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Sociology 101 Final Exam Review Guide

by: Anna Stidham

Sociology 101 Final Exam Review Guide Soci 101

Marketplace > Towson University > Sociology > Soci 101 > Sociology 101 Final Exam Review Guide
Anna Stidham
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Final Exam Notes for Sociology 101
Intro to Sociology 101
Study Guide
Introduction to Sociology, final study guide
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Anna Stidham on Monday May 9, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Soci 101 at Towson University taught by Tsitos in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see Intro to Sociology 101 in Sociology at Towson University.


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Date Created: 05/09/16
SOCI 101 Spring 2016 Final Exam Review Topics from pre­midterm: Definitions:  Meritocracy­ leadership by the most talented (merit­skill, edu) Dramaturgy­ study of social life as theater Role­ image being projected Audience­people who observe behavior Script­ communication with others Prop­ objects used to present image (technology/jewelry/shoes) Front stage­ where appropriate appearance is maintained and things take place Back stage­ where prep for front is done/ core­self emerges Functionalism­ all social institutions serve the function of maintaining the health of  society Socialization­ process by which one learns how to act according to the rules and  expectations of a particular culture Status­named social position that people can occupy Role­ set of rights, obligations, and behaviors associated with a particular status Structural/individualistic explanations of behavior & life outcomes Individualistic­ focus on people’s personal qualities to explain their behavior Structural­ focus on impact of social forces upon our private lives “Collective effervescence”­experiences of group excitement when an individual  forgets self and becomes immersed in group affiliation Topics from post­midterm: Definitions:  Deviance­ nonconformity to a given set of socially­accepted norms Sanctions­ (re)­action meant to ensure compliance with social norms (+/­) Anomie­ to describe a situation in which traditional social norms have been undermined  and not replaced with new ones (ex technology norms?) Norms­ cultural products (including values, customs, and traditions) which represent  individuals' basic knowledge of what others do and think that they should do.  Sociologists describe norms as informal understandings that govern individuals' behavior  in society Relative vs. Absolute Poverty/Deprivation Answer to “Why do crime rates sometimes increase during times of overall  economic prosperity” emphasizes the importance of relative poverty (inequality)  as opposed to absolute poverty. Stratification­ structured system of ranking entire groups of people that perpetuates  unequal rewards and life chances in society Poverty rate­ Poverty line­ official gov measure that defines those living in poverty in US Absolute poverty­ being below the minimal requirements necessary to sustain a  healthy existence Relative poverty (inequality)­ poverty defined according to the living standards of the majority in any given society Status groups­ (Marxist) share common patterns of consumption/ lifestyles; not same as  economic class Old money vs new­ status boundaries are maintained by exclusive country clubs,  schools, and residential areas Zero sum game­ situation when one place gains same amount as another loses­  equilibrium obtained (part of modern. theory) Culture of poverty theory­ poor are socialized to learn values, beliefs, and lifestyles that are incompatible with upward mobility in the class system (individualistic exp of pov) Feminization of poverty­ an increase in the proportion of the poor who are female.  Growing numbers of women who are single mothers, divorced, or separated Nation­state­ a sovereign state whose citizens or subjects are relatively homogeneous in  factors such as language or common descent.  Co­optation­ to take or assume for one’s own use and neutralize culture (limitation of  institutional strategies of social movements)  Conspicuous consumption­ buying things to show others that you can afford them­  show off; having multiple cars/ buying brand name clothing and newest technology Social vs. corporate welfare Social welfare­ programs that help poor, unemployed, etc.  Corporate welfare­ tax incentives and tax breaks given to corporations Types of capital  Economic­ money Human­ knowledge, training Cultural­ cultural knowledge Social­ refers to the degree to which people in a society are connected (not turned  into economic) Demography­ study of the changing fertility and mortality rates and migration rates  make up the total population composition Population composition­ a snapshot of the demographic population Anecdotal vs. Statistical evidence Anecdotal­ based on personal experience Adv: stories can be emotionally powerful and moving Disadv: stories of one person/group might not be generalizable to the larger  population. Anecdotes used as evidence can be chosen subjectively (influenced by a person’s opinion) and therefore biased Statistical­ based upon numerical data, statistical analyses Adv: data can be collected from a representative sample of a population, thus  making the data generalizable. More likely to be objective, unbiased, and factual Disadv: can be dry, boring, and therefore unconvincing to many especially if data  doesn’t fit one’s personal experience Global inequality: the systematic differences in wealth and power between countries Globalization­ the increased economic, political, and social interconnectedness of the  world Theories of global inequality  Modernization­ suggests that low­income societies develop economically only if  they give up their traditional ways and adopt modern economic instutitions,  technologies, and cultural values that emphasize savings and productive  investment Stages: traditional stage, take off to economic growth, drive to  technological maturity, high mass consumption Dependency theories­ Marxist theories that argue that the poverty of low­income  countries stems directly from their exploitation by wealthy countries and the  multinational corporations that are based in wealthy countries Resource curse­ countries that have a ton of natural resources are the  economically poorest because of the rich places that need resources  Dependent development­ poor countries can still develop economically but only  in ways shaped by their reliance on the wealthier countries Deviance Medicalization of deviance Deviant behavior is redefined as a medical problem that requires treatment.  Focuses on deviant behavior as an individual problem, not a social issue Ex­ student acts out­blames ADD; celebrity breaks the law Labeling theory & deviance Deviance is the consequence of the application of rules and sanctions to an  offender. A deviant is an individual who has been labeled as such. No act is  inherently deviant­ society’s reaction is what labels some acts and some people as deviant.  