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ANS 2: Midterm 2 Study Guide

by: Mackenzie Hayes

ANS 2: Midterm 2 Study Guide ANS 002

Mackenzie Hayes

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These notes cover everything from class so far that could be on the midterm. Including nearly every diagram, and the basics of everything discussed in lecture
Introductory Animal Science
Dr. James Murray
Study Guide
animal, Science
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This 17 page Study Guide was uploaded by Mackenzie Hayes on Monday May 9, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to ANS 002 at University of California - Davis taught by Dr. James Murray in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 113 views. For similar materials see Introductory Animal Science in Animal Science at University of California - Davis.


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Date Created: 05/09/16
ANS 2: Midterm 2 Study Guide (Simplified) Functions of the GI tract: ○ All animals are hollow tubes ■ Some tubes are more specialized than others ○ Receiving: ■ Mouth / Teeth / lips / tongue / jaw ■ Way of getting food in (ingesting food) ● Distinctive for different purposes ○ Dog - jaw moves up and down (shearing) ○ Ruminant - jaw moves side to side (grinding) ○ Conduction, storing: ■ Foregut​ - not a lot of digestion ■ Birds have crop to store food ● Allows it to pick up lots of food fast + digest later ○ Digestion, absorption: ■ Acid digestion ● Hydrochloric Acid + pepsin ● Stomach, abomasum ■ Basic Absorption ● Small intestine​- absorbs amino acids, nucleotides, etc. ● Rumen as well (microbes need more neutral environment) ○ Absorbing water, defecating: ■ Large intestine ■ Some animals have storage for waste (birds do not) ● GI Tract overall same idea for all animals ○ Hagfish = almost just a simple hollow tube ○ Complexity and length will vary depending on diet ■ Obligate carnivore : simpler GI tract ■ Ruminant / herbivore : more complex ● Have to incorporate fermentation Tracts: ○ Fish​ = small compact body to fit GI tract into ■ Small intestine is VERY SMALL ● Pyloric cecum helps to hold food before small intestine ● Allows time to digest and absorb fat ■ **diagram appears on tests** ■ Distal Stomach​ = acid stomach ■ Spiral intestine= increase surface area ○ Bird​ = need to be light for flight ■ Beaks instead of lips (specialized to diet) ■ Crop​ = storage ■ Proventriculus​ = acid stomach ■ Gizzard​ = grinds hard food with little rocks ■ Small intestine: ● Inside small intestine = outside of body (hollow tube) ● Most concentrated area of living organisms on earth ● Duodenum, Jejunum, Ileum​ (3 parts) ● Duodenum = loop ​ that contains the pancreas (beginning) ○ Pancreas produces enzymes and buffers ■ Exocrine and endocrine organ ○ Where gallbladder drains bile into small intestine ● Ileo-cecal junction - 2 ceca - no function ● Large intestine​= extremely small ○ Water + waste = heavy so expel rather than absorb ○ Pig: ■ Salivary glands ■ Esophagus​ = just for transportation ■ Single acid stomach ● Cardiac sphincter ○ Prevents stomach contents from going up into esophagus (acid refl​burning of esophageal lining) ● Pyloric sphincter ○ Allows food out of stomach and into small intestine ■ Very big large intestine ○ Dog:​ simple (carnivore) ○ Horse:​largercecum for hindgut fermentation ■ Cecum = ​appendix in humans ● No known function for us (Vestigial structure) ● Plant eaters = helps them withdraw nutrients ■ Coprophagy​ = eat own feces ● Saliva​= minor component of digestion (more of​uffer) ○ Moisten food bolus​for swallowing ○ 3 groups of salivary glanParotid, Submandibular, Sublingu)l​ ● Epiglottis​- closes and blocks the trachea so food forced down esophagus ● Ruminant ***diagram on many tests*** ○ Rumen + reticulum(honeycomb) ■ Open to each other ■ Fermentation ○ Omasum ○ Abomasum ■ True acid stomach ● Ruminant Stomach:​ more evolved with 4 chambers ○ Can flow in/out of all chambers (even back up to mouth) ○ Eruption​= bring up food to chew again ○ Rumen environment​ must be appropriate for bacteria ■ Saliva adds sodium bicarbonate (buffer) to bolus ■ Brings the pH back up to neutral ○ Reticulum​ - honeycomb structure ○ Omasum ​ - absorbs lots of water ■ Also acts as a “size filter”; doesn’t let big molecules through ○ Abomasum​ - true acid stomach ○ Esophageal Groove​ - bypasses the rumen to omasum ■ Good for young when drinking milk / colostrum ● Feeds them and NOT bacteria this way ○ Pyloric Sphincter​ - controls flow from stomach to small intestine ■ Don’t need one for esophagus bc the rumen isn’t acidic ● Can move freely between the two without risk of burns ● Ruminant Digestion: ○ Bacteria → make volatile fatty acids → source of energy ○ Fate of VFA: ■ Energy ■ Muscle - protein synthesis ■ Adipose - fat synthesis ■ Mammary gland - fat and lactose synthesis ● Fistulated​ - Fistula - hole into stomach ● Monogastric Stomach ○ Esophagus moves food ○ Chemical digestion - HCl + enzyme digestion ○ Cardiac + pyloric sphincter ○ Microstructure: ■ Goblet Cells​- specialized epithelial cells that secrete mucous ■ Parietal Cells- secrete HCl ■ Chief Cells​- secrete various enzymes ● Pepsinogen → pepsin ● Pepsin = active form of pepsinogen, breaks down peptides ○ Secreted in inactive form so doesn’t digest cell ● Oral Cavity ○ Lips​- pick up food ○ Exocrine​ - salivary glands in mouth ■ Sublingual, submandibular, parotid ○ Teeth ​- dictated by diet (same with tongue) ○ Saliva​- moistens + buffers food ■ Has anti-microbial proteins to control mouth bacteria ○ Trachea​ - rigid to allow air flow (esophagus is flaccid) ○ Epiglottis​- switches between trachea and esophagus for air / food ● Gall Bladder ​- on liver ○ Secretes bile to assist with lipid absorption ○ LIVER MAKES BILE → gall bladder stores it ○ Breaks fat down to tiny pieces for lipase to digest ● Pancreas​ - secretes enzymes (exocrine and endocrine) Small Intestine​ - ​asic digestion + absorption site ○ Know overall plan* ○ Villi- increase surface area ○ Intestinal Folds- villi are on folds for even more surface area ○ Outgrowths​ : (technically part of intestinal tract)(evolved over time) ■ Crop, liver, pancreas, cecum ○ Peyer's patch​- lymph node embedded into surface ○ Villi- moves food between for absorption (+increases surface area) ○ Black dots​= white blood cells=eosinophils ■ Push their way out to edge of villi to “sample” what’s going on ○ Enterocyte​ - crucial to health, barrier between outside and inside of body inside intestine (form of epithelial cell) ○ White dots​ =goblet cells= fine layer of cells, secretes mucus ○ Diarrhea​ = villi get shorter and thicker = less surface area ■ Less absorption = more liquid released ● Villus ○ Lymph nodes​ = white blood cells ○ Enterocyte​= absorptive cell ■ Nuclei form dark ring along edge of villi ○ 2 routes: ■ Transcellular= across membranes of epithelial cells ● Requires energy ■ Paracellular= squeezed between epithelial cells ● Really only water does this ○ Epithelium of gut is not all one type of cell ■ Cell function/absorption/junctions differ in different parts of GIT ● Glycocalyx: ○ Provides absorption and enzymes for digestion of protein / sugar ○ Prevents some bacteria from entering body w/​ucus layer ○ Component of i mmune system​ (recognizes “invaders”) Nutrients: ○ Essentially everything can be a toxin - depends on dosage ○ 20 amino acids, 9 are essential, can make 11 of them ● Six Classes of Nutrients + Functions: ○ Carbohydrates​= energy ○ Fat​= structure + energy ○ Protein= structure + energy + regulatory ○ Minerals= structure + regulatory ○ Water​= structure + regulatory ○ Vitamins= regulatory ● Other requirements: know what food provides ○ *know proximate analysis chart above* ○ Nutrients of a food change by environment and season ● Macrominerals​ : bodies require a lot of ○ Microminerals - bodies only require some small amounts ■ Know example ○ Contain ​ny element except C,H,O,N ● Protein​ : Nitrogen in all amino acids ○ Amino acids joined by peptide bond ○ Essential​- must be ingested ■ Most contain sulfur(only source of sulfur is in amino acids) ■ Methionine​ = 1st amino acid in protein synthesis ■ 9-11 essential amino acids (depending on growth stage) ○ Nonessential​- body can produce ○ Rumen smell = hydrogen sulfide ■ Bacteria cut the sulfur off amino acids for themselves ○ Lysine​= essential for nonruminants ○ Taurine​= essential for cats (obligate carnivores) ● Water​ : 1st limiting nutrient ○ (die of thirst before you die of hunger) ○ Water not essential for all mammals ■ Gerbils make enough of their own in metabolic processes ● Fat​ : most “bang for your buck” with energy ○ Glycerol backbone + simple fatty acid units ○ Body can make most but some are essential ● Carbohydrates​ : ○ Sugars ■ Simple​ = easy to metabolize (glucose)​vomplex ■ C,H,O​ - provide energy ■ Glucose + glycogen can be stored in tissues ○ Crude fiber (cellulose = can’t digest) ● CANNOT STORE ATP IN BODY Digestion: ● Important Digestive Secretions: * ○ Know where and what each secretion is ● Absorption of Nutrients: ○ Passive Transportdiffusion across membrane (water) ○ Active:uses energy + transport across membrane (other nutrients) ■ Also called endocytosis / phagocytosis ■ Other form=use of ransporter protein(embedded in membrane) ○ *know flow chart* ● Bodies don’t get all of the energy present in food(not all available) ○ Gross Energy - Feces = Digestible Energy ○ Digestible Energy - Gas/Urine = Metabolizable Energy ○ Metabolizable Energy - Energy Burned = Net Energy ■ Body maintenance first → leftover used for production/repro ○ Body will metabolize itself if not given enough nutrients ● Gut Microbiota: ○ Terms: ■ Microbiota:​ all microbes living inside the gut ■ Microbiome:​ microbes, their genetic elements, + interactions w/ environment ■ Metagenome:​ genetic content of a microbial population ■ Metatranscriptome:​ functions of a microbial population ○ Microbial Diversity: ■ 10^4 Bacteria in gut ■ ~500 - 1000 species → 1 kg of bodyweight ■ Have 100x more genetic material than the host ■ Commensal:​ living with you ○ Functions of GI tract Microbiome: ■ *know chart* Skeletal muscle​ = muscle cells bound together by connective tissue sheaths that are independent of individual cell membranes ○ Born with all the muscle fibres you will ever have ○ You’re not building more muscle cells, you’re making them bigger ● Two types of muscle fibres ○ Striated​- capable of rapid contractions ■ Red ​- slow twitch - sustained, continued work, more resistant to fatigue - aerobic ■ White​ - fast twitch - quick movement, fatigues rapidly - anaerobic ○ Smooth ■ Controlled by autonomic nerve system ■ Doesn’t contract rapidly ■ Lines hollow organs ■ Can be excited by stretching as well as nerve impulse ● Skeletal Muscle Terms ○ Epimysium​ - connective tissue ○ Perimysium​ - connective tissue ○ Endomysium​ - connective tissue ○ Fasciculi- bundles of myocytes ○ Myocyte​ - muscle fiber or muscle cell ○ Sarcolemma​ - cell membrane of a muscle cell ○ Myofibrils​- functional unit of a muscle cell ○ Sarcomere​ - building block unit of a myofibril ■ Adds length to myofibril ● Structure of a Striated muscle: ○ Epimysium​ = connective tissue surrounding entire muscle ○ Perimysium​ = surrounds