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Intro to Sociology Study Guide 3

by: Michelle Chang

Intro to Sociology Study Guide 3 Introduction to Sociology

Michelle Chang

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These notes cover what's going to be in our last exam.
Introduction to Sociology
Jeremiah Bohr
Study Guide
Introduction to Sociology
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This 20 page Study Guide was uploaded by Michelle Chang on Monday May 9, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Introduction to Sociology at University of Wisconsin - Oshkosh taught by Jeremiah Bohr in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 141 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Sociology in Social Sciences at University of Wisconsin - Oshkosh.


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Date Created: 05/09/16
1 SOC 101 – Exam III Study Guide Religion  Why study religion? o What does religion have to do with society?  Nearly universal phenomenon (across space and time)  Important source of identity, symbolic meaning  Influences legal codes  Basis for social movements  The sociologist’s task o It’s not about which religion are “true” or “false” o Instead, think of religion as an institution in social life  What is common to all religion?  What impacts within social life can we see from religion?  What is religion? o Religion  System of beliefs, traditions, and practices around sacred things o Three basic types  Theism  Worship of god or gods  Ethicalism  Adherence to certain moral principles  Animism  Belief that spirits are part of the natural world  Key Concepts o Sacred  Objects and symbols uses in worship  Sacred realm is unknowable, mystical, inspires awe and wonder o Profane  Objects and symbols of the mundane, everyday world  Classical theorists on religion o Marx (conflict theory)  Leads people to focus on sacred rather than profane realms  Religion is an “opiate” that stifles class conflict o Weber (symbolic interaction)  Religious culture fundamentally shapes our rationality and behavior  Protestant culture provided the “spirit of capitalism”  Modern world fundamentally profane; the sacred has been lost o Durkheim (functionalism)  Religion provides basis for social solidarity 2  Representations of God reflects representation of society  Religious culture can influence behavior (suicide)  Religious Demographics (US) o Pew Forum on Religion and Public Life (2010) o Protestant ~ 50% o Catholic ~ 25% o Jewish ~ 2% o Other faiths ~ 7% o Unaffiliated believers ~ 6% o Secular, atheist, agnostic ~ 10%  American Religious Trends o Activity  About 1 in 2 Americans pray daily  About 1 in 3 attend religious services weekly o Identity and belief  1 in 4 Americans now affiliate with no religion (2014)  9 in 10 believe in God o Organization  Rise of the “megachurch” in past generation  Societal Trends o “Sacred Canopy”  Unified set of religious norms, symbols, and beliefs that convey the meaning of life o Religious pluralism  Coexistence of multiple religious groups in same society o Secularization  Movement away from spiritual belief, towards science/rationality  Pronounced in industrialized nations Crime, Part I: Crime VS Deviance, Theories of Crime  Deviance o Deviance  Unpopular acts departing from social norms o Punished in form of ridicule, ostracism o Not all deviant acts are criminal o Examples  Murder (criminal)  Robbery (criminal)  Gender bending (not criminal)  Never bathing (not criminal)  Social Control 3 o Social control  How societies regulate and enforce norms and rules  Intent is to maintain a predictable social order  The “employee handbook” of living in society o Sanctions  The exact means by which societies enforce norms and rules  Type of sanctions o Positive  Rewards given for conformity to norms (getting a raise, e.g.) o Negative  Punishments for violation of norms (getting arrested, e.g.) o Formal  Officially recognize norm enforcement  Expelling a student for cheating (negative)  Giving an artist a Lifetime Achievement award (positive) o Informal  Face-to-face enforcement of norms  Giving someone the “cold shoulder” (negative)  Giving someone a flirtatious smile (positive)  Crime o Crime  Actions that violate laws (formalized norms) o Punished in form of fines, jail, prison o Not all criminal acts are deviant  Examples  Underage drinking (not deviant)  Speeding (not deviant)  Illegally streaming movies (deviant)  Types of Crime o Mala prohibita  Conduct that is wrong because it is prohibited by law  Ex. driving without a license o Mala is se  Conduct that is inherently wrong  Ex. human trafficking o Conflict crimes  Deviant acts that the state defines as illegal, but the definition is controversial in wider society o Consensus crimes  Illegal acts nearly all people agree harm society 4  Perspectives on crime and deviance o Functionalist (Durkheim)  Crime/Deviance is normal  All societies across space and time experiences crime  Absence of crime or deviance implies absence of liberty and freedom  Crime/Deviance is necessary  Punishment brings the community together, makes shared values explicit (consensus crimes, e.g.)  