Science of Human Nutrition Exam review
Science of Human Nutrition Exam review 23511
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Layne Henwood on Monday May 9, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 23511 at Kent State University taught by Carmen Blakely-Adams in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 63 views.
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Date Created: 05/09/16
Final Exam Spring 2016 Study Guide Energy Balance and Body Weight Regulation What is energy balance? Energy intake- how much energy consumed Energy expenditure- how much you’re actually using Energy stored- energy consumed minus energy expenditure Define positive/negative energy balance Positive- eating more than expending Negative- eating less than required What is the type of growth of Adipokines? Very good for immune system and inflammatory process What is the type of growth of Adipocytes? Hypertrophic growth- cell grows due to more calories being eaten Hyperplastic growth- when the cell gets too big it breaks off and creates another o Increase in number and size Where is visceral/subcutaneous adipose tissue? Visceral Adipose Tissue (VAI)- fat accumulates surrounding internal organs o Fat mass is in the stomach area Subcutaneous adipose tissue (SCAI)- fat accumulates right beneath skin Define hypothalamus/neurotransmitters: catabolic and anabolic in hunger and satiety Catabolic neurotransmitters o Promote satiety o Satisfied with meal, do not need to eat anymore Anabolic neurotransmitters o Promotes hunger o Tells you when you are hungry Healthy BMI Underweight- <18.5 Healthy/normal- 18.5-24.9 Overweight- 25.0-29.9 Obese- >30.0 What is set point theory? Theory that everybody might have a particular weight that you are supposed to weigh to be healthy Define Eating behavior: Hunger/Satiety Hunger- physiological drive to consume food ( can also be mental) Satiety- physiological response to having eaten enough, or are full/satisfied What is Gastric banding/gastric bypass and what are their risks/complications Gastric banding o Water filled band placed around stomach to make it smaller o Not permanent Gastric bypass o Major surgery the is not reversible o Bypassing part of the small intestine (which absorbs) so you cannot always absorb all nutrients o 20% of people that have it have complications What is the thermic effect of food (TEF)? Amount of energy expenditure above the resting metabolic rate due to processing food for use and storage Define Adaptive thermogenesis Regulated production of heat in response to environmental change in temperature and diet Define Non exercise activity thermogenesis Low intensity physical activity What are the healthy recommendations for women/men waist circumference? Women- > 88 cm/35 in Men- >102 cm/40 in How many calories in a pound of adipose tissue 3500 What is basal metabolism and what are the factors that affect basal metabolism Minimal amount of energy necessary to maintain respiration, circulation and other vital body functions while fasting and at total rest What are the best approaches to successful weight loss? Healthy: not having any trauma, healthiest you will keep weight of longer Small frequent meals 1200-1600 calories per day Reducing simple sugars Slow and steady What are the worst approach to successful weight loss? Counting calories o What if it doesn’t have a lot of calories but has a lot of fat? o Does not always give the best picture Following a low carb high protein diet o Can lose weight this way but you’re losing it because of ketosis o First thing you lose is water weight o Can gain weight back easily What are ketone bodies; how do they effect weight loss Any 3 related compounds produced during the metabolism of fats Vitamins-Know, Understand and Define What vitamins and minerals are considered antioxidants? Vitamin A, Vitamin E, Vitamin C, Selenium What are the functions/deficiencies/toxicities and food sources of water soluble and fat soluble vitamins Water soluble o B complex o C Function- needed for manufacturing of collagen, antioxidant, enhance iron absorption, fight infection and repair wounds Deficiency- called scurvy Easily bruise/bleed due to weakened blood vessels, slow recovery from infections, poor wound healing Primary foods Fruits- oranges, lemons, limes, mango, strawberries, etc. o Thiamin/B1 Deficiency- called beriberi Cause fatigue, weakness, nerve disorders, mental confusion, swelling Primary foods Pastas, breads, cereals o Riboflavin/B2 Function- aids in cell