Sociology 101 Final Exam Review Guide
Sociology 101 Final Exam Review Guide Soci 101
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Anna Stidham on Monday May 9, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Soci 101 at Towson University taught by Tsitos in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see Intro to Sociology 101 in Sociology at Towson University.
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Date Created: 05/09/16
SOCI 101 Spring 2016 Final Exam Review Topics from premidterm: Definitions: Meritocracy leadership by the most talented (meritskill, edu) Dramaturgy study of social life as theater Role image being projected Audiencepeople who observe behavior Script communication with others Prop objects used to present image (technology/jewelry/shoes) Front stage where appropriate appearance is maintained and things take place Back stage where prep for front is done/ coreself emerges Functionalism all social institutions serve the function of maintaining the health of society Socialization process by which one learns how to act according to the rules and expectations of a particular culture Statusnamed social position that people can occupy Role set of rights, obligations, and behaviors associated with a particular status Structural/individualistic explanations of behavior & life outcomes Individualistic focus on people’s personal qualities to explain their behavior Structural focus on impact of social forces upon our private lives “Collective effervescence”experiences of group excitement when an individual forgets self and becomes immersed in group affiliation Topics from postmidterm: Definitions: Deviance nonconformity to a given set of sociallyaccepted norms Sanctions (re)action meant to ensure compliance with social norms (+/) Anomie to describe a situation in which traditional social norms have been undermined and not replaced with new ones (ex technology norms?) Norms cultural products (including values, customs, and traditions) which represent individuals' basic knowledge of what others do and think that they should do. Sociologists describe norms as informal understandings that govern individuals' behavior in society Relative vs. Absolute Poverty/Deprivation Answer to “Why do crime rates sometimes increase during times of overall economic prosperity” emphasizes the importance of relative poverty (inequality) as opposed to absolute poverty. Stratification structured system of ranking entire groups of people that perpetuates unequal rewards and life chances in society Poverty rate Poverty line official gov measure that defines those living in poverty in US Absolute poverty being below the minimal requirements necessary to sustain a healthy existence Relative poverty (inequality) poverty defined according to the living standards of the majority in any given society Status groups (Marxist) share common patterns of consumption/ lifestyles; not same as economic class Old money vs new status boundaries are maintained by exclusive country clubs, schools, and residential areas Zero sum game situation when one place gains same amount as another loses equilibrium obtained (part of modern. theory) Culture of poverty theory poor are socialized to learn values, beliefs, and lifestyles that are incompatible with upward mobility in the class system (individualistic exp of pov) Feminization of poverty an increase in the proportion of the poor who are female. Growing numbers of women who are single mothers, divorced, or separated Nationstate a sovereign state whose citizens or subjects are relatively homogeneous in factors such as language or common descent. Cooptation to take or assume for one’s own use and neutralize culture (limitation of institutional strategies of social movements) Conspicuous consumption buying things to show others that you can afford them show off; having multiple cars/ buying brand name clothing and newest technology Social vs. corporate welfare Social welfare programs that help poor, unemployed, etc. Corporate welfare tax incentives and tax breaks given to corporations Types of capital Economic money Human knowledge, training Cultural cultural knowledge Social refers to the degree to which people in a society are connected (not turned into economic) Demography study of the changing fertility and mortality rates and migration rates make up the total population composition Population composition a snapshot of the demographic population Anecdotal vs. Statistical evidence Anecdotal based on personal experience Adv: stories can be emotionally powerful and moving Disadv: stories of one person/group might not be generalizable to the larger population. Anecdotes used as evidence can be chosen subjectively (influenced by a person’s opinion) and therefore biased Statistical based upon numerical data, statistical analyses Adv: data can be collected from a representative sample of a population, thus making the data generalizable. More likely to be objective, unbiased, and factual Disadv: can be dry, boring, and therefore unconvincing to many especially if data doesn’t fit one’s personal experience Global inequality: the systematic differences in wealth and power between countries Globalization the increased economic, political, and social interconnectedness of the world Theories of global inequality Modernization suggests that lowincome societies develop economically only if they give up their traditional ways and adopt modern economic instutitions, technologies, and cultural values that emphasize savings and productive investment Stages: traditional stage, take off to economic growth, drive to technological maturity, high mass consumption Dependency theories Marxist theories that argue that the poverty of lowincome countries stems directly from their exploitation by wealthy countries and the multinational corporations that are based in wealthy countries Resource curse countries that have a ton of natural resources are the economically poorest because of the rich places that need resources Dependent development poor countries can still develop economically but only in ways shaped by their reliance on the wealthier countries Deviance Medicalization of deviance Deviant behavior is redefined as a medical problem that requires treatment. Focuses on deviant behavior as an individual problem, not a social issue Ex student acts outblames ADD; celebrity breaks the law Labeling theory & deviance Deviance is the consequence of the application of rules and sanctions to an offender. A deviant is an individual who has been labeled as such. No act is inherently deviant society’s reaction is what labels some acts and some people as deviant. Merton’s typology of deviance Strain theory access to socially acceptable goals plays a part in determining whether a person conforms or deviates Merton’s 5 reactions to strain: Conformity chose not to deviate and purse goals through socially accepted ways Innovation pursue goals by using deviant means Ritualism people lower their goals until they can reach them through socially acceptable ways (Milton office space) Retreatism reject and withdraw from society’s goals (beggars) Rebellion replace a society’s goals with their own (terrorists) Durkheim on crime Crime helps maintain the health of society by teaching members of society the moral norms; anomie with no clear