Some acts can challenge the boundaries of shared values, spur social change (conflict crimes, e.g.) o Functionalist (Merton) o Strain Theory  Crime and deviance result from inability to achieve culturally approved goals via legitimate opportunities o Conflict theory  Crime does not serve any positive functions  Sanctions favor upper classes, punish lower/working classes or racial minorities  Examples  White-collar crime accounts for far more monetary damages than all of street crimes  Imbalance in sanctions for cocaine (primarily affluent white users) versus crack (primarily poorest non-white users) o Labeling theory (symbolic interactionist)  Deviance does not result from actions themselves, but the responses of others  People become labeled as deviants, then live up to the label  Primary deviance  Initial deviance, non-consequential in itself  Labeling theory does not account for this type  Secondary deviance  Due to severe sanctions, individual changes their self-concept  “Deviant” becomes their master status, live up to the role  Robert Merton’s Typology of Deviance Cultural Goals Institutionalized Means 5 Conformist + + Innovator + - Ritualist - + Retreatist - - Rebel ± ±  Criminal Justice and Surveillance o Surveillance Institutions  Collect and analyze information about populations in order to govern their activity (Haggerty and Ericson 2006:3) o Criminal Justice system as Surveillance  About ¼ of adult American population has record on file with criminal justice agencies (Trovis 2002)  Interaction with criminal justice is disproportionately distributed o Surveillance, Crime, and Inequality  Individuals who have been stopped by police, arrested, convicted, or incarcerated less likely to interact with surveilling institutions  However, these individuals just as likely to participate in civic or religious institutions (non-surveilling)  “System avoidance”  The mechanism that connects criminal surveillance with social stratification o An already marginalized population severed from the very institutions needed to help provide better opportunities and desist from criminal behavior o Avoid banks, hospitals, employment agencies, schools Crime, Part II: Major Crime Trends and Typologies  How do we study crime? o Aggregate data  Uniform Crime Report  Official crime data, published by FBI  Concern over accuracy, doesn’t cover all types of crime o Survey research  Criminal self-reports  Random sample victim surveys o Qualitative research  Face-to-face interviews; ethnographies 6  Crime Trends by social factors o Seasonal (weather/climate) o Age o Gender o Social Class o Race  Crime Rates o Crime wave that began in the early 1960s and continued to surge in the 1970s and 1980s o Significant decline in crime rates began in 1990s  What explains declining crime rates? o Six possible sources 1) Punishment  Prison population explodes  Accounts for 10%-30% of crime drop  But, prison has criminogenic effects, AND it’s very expensive 2) Policing  Number of police officers expanded  Effectiveness varies by community  Accounts for 10%-20% of crime drop 3) Opportunities  “Target hardening” – design changes that make crime more difficult o Ex. improvements in auto anti-theft systems  Spread of surveillance changes risk associated with crime 4) Economics  Does a bad economy = more crime? o Most evidence says “no” o Complex question. Bad economy may simultaneously incentivize criminal behavior while making victims scarcer 5) Demographics  Age structures, proportion of immigrants  Modest impacts (if any), up to 10% 6) Longer-term social dynamics  Some evidence that crime was declining prior to post-WWII era (statistics not as reliable) o 1960s-70s may have been a historical aberration  Summary: What caused big crime drop? Strong Evidence Weak Evidence 7 ↑ Punishment Improved economy  Effective, but expensive  Unintended consequences ↑ Police officers Older demographics ↓ Criminal opportunities  Common Types of Crime o Street crime  Committed in public  Often associated with violence, poverty o White-Collar crime  Usually non-violent, committed by professionals at their regular job  Overall, causes much more monetary damage than street crime o Public Order crimes  Illegal behaviors that violate public morality  However individuals directly involved are consenting  “Victimless” crimes  Public Order Crimes o Sex crimes  Ex. prostitution  Who are the victims? o Drug crimes  Ex. marijuana; meth  Who are the victims?  Question for class o Should drugs be legalized?  With whom do you agree?  Why or why not?  Legalized drugs? o Yes  War on Drugs too expensive and ineffective  Many drugs are less harmful than alcohol/tobacco  Legalization = regulation (quality control; tax revenue)  Eliminate black market for drugs  Manage associated violence and health problems o No  Legalization would spread rate of addiction  Public costs associated with treatment  Legalization would officially sanction social ills in poorer communities 8  War on Drugs is good goal, just need new strategies Politics and Society, Part I  Politics o Who gets What, When, and How (Harold Lasswell)  Struggles over finite/limited resources o Formal politics  Elections, citizenry  Power, Governance, and the State o Informal politics  Power outside of the state  Examples  The “court of public opinion”  Social movements (protests, boycotts, e.g.)  (Consequential) corporate decision-making  “Office politics”  Authority o The legitimate use of power  Recognized as just by the people  Types of Authority o Traditional  Legitimacy via custom  Ex. The Pope o Legal-rational  Legitimacy via rules  Ex. President o Charismatic  Legitimacy via personality  Ex. Radio hosts  Authority and the State o The State  Mostly relies upon legal-rational authority  State authority enforced by threat of physical coercion o Paradox of authority  Resorting to physical coercion strips the state of legitimate authority  Power o Power  The ability to exercise control over others, even against their will (Max Weber) o Domination  The probability that a command will be obeyed o Hard power 9  Power via threat of coercion o Soft power  Power via cultural attractiveness  Law o Rules of behavior defined by political authority and backed by state power o Functionalists  Laws are based on collective conscience, reflect shared values of a social group (Durkheim) o Conflict theorists  Laws reflect the ideological goals of the ruling class (Marx) o Interactionists  Laws are symbols that regulate relationships beyond social differences  Nation, Government, and State o What is a nation?  A social and cultural relationship continuous over time, contained within geographic boundaries o What is a government?  Provision of specific public services that provide order within a society o What is a state?  Total apparatus that monopolizes government services within a territory  Modern States o Defines a national territory o Sovereignty o Developed bureaucracy  Nationalism VS. Patriotism o Nationalism  Nation as site of ultimate loyalty  Advocate interests of own nation, excludes interests of other nations o Patriotism  Refers more generally to love of country o All of this affects…  Our discourse – the way we talk (and thus think)  Social movements – activists often frame their goals in terms of national interests  Emotional sentiments Politics and Society, Part II  Types of Power Systems 10 o Anarchy  Absence of an organized state o Monarchy  Single ruler; hereditary o Dictatorship  Single ruler; not hereditary o Oligarchy  Rule by a small, elite group o Democracy  Power, distributed equally among citizens  Elected government  Citizenship o Collection of rights  Evolve over time  Emerge out of conflict o Relationship between the individual and state o Does not apply equally to all people  Possibility of “stateless” individuals/groups  Types of Citizen Rights o Civil  Rights of individual freedom (speech, e.g.) o Political  Right to participate in political power o Social  Right to a minimal standard of living  Social Welfare o Life can be “poor, nasty, brutish and short.” – Thomas Hobbes o Social welfare  The ability to take care of basic needs for others in your group/community o For most of human history, welfare came from…  Family  Neighbors/community  Religious organizations  The “Welfare State” o Describes state responsibility for the welfare of its citizens  Meets basic needs for  Education  Housing  Health  Income o Defines the nature of State/Economy relationship  Three Types of Welfare States o 1) Social democratic 11 o 2) Liberal o 3) Conservative  Social Democratic Model o Characteristics  Universal program eligibility  De-commodification (non-market service)  Wealth redistribution emphasized  Labor participation of women encouraged o Lower tolerance for poverty o Examples  Denmark, Norway, Sweden  Liberal Model o Characteristics  Means-tested programs (0nly some citizens qualify)  Commodification (relies more on markets)  Wealth redistribution de-emphasized  Labor participation of women encouraged o Higher tolerance for poverty o Examples  U.S., Canada, Australia  Conservative Model o Characteristics  Programs work through occupations/employers  Moderate levels of de-commodification  Income redistribution is minimal  Labor participation of women discouraged o Preservation of traditional family structures emphasized o Examples  France, Italy  Major US Welfare Programs o Social Security  Before SS, seniors most vulnerable age group to poverty  Today, seniors least vulnerable age group to poverty o Medicare and Medicaid o Federal education funding o Various anti-poverty programs  Tax Systems o Progressive  Individuals with higher incomes pay greater share of tax burden o Regressive  Individuals with lower incomes pay greater share of tax burden  Taxes and Welfare 12 o In general…  Countries with regressive tax systems have stronger welfare states  Countries with progressive tax systems have weaker welfare states Work and Economy  Basic terms o Economy  How societies are organized to meet individuals’ needs through production, distribution, and exchanges  Composed of a series of institutions o Markets  An area of exchange where individuals attempt to maximize their own advantage  Subject to regulation o Monopoly  Market situations in which there is no competition o Informal economy  Reference to unregulated, “underground” organization of exchange  Labor Markets o Labor market segmentation  Division of market for labor distinct settings, with little change of movement between them o Primary labor market  Highly skilled, well-educated labor  High earnings, benefits  Good job security o Secondary labor market  Less skilled, less formal education  Lower earnings, benefits  More likely to exhibit unemployment/underemployment o Internal labor markets  When levels of employment and wages within a firm are determined by internal administrative rules  Positions filled through internal promotion  Ex. salary scales o External labor markets  When levels of employment and wages within a firm are determined by competitive factors  Labor Market Signaling o Market signaling 13  