New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Science of Human Nutrition Exam review

by: Layne Henwood

Science of Human Nutrition Exam review 23511

Marketplace > Kent State University > 23511 > Science of Human Nutrition Exam review
Layne Henwood
GPA 3.4

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

Study Guide for final exam
Science of Human Nutrition
Carmen Blakely-Adams
Study Guide
Science, Of, Human, nutrition
50 ?




Popular in Science of Human Nutrition

Popular in Department

This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Layne Henwood on Monday May 9, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 23511 at Kent State University taught by Carmen Blakely-Adams in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 63 views.


Reviews for Science of Human Nutrition Exam review


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 05/09/16
Final Exam Spring 2016 Study Guide Energy Balance and Body Weight Regulation What is energy balance?  Energy intake- how much energy consumed  Energy expenditure- how much you’re actually using  Energy stored- energy consumed minus energy expenditure Define positive/negative energy balance  Positive- eating more than expending  Negative- eating less than required What is the type of growth of Adipokines?  Very good for immune system and inflammatory process What is the type of growth of Adipocytes?  Hypertrophic growth- cell grows due to more calories being eaten  Hyperplastic growth- when the cell gets too big it breaks off and creates another o Increase in number and size Where is visceral/subcutaneous adipose tissue?  Visceral Adipose Tissue (VAI)- fat accumulates surrounding internal organs o Fat mass is in the stomach area  Subcutaneous adipose tissue (SCAI)- fat accumulates right beneath skin Define hypothalamus/neurotransmitters: catabolic and anabolic in hunger and satiety  Catabolic neurotransmitters o Promote satiety o Satisfied with meal, do not need to eat anymore  Anabolic neurotransmitters o Promotes hunger o Tells you when you are hungry Healthy BMI  Underweight- <18.5  Healthy/normal- 18.5-24.9  Overweight- 25.0-29.9  Obese- >30.0 What is set point theory?  Theory that everybody might have a particular weight that you are supposed to weigh to be healthy Define Eating behavior: Hunger/Satiety  Hunger- physiological drive to consume food ( can also be mental)  Satiety- physiological response to having eaten enough, or are full/satisfied What is Gastric banding/gastric bypass and what are their risks/complications  Gastric banding o Water filled band placed around stomach to make it smaller o Not permanent  Gastric bypass o Major surgery the is not reversible o Bypassing part of the small intestine (which absorbs) so you cannot always absorb all nutrients o 20% of people that have it have complications What is the thermic effect of food (TEF)?  Amount of energy expenditure above the resting metabolic rate due to processing food for use and storage Define Adaptive thermogenesis  Regulated production of heat in response to environmental change in temperature and diet Define Non exercise activity thermogenesis  Low intensity physical activity What are the healthy recommendations for women/men waist circumference?  Women- > 88 cm/35 in  Men- >102 cm/40 in How many calories in a pound of adipose tissue  3500 What is basal metabolism and what are the factors that affect basal metabolism  Minimal amount of energy necessary to maintain respiration, circulation and other vital body functions while fasting and at total rest What are the best approaches to successful weight loss?  Healthy: not having any trauma, healthiest you will keep weight of longer  Small frequent meals  1200-1600 calories per day  Reducing simple sugars  Slow and steady What are the worst approach to successful weight loss?  Counting calories o What if it doesn’t have a lot of calories but has a lot of fat? o Does not always give the best picture  Following a low carb high protein diet o Can lose weight this way but you’re losing it because of ketosis o First thing you lose is water weight o Can gain weight back easily What are ketone bodies; how do they effect weight loss  Any 3 related compounds produced during the metabolism of fats Vitamins-Know, Understand and Define What vitamins and minerals are considered antioxidants?  