norms to guide behavior, deviance is more likely to occur. Marx: Conflict theory an alternative to functionalism; sees society as made up of groups who must compete for social, political, and material resources such as political power, money, housing, and entertainment Alienation of labor Workers become separated from products of their labor. Work ceases to be a satisfying personal expression (comparison of assembly line to craftsman) Bourgeoisie/proletariat Marx observed the Industrial Revolution and believed that capitalist society was becoming divided into two classes: bourgeoisie (owners/rich) and proletariats (workers/poor). Religion encouraged owners to accept their prosperity as a sign of divine factor Religion as “the opiate of the masses” Marx believed that religion encouraged the working classes to accept their suffering in this lifetime in exchange for the reward of the afterlife Changes to the US middle class from 19702015 (see “Class” PowerPoint) In at least one sense, the shift represents economic progress: While the share of U.S. adults living in both upper and lowerincome households rose alongside the declining share in the middle from 1971 to 2015, the share in the upperincome tier grew more. However….Over the same period (19702015), the nation’s aggregate household income shifted from middleincome to upperincome households, driven by the growing size of the upperincome tier and more rapid gains in income at the top. Fully 49% of U.S. aggregate income went to upperincome households in 2014, up from 29% in 1970. Weber’s concepts Power ability of individuals or groups to get their way, even when others resist. Can use force Authority power that is seen as rightfully exercised, or legit. Because it’s seen as legit, people submit voluntarily to authority 3 types of authority Rational/Legal Based upon one’s position in an organizational hierarchy or upon one’s legallydefined abilities Ex bureaucratic officials, boss, judge, teacher, principle, coach, president, pope, priest Traditional based upon tradition or upon one’s historical connections (including family ties) to past leaders Ex monarchs (king/queen), familial business leaders (trumps daughter), president, pope, priest Charismatic based upon the exceptional sanctity, heroism, or exemplary character of an individual person Ex Jesus, MLK, Gandhi, Malcom X, Oprah, Bono, Bill Clinton, Tim Tebow, cult leader, Beyonce “Crisis of succession” when a charismatic authority figure dies, the people who want to succeed that authority figure often point to their own historical ties or bureaucratic position to argue for their own legitimacy Ex Jesus dies and church tries to rationalize new authority; Islam Muhammad dies and group splits behind two leaers Social movements: “Institutional” strategies vs. other strategies Institutional lobbyist sent to persuade Congress to vote for a bill or back it in the next election Noninstitutional Social movement mostly will hold demonstration, sitin, march, or tactic that doesn’t involve gov. Some may even be illegal Theories explaining social movement success Resource mobilization theory movement’s success depends largely on its ability to gather and deploy resources (money and people) Political opportunity/process theory movement’s success depends largely on whether or not people in power/positions of authority (specifically in gov) who are sympathetic to the movement’s cause Framing theory success depends on whether a movement is able to frame its goals in a way to make them appeal to more potential supporters Structural/individualistic explanations for joining movements Individualistic emphasize potential joiners’ strength of belief in the cause Structural emphasize factors such as whether or not friends of a potential joiner have already joined strong support of this The role of strong vs. weak tie Strongtie with people= more likely they are to be involved in highrisk activism like civil rights movement; more likely to stay if they have friends who are too Weak tie social media because people hide behind screens and don’t go out and activate and risk Culture: Material objects or belongings of a group of people (metro passes, cars, stores, music) Nonmaterial (consists of ideas, attitudes, and beliefs of a society Cultural relativism practice of assessing a culture by its own standards rather than viewing it through the lens of one’s own culture Durkheim vs. Marx on popular culture Durkheim focus on function of social institutions to create and strengthen social solidarity; social capital and bowling alone Marx pop culture is opiate of masses; come home from work and just watch tv using pop culture to distract yourself from the problems of the world Bourdieu & cultural capital He researched how cultural capital, or cultural knowledge that serves as a form of capital that helps one navigate culture Capitalism & popular music Standardized production (assembly line) under capitalism leads to satandarized product; pop songs are characterized by a core structure with interchangeable parts that fit into the structure (same country songs); pop music adjusts people to the limited lives that they lead, reconciling us to our fate by appealing to sentiment (emotion) Cultural “omnivores” Omnivore eats everything; we consume culture. Bourdieu believed upperclass mainly consumed high culture. Research shows Americans across class boundaries and consume high and pop culture (Hamiltion) Bryson structural exp of taste; education is associated with greater musical tolerance; Lizardo and Skiles Americans are less likely to express dislikes across most musical genres Alexander chapter 2: Labeling theory Prison Label once a person is labeled a felon, they are ushered into a parallel universe in which discrimination, stigma, and exclusion is perfectly legal (loss of voting rights etc) Manifest & latent functions of law enforcement Manifest to keep streets safe Latent raising money/ cheap labor (TU furniture) Reasons why the prison population of the US has grown so quickly No increase in crime rate Changes in laws dramatic length of prison sentences Convictions for drug offenses are the single most important cause of the explosion in incarceration rates Social change by cohort effects vs. changes in individual attitudes Individual attitudes: enough people whose attitudes about an issue change during their lifetimes, then society’s views might change Cohort effects: members of younger generation have a different attitude about an issue than older generations, society’s views on the issue will change as older people die doesn’t mean any ones ideas actually change Climate change: long term shifts in temperatures due to human activity and particularly the release of greenhouse gases into the environment Why is it a controversy? Costly regulations that would require expensive operational upgrades have been a source of great anxiety to much of the business community. As a rebuttal, lobbyists argue that such regulations would be disastrous for the economy. Some even question the scientific evidence. Who gets to pollute? The catch22 of climate change for developing nations 2 possible paths both with significant positives and negatives Further development and pollute Stay where they are which would not help their society
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