bundles of 10-20 myocytes (bundles = fasciculi) ○ Endomysium​ = connective tissue surrounding individual myocytes ● Myocytes​ : ○ individual muscle fibers = cells ■ *they are multinucleate (have multiple nuclei) ○ Each enclosed by cell membrane - s ​arcolemma ■ Attaches the muscle fiber to connective tissues (​endomysium) ■ Key to generation of electric potentials for cell contraction ○ Cytoplasm of muscle cells = s ​arcoplasm ■ Stores glycogen (for energy) and myoglobin (red, stores oxygen) ● Myofibrils ○ Basic units of contraction inside the myocyte ○ Actin - thin filaments ○ Myosin - thick filaments                     ● More Muscle = more myofibrils ○ Can grow so much they split ○ Adding sarcomeres also grows muscle ■ Z line defines a sarcomere Growth: ● Why is growth so important? Production ○ Meat, milk, eggs, fiber = most important agricultural sector ○ Fertility has gone down in the selection for production ■ Energy all put toward production, none left for repro ■ Need enough energy ​ stored​for reproduction ■ Sheep Flushing - ​ feed more right before ovulation and insemination = more lambs ● Factors Affecting Growth:​ life stage ○ Prenatal: ■ Litter size (more young = smaller at birth) ■ Size +nutritional status of mom ■ Genetics of offspring (growth potential and fetal growth) ○ Postnatal - preweaning: ■ Nutritional status of mom ■ Litter size (affects ability to feed) ■ Initial size / aggressiveness of young(also affects feed success) ■ Exposure to disease = parasites (building immunity) ○ Postnatal - postweaning: ■ Gender, genetics, nutrition, disease/parasites, social stress, environmental conditions ● Handlers factor into this ● Hormones:​ know a few major ones + functions and sources ● Growth: ○ Growth = increase in weight until mature size is reached ○ Growth can be Increasing cell numbers and increasing cell size ● Hypertrophy: increase cell size ○ Muscle and fat tissue grows this way ● Hyperplasia: multiplication of cells ● Nutrition of mother affects oocytes (genetic potential) ● Germ Cell Layers: ○ Ectoderm = outside body ■ Skin ○ Endoderm = inside body ■ gut , liver, lungs ○ Mesoderm = everything in between ■ Skeleton, muscle, heart, blood ● Guest Lecturer: ● 2 General Concepts: ○ Animals are very similar and what makes them different are their environment/diets ○ Nutrition and toxicology are just a continuum ■ From nutrient deficient to excess w/ intolerance somewhere in between ● Definition of Fish: ○ Cold blooded vertebrates with gill breathing, fins, swim bladder ○ Depends primarily on water as a living medium ○ Finfish - most amount of species of any other animal ● Definition of Nutrition: ○ Integration of knowledge of biochemistry and physiology into a unifying concept of the relationship between an organism and its nutrient supply ○ A science dealing with the relationship between food and organism ○ Similar essential nutrients for all animals including fish ● Toxicology: ○ Study of relationship between dose and its effects on the organism ○ All things are poison / nothing is without poison ■ Only dose can make it poisonous ● General Concept 1: ○ Animals are very similar and what makes them different are their environment ● Studying Sturgeon: ○ Lactose intolerant: ■ Low lactose levels in the bush boarder membrane in GI tract ■ Results in high water content in the distal intestine (spiral valve) ○ Diabetic like:​carbohydrate intolerance ■ Able to absorb glucose but unable to metabolize it ● Persistent hyperglycemia ● General Concept 2: ○ Nutrition and toxicology is just a continuum ● Selenium Toxicology: ○ Required in small amounts, large prolonged amounts = toxic ○ Methionine also essential → developed SeMet absorption


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