Interpretation of manipulable characteristics as signs of unobservable traits  Ex. how a person dresses as a sign of their work ethic  Career Types o Bureaucratic  Spending life moving up the ladder of an internal labor market for a single organization o Professional  Spending life in some occupation but moving between different organizations  Unemployment o Unemployment  Share of the working-age, able-bodied population who are actively looking for work but cannot find it o Underemployment  Share of the population  Working fewer hours than they are willing, and/or  Working jobs for which they are overqualified o Structural unemployment  Occurs when total job seekers exceed jobs available  Why is your boss stupid? o Peter Principle  Employees tend to be promoted to a level above the point at which they are competent/efficient  This process eventually creates incompetent management in any organizations  The rich get richer… o The “Matthew Effect”  The effect of cumulative advantage  Applied to labor markets, the idea that accumulated wealth leads to opportunities to gain further income/wealth not available to others  In other words, “the rich get richer and the poor get poorer”  Theoretical perspectives on the economy o Functional  The economy is efficient, eventually meets all needs  Societal/economic health tied together o Conflict  Structure of the economy is a reflection of class conflict o Symbolic interaction  The economy reflects socialization  Individuals “inherit” their career paths through primary socialization 14  Economic Systems o Capitalism  Ownership by private individuals  Wealth accumulates to owners, investors  Prices generally set by market supply/demand  Laissez-faire capitalism – the state does not intervene in market activity  Regulatory capitalism – the state intervenes in market activity via regulation  Economic Systems o Socialism  State or worker-owned production  Wealth distributed to everyone involved in production  State may set prices for goods/services  Market socialism – allowing markets to set prices for some consumer goods/services  In practice… o Often difficult to find any society that is purely “capitalist” or purely “socialist”  In the capitalist United States, we have…  Public libraries  Public education  Medicare  Green Bay Packers  Convergence Theory o CT argues that as economic structure change, societal structures eventually mirror the economy o Examples in the U.S.  Agricultural economy – competitive individualism, constitution and individual rights  Industrial economy – “the career man,” suburban development  Post – industrial economy – job/career switching, changing of “the American Dream” Environment and Society  Environmental Sociology o Studies the interaction between society and the natural environment, including social causes of environmental problems o What does it mean to think about the environment sociologically? o Material  Natural resources 15  Waste  Living space o Cultural  Social meanings  Social values  What predicts pro-environmental attitudes? o Age* o Gender o Race* o Income* o Education o Political orientation*  Theoretical Perspectives Perspective Relationship between Environment and Society Functionalism Social stability dependent upon environmental sustainability. Problems in one prompt change in the other. Conflict Theory Basic conflict between social group interests in society and material resources in the environment. Environmental impacts primarily hurt low social strata. Symbolic Interaction Immediate social relationships may override pro-environmental values. Environmental impacts result from how we structure incentives in our social and economic roles.  Concentric Zones o Example of functionalism o Communities viewed as series of concentric circles (“zones”)  Each defines relationship to nature differently  Interdependent  The “Treadmill” Metaphor o Conflict theory o Treadmill of Production  Economic growth dependent upon environmental degradation 16  If we drop “running” on the treadmill of resource extraction, coalitions of politicians, industry, and workers will fall apart  Triple Bottom Line o Symbolic interaction example o Re-defines rationality and performance  Not restricted to economic gain, but social and environmental responsibility  Environmental Behavior o Another example of symbolic interaction o Concern-Behavior Gap  Pro-environmental attitudes don’t always lead to pro- environmental behavior  “Want to” does not always lead to “will do” o Another example of symbolic interaction  Concern-Behavior Gap  Why? o Norms – do we feel the need to conform within our social networks? (visualizing behavior is very effective) o Role conflict – incompatible demands from different social roles lead to polluting behaviors o Consciousness – impacts often invisible, built into routine habits Collective Action and Social Movements  Collective Action o Action taken by a group in pursuit of members’ shared interests  Types of Crowds o Casual  Same place and time, but not interacting (bus stop, e.g.) o Conventional  Come together for scheduled event (sports spectators, e.g.) o Expressive  Come together to express shared emotion (weddings or funerals, e.g.) o Acting  Come together for a specific goal (anti-war protest, e.g.)  