Final Exam Study guide
Final Exam Study guide BIOL 2460 - 001
Popular in NURSING MICROBIOLOGY
Popular in Biology
verified elite notetaker
This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Mobolaji Arogundade on Monday May 9, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL 2460 - 001 at University of Texas at Arlington taught by Michelle L Badon in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 64 views. For similar materials see NURSING MICROBIOLOGY in Biology at University of Texas at Arlington.
Reviews for Final Exam Study guide
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 05/09/16
Final Exam Study Guide Sterilization- The destruction of all microbial life Disinfection- Destroys most microbial life, reducing contamination on inanimate surfaces Antisepsis- Destroys most microbial life, reducing contamination on a living surface Decontamination- The mechanical removal of most microbes from an animate or inanimate surface Highest resistance- Bacterial endospores; prions Moderate resistance- Protozoan cysts, fungal sexual spores, naked viruses, resistant vegetative bacteria Least resistance- Most bacterial vegetative cells, fungal spores, enveloped viruses, yeasts, protozoan trophozoites Sterilization •Removes all viable microorganisms including viruses and bacterial endospores •Material is said to be sterile •Usually reserved for inanimate objects •Mostly performed with heat •Sometimes chemicals called sterilants are used Disinfection •The use of a physical process or chemical agent (disinfectant) to destroy vegetative pathogens •Does not destroy bacterial endospores •Usually used only on inanimate objects •Also removes toxins •5% bleach solution, boiling water, iodine solutions Antiseptics: Applied directly to exposed body surfaces to destroy or inhibit vegetative pathogens Sepsis: The growth of microorganisms in the blood and other tissues Asepsis: Any practice that prevents the entry of infectious agents into sterile tissues cide (ending)- To kill Bactericide: Chemical that destroys bacteria (not endospores) Fungicide: A chemical that can kill fungal spores, hyphae, and yeasts Virucide: A chemical that inactivates viruses Sporicide: Can destroy bacterial endospores Germicide and microbicide: Chemical agents that kill microorganisms Stasis and static: (ending) To stand still, prevent multiplication •Bacteristatic, Fungistatic Microbiostatic: Materials used to control microorganisms in the body Decontamination- Used when actual sterilization isn't needed but need to decrease the risk of infection or spoilage (ex. food industry) Sanitization: Any cleansing technique that mechanically removes microorganisms to reduce contamination to safe levels Sanitizer: Compound such as soap or detergent that sanitizes Sanitary: May not be free from microbes but are safe for normal use Degermation: Reduces the numbers of microbes on the human skin (ex. alcohol wipes) Microbial Death •When various cell structures become dysfunctional and the entire cell sustains irreversible damage •A cell can no longer reproduce •Death begins when a certain threshold of microbicidal agent is present Factors that Affect Death Rate •The number of microorganisms •The nature of the microorganisms in the population •The temperature and pH of the environment •The concentration of the agent •The mode of action of the agent •The presence of solvents, interfering organic matter, and inhibitors Aldehydes CHO functional group on the terminal carbon •Glutaraldehyde and formaldehyde (formalin- aqueous solution)- most often used in microbial control Heavy Metals Hg, Ag, Au, Cu, As, and Zn) •antimicrobial effects in exceedingly small amounts •Bind onto functional groups of proteins to inactive •Can be very toxic to humans and allergic reactions •biological fluids and wastes neutralize their actions •Microbes can develop resistance to them Detergents •Act as surfactants •Cationic detergents are more effective (+ve charge bind well negatively charged bacterial surface proteins) •Soaps -weak microbicides (germicidal when mixed with chlorhexidine or iodine) Hydrogen Peroxide •Germicidal effects are due to the direct and indirect actions of oxygen •Oxygen forms hydroxyl free radicals - toxic to cells •Can be harmful to tissue •Bactericidal, virucidal, and fungicidal (higher concentrations is sporicidal) Alcohols • act as antimicrobial, concentration dependent •Does not destroy bacterial spores at room temperature but can destroy resistant vegetative forms •More effective in inactivating enveloped viruses than non- enveloped viruses Phenols: •High concentrations: cellular poisons •Lower concentrations: inactivate certain critical enzyme systems Chlorhexidine (chlorine and two phenolic rings) •Targets cell membranes and protein structure •is bactericidal for both gram-+/- bacteria but inactive against spores •Mild, low toxicity, rapid action, antiseptic Iodine compounds •Topical antiseptic •Disinfectant
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'