalism § Dime  &  domestic  novels □ Gendered  &  clas-smarked  types  of  reading § Rise  of  popular  entertainment □ Circuses □ Museums □ Oratory ® The  art  of  making  speeches □ Minstrel  shows 1880s-­‐1920s ○ § Rise  of  commercial  leisure □ Professional  sports □ Vaudeville ® Comedy,  music,  stunts,  etc. ® Novelty  acts ® Burlesque ○ Rise  of  commercial  entertainment  overlaps  with  the  birth  of  mass  culture § Mass  market  products  appeal  to  broader  audiences § Breaks  down  some  class,  gender,  ethnic  barriers  to  popular  culture Entertainment  becomes  an  industry § ○ Mass  production  methods  +  mass  media  advertising  =  consumer  culture ○ 1920s § The  roaring  20s □ More  access  to  pop  culture  offered  a  vision  of  society  as  equal □ Incomes  and  leisure -­‐time  rising,  but  still  a  major  wealth   disparity • Headlines  of  1800-­‐1930s ○ Mass  Mediated  Culture  is  born ○ World  at  war  for  the -­‐  WWI  1914-­‐1918 ○ Women  get  the  right  -­‐  1920  -­‐19th  amendment ○ The  Great  Depression • Birth  of  Mass  Medium ○ From  end  of  1800s  thru  1930s,  movies  were  "the  most  popular  and   influential  medium  of  culture  in  the  US" ○ Known  as  'the  democratic  art'  all  could  afford  and  understand  them § Depression-­‐era  escape • Birth  of  Mass  Medium ○ From  end  of  1800s  thru  1930s,  movies  were  "the  most  popular  and   influential  medium  of  culture  in  the  US" ○ Known  as  'the  democratic  art'  all  could  afford  and  understand  them § Depression-­‐era  escape ○ Brought  up  fears  of  the  influence  of  the  mass  media § On  youth,  immigrants,  women,  and  working  class ○ Eadweard  Muybridge   § Studies  in  movement  using  still  photogrphas ○ Toys  utilizing  principle  of  persistence  of  vision  (the  illusion  of  motion) ○ William  Dickson  and  Thomas  Edison   § First  to  use  flexible  kodak  film □ Kinetoscope:  one  viewer,  no  projection Lumiere  brothers   ○ § Cinematographe □ First  to  employ  image  projection  in  1895 □ Short  films  of  everyday  events ○ George  melies § Fantasy  films  with  trick  shots ○ DW  Griffith § First  US  "name"  director § Thought  cinematically  instead  of  theatrically § First  blockbuster □ The  Birth  of  a  Nation Rewrote  history,  made  KKK  seem  like  heroes ® § Demonstrated  power  of  movies  over  history • The  Sound  of  Mass  culture ○ Radio  =  birth  of  broadcasting,  setting  template  for  TV ○ Birth  of  celebrity  culture ○ Helped  listeners  participate  in  and  make  sense  of  a  rapidly  changing,   mass-­‐mediated  world • War  of  the  Worlds  broadcast 1938  Halloween  eve  radio  version  of   War  of  the  Worlds ○ § Performed  by  Orson  Welles  and  cast § Presented  as  a  mock -­‐newscast ○ Some  groups  were  seen  as  more  willing  to  believe,  lacking  the  "critical   ability"  to  see  it  as  fake § Children,  immigrants,  women,  working  class ○ Orson  welles  wanted  people  to  be  more  skeptical  of  the  info  they  were   hearing  on  the  radio/through  media § Presented  as  a  mock -­‐newscast ○ Some  groups  were  seen  as  more  willing  to  believe,  lacking  the  "critical   ability"  to  see  it  as  fake § Children,  immigrants,  women,  working  class ○ Orson  welles  wanted  people  to  be  more  skeptical  of  the  info  they  were   hearing  on  the  radio/through  media Advertising • Became  more  image  based  in  1920s • Hegemony ○ Institutional  structures  of  consumer  society,  through  the  use  of   advertisements,  drive  attitudes  and  values  toward  the  world  of   commodities • Advertising  is  ubiquitous • Attempts  to  sell  happiness ○ Purchasing  =  happiness • 4  areas  where  commodity  system  has  greatest  impact ○ Gender  Identity ○ Electoral  politi   voter  decisions ○ Children's  play ○ Visual  images  have  taken  over  auditory/experiential  forms • 1940s ○ WWII § "radios  war" ○ Propaganda:  ideas  spread  deliberately  to  help  one's  cause  and/or  damage   the  opposition § US  gov  had  a  wartime  propaganda  office § Rosie  the  riveter □ Media  called  women  to  work □ Glamorized  the  working  woman ® Redefined  women's  roles ◊ Versatile,  capable,  feminine,  strong,  etc ◊ Opened  the  door  for  women  in  the  workplace • 1950s IDEAL   REALITY • Everyone  was  middle  class   1/4  of  nation  in  poverty prosperous Panic  over  communism • America  the  leader  and   • Threat  of  atomic  war ○ defender  of  freedom • African  americans  segregated  and   • A  time  of  peace discriminated  against • Everyone  knew  and  liked  their  • Substantial  number  of  working   • Everyone  was  middle  class   1/4  of  nation  in  poverty prosperous Panic  over  communism • America  the  leader  and   • Threat  of  atomic  war ○ defender  of  freedom • African  americans  segregated  and   • A  time  of  peace discriminated  against • Everyone  knew  and  liked  their  • Substantial  number  of  working   place  in  society women • Beginnings  of  the  generation  gap ○ Post  WWII  economic  boom ○ Suburbs § Housing  boom § Car  culture □ Interstate  highway  system □ Mcdonalds-­‐birth  of  fast  food ○ Red  scare  begins § Age  of  anxiety ○ McCarthyism § Active  persecution  of  those  with  communist/soviet  times ○ Korean  War § Forgotten  war § 1950-­‐1953 Cold  War ○ § The  ideological  war § 50s  thru  80s ○ Civil  rights § Integration □ US  military,  sport § Schools □ Brown  vs.  the  Board  of  Education § Rosa  Parks § Leaders □ MLK □ Malcom  X ○ Early  TV  Advertising § Late  40  50s § Took  advantage  of  the  visual  format § Animated  and  trademarked  character ○ Growth  of  TV  Advertising § Use  of  celebrity  stars ○ Types  of  Advertising  Messages § Images  of  good  life § Took  advantage  of  the  visual  format § Animated  and  trademarked  character ○ Growth  of  TV  Advertising § Use  of  celebrity  stars ○ Types  of  Advertising  Messages § Images  of  good  life § Products  enhanced  social  values  and  aided  cultural  mobility  =  buy   status § Women  main  audience  for  ads,  gender  roles  strictly  enforced ○ Selling  desire § Starting  questioning  advertising  tactics □ Fears  of  subliminal  advertising Vance  packard,   The  Hidden § □ Identified  8  "Hidden  Needs" 1. Emotional  Security 2. Reassurance  of  Worth 3. Ego  Gratification 4. Creative  Outlets 5. Love  Objects 6. Sense  of  Power 7. Sense  of  Roots 8. Sense  of  Immortality


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