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Final Exam Study guide

by: Mobolaji Arogundade

Final Exam Study guide BIOL 2460 - 001

Mobolaji Arogundade

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About this Document

Here is a study guide for the final
Michelle L Badon
Study Guide
50 ?





Popular in Biology

This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Mobolaji Arogundade on Monday May 9, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL 2460 - 001 at University of Texas at Arlington taught by Michelle L Badon in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 64 views. For similar materials see NURSING MICROBIOLOGY in Biology at University of Texas at Arlington.


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Date Created: 05/09/16
Final Exam Study Guide  Sterilization- The destruction of all microbial life  Disinfection- Destroys most microbial life, reducing contamination on inanimate surfaces  Antisepsis- Destroys most microbial life, reducing contamination on a living surface  Decontamination- The mechanical removal of most microbes from an animate or inanimate surface  Highest resistance- Bacterial endospores; prions  Moderate resistance- Protozoan cysts, fungal sexual spores, naked viruses, resistant vegetative bacteria  Least resistance- Most bacterial vegetative cells, fungal spores, enveloped viruses, yeasts, protozoan trophozoites  Sterilization •Removes all viable microorganisms including viruses and bacterial endospores •Material is said to be sterile •Usually reserved for inanimate objects •Mostly performed with heat •Sometimes chemicals called sterilants are used  Disinfection •The use of a physical process or chemical agent (disinfectant) to destroy vegetative pathogens •Does not destroy bacterial endospores •Usually used only on inanimate objects •Also removes toxins •5% bleach solution, boiling water, iodine solutions  Antiseptics: Applied directly to exposed body surfaces to destroy or inhibit vegetative pathogens  Sepsis: The growth of microorganisms in the blood and other tissues  Asepsis: Any practice that prevents the entry of infectious agents into sterile tissues  cide (ending)- To kill  Bactericide: Chemical that destroys bacteria (not endospores)  Fungicide: A chemical that can kill fungal spores, hyphae, and yeasts  Virucide: A chemical that inactivates viruses  Sporicide: Can destroy bacterial endospores  Germicide and microbicide: Chemical agents that kill microorganisms  Stasis and static: (ending) To stand still, prevent multiplication •Bacteristatic, Fungistatic  Microbiostatic: Materials used to control microorganisms in the body  Decontamination- Used when actual sterilization isn't needed but need to decrease the risk of infection or spoilage (ex. food industry)  Sanitization: Any cleansing technique that mechanically removes microorganisms to reduce contamination to safe levels  Sanitizer: Compound such as soap or detergent that sanitizes  Sanitary: May not be free from microbes but are safe for normal use  Degermation: Reduces the numbers of microbes on the human skin (ex. alcohol wipes)  Microbial Death •When various cell structures become dysfunctional and the entire cell sustains irreversible damage •A cell can no longer reproduce •Death begins when a certain threshold of microbicidal agent is present  Factors that Affect Death Rate •The number of microorganisms •The nature of the microorganisms in the population •The temperature and pH of the environment •The concentration of the agent •The mode of action of the agent •The presence of solvents, interfering organic matter, and inhibitors  Aldehydes CHO functional group on the terminal carbon •Glutaraldehyde and formaldehyde (formalin- aqueous solution)- most often used in microbial control  Heavy Metals Hg, Ag, Au, Cu, As, and Zn) •antimicrobial effects in exceedingly small amounts •Bind onto functional groups of proteins to inactive •Can be very toxic to humans and allergic reactions •biological fluids and wastes neutralize their actions •Microbes can develop resistance to them  Detergents •Act as surfactants •Cationic detergents are more effective (+ve charge bind well negatively charged bacterial surface proteins) •Soaps -weak microbicides (germicidal when mixed with chlorhexidine or iodine)  Hydrogen Peroxide •Germicidal effects are due to the direct and indirect actions of oxygen •Oxygen forms hydroxyl free radicals - toxic to cells •Can be harmful to tissue •Bactericidal, virucidal, and fungicidal (higher concentrations is sporicidal)  Alcohols • act as antimicrobial, concentration dependent •Does not destroy bacterial spores at room temperature but can destroy resistant vegetative forms •More effective in inactivating enveloped viruses than non- enveloped viruses  Phenols: •High concentrations: cellular poisons •Lower concentrations: inactivate certain critical enzyme systems Chlorhexidine (chlorine and two phenolic rings) •Targets cell membranes and protein structure •is bactericidal for both gram-+/- bacteria but inactive against spores •Mild, low toxicity, rapid action, antiseptic Iodine compounds •Topical antiseptic •Disinfectant


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