division, important for growth and tissue repair Deficiency- fatigue, reddened lips that are cracked at both corners Primary foods- milk, cheese, yogurt o Niacin/B3 Function- maintaining healthy nervous system and functions Deficiency- called Pellagra Skin disorders, nervous system disorder Fat soluble o D Function- inhibits inflammation, responsible for healthy bones Deficiency- Austioperosis, diabetes, reoccurrence of cancer Primary foods- fortified milk and butter, cheese, ice cream, yogurt o E Function- antioxidant Primary foods- oils and fats, salad dressing, nuts and seeds, eggs o K Function- gut makes it from bacteria, helps clot blood Deficiency- hemophilia is the deficiency, bleeding, bruising Primary foods- leafy green vegetables, grain products o A Function- antioxidant, good for eyes and vision in dim light Primary foods- only in animal products Toxicity can occur if too much taken (can cause liver damage) What are the signs/symptoms of water soluble/fat soluble vitamins? Water soluble- become deficient within weeks to months if not consumed Fat soluble- stored in body fat, liver and other parts of the body, deficiencies take longer to develop and excesses can build up in fat What are the 4 D’s of Pellagra? Dermatitis- dry, thick, scaly skin Delirium/Dementia- went insane to the point of being put away/hospitalized Diarrhea- for days to weeks at a time Death- due to protein deficiency Which water soluble foods can produce toxicity if consumed in excess? Niacin Vitamin B6 Vitamins that are needed for energy production and energy release Niacin Riboflavin Minerals-Know, Understand and Define What are the functions/deficiencies/toxicities/ food sources of calcium, phosphorus, iron, zinc, fluoride, iodine, sodium, potassium Calcium o Function- good for bone health o Deficiency- called rickets (also not getting enough vitamin D) o Primary foods- milk, yogurt, cheese, dried beans, green leafy vegetables Phosphorus o Function- component of bones and teeth, needed to maintain the right acid-base balance of body fluids, works together with calcium (takes it from the bone) o Deficiency- more than likely malnourished, difficulty breathing o Elevated levels- kidney disease, can make you itch o Primary foods- milk and milk products, all protein foods, chocolate, dark colas Iron o Function- red blood cell formation, prevention of anemia o Deficiency- weakness, fatigue, cold, paleness, eating a lot of ice o Primary foods- liver, chicken, beef, spinach, egg yolks, beats o Vitamin C helps with absorption Zinc o Function- excellent in wound healing, important for ability to taste o Primary foods- meats, dairy, nuts o Supplement- called zinc sulfate, can be used when losing weight or sick and can’t taste food well Fluoride o Function- helps with healthy tooth enamel o Deficiency- tooth decay/dental problems o Primary foods- seafood, tea o Toxicity- called fluorosis, brittle bones, modeled teeth (discolored) Iodine o Function- maintaining metabolic balance, required for normal brain development o Deficiency- thyroid disease, goiter (enlarger neck) Called cretinism in children/infants, physical and mental disabilities and short stature o Primary foods- iodized salt, milk, bread from commercial bakeries Sodium o Function- needed to maintain acid-base balance o Primary foods- table/sea salt, salad dressing, cured foods, bread Potassium o Function- controls heart rate o Primary foods- fruits and vegetables, spinach, oranges, dairy, nuts and beans What is the vitamin that helps calcium absorption? Vitamin D What is high blood pressure/normal blood pressure? Normal- 120/80 (or close) High- 140/90 or higher What are the risk factors for hypertension? Age, family history, obesity, physical inactivity, excessive alcohol intake What is the DASH diet? Diet to stop hypertension What is the treatment for hypertension? Weight loss (if needed), moderate salt intake ( no more than 2300 mg/day), DASH diet How many mg per serving is considered low sodium? 140 mg or less per serving How much sodium is a healthy daily amount? What is osteoporosis? Porous bone due to loss of bone minerals What are the risk factors for osteoporosis? Female, menopause, deficient calcium intake, Caucasian or Asian heritage, cigarette smoking, physical inactivity, history of anorexia What is the treatment for osteoporosis? Calcium supplements, getting sunlight, eating plenty of fruit What is the vitamin that helps with the absorption of iron? Vitamin C
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