Vitamin A, Vitamin E, Vitamin C, Selenium What are the functions/deficiencies/toxicities and food sources of water soluble and fat soluble vitamins  Water soluble o B complex o C  Function- needed for manufacturing of collagen, antioxidant, enhance iron absorption, fight infection and repair wounds  Deficiency- called scurvy  Easily bruise/bleed due to weakened blood vessels, slow recovery from infections, poor wound healing  Primary foods  Fruits- oranges, lemons, limes, mango, strawberries, etc. o Thiamin/B1  Deficiency- called beriberi  Cause fatigue, weakness, nerve disorders, mental confusion, swelling  Primary foods  Pastas, breads, cereals o Riboflavin/B2  Function- aids in cell division, important for growth and tissue repair  Deficiency- fatigue, reddened lips that are cracked at both corners  Primary foods- milk, cheese, yogurt o Niacin/B3  Function- maintaining healthy nervous system and functions  Deficiency- called Pellagra  Skin disorders, nervous system disorder  Fat soluble o D  Function- inhibits inflammation, responsible for healthy bones  Deficiency- Austioperosis, diabetes, reoccurrence of cancer  Primary foods- fortified milk and butter, cheese, ice cream, yogurt o E  Function- antioxidant  Primary foods- oils and fats, salad dressing, nuts and seeds, eggs o K  Function- gut makes it from bacteria, helps clot blood  Deficiency- hemophilia is the deficiency, bleeding, bruising  Primary foods- leafy green vegetables, grain products o A  Function- antioxidant, good for eyes and vision in dim light  Primary foods- only in animal products  Toxicity can occur if too much taken (can cause liver damage) What are the signs/symptoms of water soluble/fat soluble vitamins?  Water soluble- become deficient within weeks to months if not consumed  Fat soluble- stored in body fat, liver and other parts of the body, deficiencies take longer to develop and excesses can build up in fat What are the 4 D’s of Pellagra?  Dermatitis- dry, thick, scaly skin  Delirium/Dementia- went insane to the point of being put away/hospitalized  Diarrhea- for days to weeks at a time  Death- due to protein deficiency Which water soluble foods can produce toxicity if consumed in excess?  Niacin  Vitamin B6 Vitamins that are needed for energy production and energy release  Niacin  Riboflavin Minerals-Know, Understand and Define What are the functions/deficiencies/toxicities/ food sources of calcium, phosphorus, iron, zinc, fluoride, iodine, sodium, potassium  Calcium o Function- good for bone health o Deficiency- called rickets (also not getting enough vitamin D) o Primary foods- milk, yogurt, cheese, dried beans, green leafy vegetables  Phosphorus o Function- component of bones and teeth, needed to maintain the right acid-base balance of body fluids, works together with calcium (takes it from the bone) o Deficiency- more than likely malnourished, difficulty breathing o Elevated levels- kidney disease, can make you itch o Primary foods- milk and milk products, all protein foods, chocolate, dark colas  Iron o Function- red blood cell formation, prevention of anemia o Deficiency- weakness, fatigue, cold, paleness, eating a lot of ice o Primary foods- liver, chicken, beef, spinach, egg yolks, beats o Vitamin C helps with absorption  Zinc o Function- excellent in wound healing, important for ability to taste o Primary foods- meats, dairy, nuts o Supplement- called zinc sulfate, can be used when losing weight or sick and can’t taste food well  Fluoride o Function- helps with healthy tooth enamel o Deficiency- tooth decay/dental problems o Primary foods- seafood, tea o Toxicity- called fluorosis, brittle bones, modeled teeth (discolored)  Iodine o Function- maintaining metabolic balance, required for normal brain development o Deficiency- thyroid disease, goiter (enlarger neck)  Called cretinism in children/infants, physical and mental disabilities and short stature o Primary foods- iodized salt, milk, bread from commercial bakeries  Sodium o Function- needed to maintain acid-base balance o Primary foods- table/sea salt, salad dressing, cured foods, bread  Potassium o Function- controls heart rate o Primary foods- fruits and vegetables, spinach, oranges, dairy, nuts and beans What is the vitamin that helps calcium absorption?  Vitamin D What is high blood pressure/normal blood pressure?  Normal- 120/80 (or close)  High- 140/90 or higher What are the risk factors for hypertension?  Age, family history, obesity, physical inactivity, excessive alcohol intake What is the DASH diet?  Diet to stop hypertension What is the treatment for hypertension?  Weight loss (if needed), moderate salt intake ( no more than 2300 mg/day), DASH diet How many mg per serving is considered low sodium?  140 mg or less per serving How much sodium is a healthy daily amount? What is osteoporosis?  Porous bone due to loss of bone minerals What are the risk factors for osteoporosis?  Female, menopause, deficient calcium intake, Caucasian or Asian heritage, cigarette smoking, physical inactivity, history of anorexia What is the treatment for osteoporosis?  Calcium supplements, getting sunlight, eating plenty of fruit What is the vitamin that helps with the absorption of iron?  Vitamin C


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

50 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Jennifer McGill UCSF Med School

"Selling my MCAT study guides and notes has been a great source of side revenue while I'm in school. Some months I'm making over $500! Plus, it makes me happy knowing that I'm helping future med students with their MCAT."

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.