McPhail’s Typology of Collective Behavior Type of Crowd Description Example Convergent orientation Family/Friends traveling Carpooling 17 together Family road trip Convergent orientation Group facing some Introduction to direction Sociology audience Collective vocalization Noises made Screams on a roller collectively coaster Collective verbalization Simultaneous Pledge of Allegiance participation in speech/song Collective gesticulation Body parts forming The Chicken dance symbols Collective manipulation Objects collectively Holding signs at a moved around protest rally Collective locomotion Movement toward on Children running to an event ice cream truck  Tragedy of the Commons o Situations where individuals acting in their self-interest undermine the collective benefit o Examples  Grazing cattle on free land (Garrett Hardin)  Overfishing the oceans  Rush-hour traffic  Social Dilemmas o Situations where individuals must cooperate in order to secure a collective good, even if such behavior contradicts individual self- interest o Examples  Paying taxes  Paying for mass transit  Voting  Free Riders o Free Riders  Individuals who enjoy benefits of collective sacrifice without making a contribution  Examples o Polluters who enjoy a clean environment o The slacker in your group project o Inclusive collective goods  Benefits that everyone can enjoy, regardless if they contributed (environmental protection, e.g.)  Particularly susceptible to free riders  Problem of Collective Action o Free Rider Problem 18  Once free riders recognized, other people stop contributing to collective goods o Trust  People generally need minimal level of trust in order to engage in collective action o Conditional Cooperation  Most people will participate toward collective goods so long as they do not recognize presence of free riders  Social Movement o Social Movements  Collective action that is purposeful and organized; aims to change status quo o Social Movement Organization (SMO)  A group developed to recruit and coordinate participants for a particular cause o Grassroots Organization  A type of SMO that relies primarily upon high levels of community-based membership o Astroturf Organization  An SMO that appear grassroots, but mask hierarchy of financial ties and direction  Types of Social Movements o Alternative  Seek limited change, single-issue oriented  Ex. smoking ban campaigns o Redemptive  Target specific group of people, advocate radical change  Ex. Christian missionaries o Reformative  Advocate limited change across broad spectrum of society  Ex. marriage equally movement o Revolutionary  Advocate a radical reorganization of society  Ex. Cuban Revolution o Resistance  Seek to prevent or undo social change  Ex. Ku Klux Klan  Models of Social Movements o Why do social movements occur?? o Breakdown theory  When traditional patterns of social norms and organizations are disrupted  Ex. “irrational” crowd behavior (riots)  Generally dismissed by contemporary sociologists 19 o Resource-mobilization theory  When there are sufficient resources available (money, time, etc.) for the political context and goal  Ex. resources given to climate change denial movements o Political process model  When there is a political opportunity favorable to those seeking change  Ex. political opportunities surrounding anti-war protests for Iraq and Afghanistan wars  Stages of Social Movements 1) Emergence  Recognition of a social problem 2) Coalescence  Mobilization of resources, concrete action taken 3) Institutionalization  Formal structure developed to promote the cause 4) Cooptation  Movement leaders associate with authority figures more than movement participation Globalization  Global Village o The “Gutenberg Galaxy”  Communication technology creates an inter-connected world  Is the creation of a global village uniformly beneficial?  Or does it have a downside too?  Globalization o Globalization  Process by which formerly separate economies, states, and cultures become tied together o Popular awareness of global interdependence is on the rise  Triumphs of Globalization o Communication and travel o Trade and investment o Organizations and agreements  Tragedies of Globalization o Economic  Global commodity chains  Outsourcing  Environmental degradation  Concentration of wealth 20  Spread of “winner take all” economic growth o Political  Multinational corporations escape taxes  Difficult to maintain traditional middle class safety nets o Cultural  Xenophobia (fear/hatred of foreigners)  Homogenization  Ex. McDonaldization of Society; “Globalization of Nothing”  Consequences of Globalization o McDonaldization o Glocalization o Regionalization  McDonaldization o Refers to the spread of fast-food restaurant principles to all spheres of life  Efficiency  Calculability  Standardization  Automation  Glocalization o Simultaneous process of  Homogenization of organization  Differentiation of local differences o Ex. variations in McDonald’s menus around the world  Regionalization o Division of the world into competing economic, political, and cultural areas  Ex. European Union o Reaction to globalization  Institutional and cultural integration of countries impractical or undesirable on global scale  Global Inequality o On average, differences in wealth  Growing smaller between countries  Growing larger within countries o Some countries suffer great amounts of debt o On global scale, gap between rich/poor enormous  About 1 billion people live on $1 per day, 2.5 billion on $2 per day  Top 1% own about half of world’s wealth


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