Merton’s typology of deviance Strain theory­ access to socially acceptable goals plays a part in determining  whether a person conforms or deviates Merton’s 5 reactions to strain: Conformity­ chose not to deviate and purse goals through socially  accepted ways  Innovation­ pursue goals by using deviant means Ritualism­ people lower their goals until they can reach them through  socially acceptable ways (Milton­ office space) Retreatism­ reject and withdraw from society’s goals (beggars) Rebellion­ replace a society’s goals with their own (terrorists) Durkheim on crime Crime helps maintain the health of society by teaching members of society the  moral norms; anomie­ with no clear norms to guide behavior, deviance is more  likely to occur. Marx:  Conflict theory­ an alternative to functionalism; sees society as made up of groups who  must compete for social, political, and material resources such as political power, money, housing, and entertainment Alienation of labor Workers become separated from products of their labor. Work ceases to be a  satisfying personal expression (comparison of assembly line to craftsman) Bourgeoisie/proletariat Marx observed the Industrial Revolution and believed that capitalist society was  becoming divided into two classes: bourgeoisie (owners/rich) and proletariats  (workers/poor). Religion encouraged owners to accept their prosperity as a sign of divine factor Religion as “the opiate of the masses”  Marx believed that religion encouraged the working classes to accept their  suffering in this lifetime in exchange for the reward of the afterlife Changes to the US middle class from 1970­2015 (see “Class” PowerPoint) In at least one sense, the shift represents economic progress: While the share of U.S.  adults living in both upper­ and lower­income households rose alongside the declining  share in the middle from 1971 to 2015, the share in the upper­income tier grew more.  However….Over the same period (1970­2015), the nation’s aggregate household income  shifted from middle­income to upper­income households, driven by the growing size of  the upper­income tier and more rapid gains in income at the top. Fully 49% of U.S.  aggregate income went to upper­income households in 2014, up from 29% in 1970. Weber’s concepts  Power­ ability of individuals or groups to get their way, even when others resist. Can use  force Authority­ power that is seen as rightfully exercised, or legit. Because it’s seen as legit,  people submit voluntarily to authority 3 types of authority Rational/Legal­ Based upon one’s position in an organizational hierarchy or  upon one’s legally­defined abilities Ex­ bureaucratic officials, boss, judge, teacher, principle, coach, president, pope, priest Traditional­ based upon tradition or upon one’s historical connections (including  family ties) to past leaders Ex­ monarchs (king/queen), familial business leaders (trumps daughter),  president, pope, priest  Charismatic­ based upon the exceptional sanctity, heroism, or exemplary  character of an individual person Ex­ Jesus, MLK, Gandhi, Malcom X, Oprah, Bono, Bill Clinton, Tim  Tebow, cult leader, Beyonce “Crisis of succession”­ when a charismatic authority figure dies, the people who  want to succeed that authority figure often point to their own historical ties or  bureaucratic position to argue for their own legitimacy Ex­ Jesus dies and church tries to rationalize new authority; Islam­  Muhammad dies and group splits behind two leaers Social movements:  “Institutional” strategies vs. other strategies Institutional­ lobbyist sent to persuade Congress to vote for a bill or back it in the  next election Non­institutional­ Social movement mostly will hold demonstration, sit­in, march, or tactic that doesn’t involve gov. Some may even be illegal Theories explaining social movement success Resource mobilization theory­ movement’s success depends largely on its  ability to gather and deploy resources (money and people) Political opportunity/process theory­ movement’s success depends largely on  whether or not people in power/positions of authority (specifically in gov) who  are sympathetic to the movement’s cause Framing theory­ success depends on whether a movement is able to frame its  goals in a way to make them appeal to more potential supporters Structural/individualistic explanations for joining movements Individualistic­ emphasize potential joiners’ strength of belief in the cause Structural­ emphasize factors such as whether or not friends of a potential joiner  have already joined­ strong support of this The role of strong vs. weak tie Strong­tie with people= more likely they are to be involved in high­risk activism  like civil rights movement; more likely to stay if they have friends who are too Weak tie­ social media because people hide behind screens and don’t go out and  activate and risk Culture:  Material­ objects or belongings of a group of people (metro passes, cars, stores, music) Non­material­ (consists of ideas, attitudes, and beliefs of a society  Cultural relativism­ practice of assessing a culture by its own standards rather than  viewing it through the lens of one’s own culture Durkheim vs. Marx on popular culture Durkheim­ focus on function of social institutions to create and strengthen social  solidarity; social capital and bowling alone Marx­ pop culture is opiate of masses; come home from work and just  watch tv­ using pop culture to distract yourself from the problems of the  world Bourdieu & cultural capital He researched how cultural capital, or cultural knowledge that serves as a form of  capital that helps one navigate culture Capitalism & popular music Standardized production (assembly line) under capitalism leads to satandarized  product; pop songs are characterized by a core structure with interchangeable  parts that fit into the structure (same country songs); pop music adjusts people to  the limited lives that they lead, reconciling us to our fate by appealing to  sentiment (emotion) Cultural “omnivores” Omnivore­ eats everything; we consume culture. Bourdieu believed upper­class  mainly consumed high culture. Research shows Americans across class  boundaries and consume high and pop culture (Hamiltion) Bryson­ structural exp of taste; education is associated with greater musical  tolerance; Lizardo and Skiles­ Americans are less likely to express dislikes across  most musical genres Alexander chapter 2:  Labeling theory Prison Label­ once a person is labeled a felon, they are ushered into a parallel  universe in which discrimination, stigma, and exclusion is perfectly legal (loss of  voting rights etc) Manifest & latent functions of law enforcement Manifest­ to keep streets safe Latent­ raising money/ cheap labor (TU furniture) Reasons why the prison population of the US has grown so quickly No increase in crime rate Changes in laws­ dramatic length of prison sentences Convictions for drug offenses are the single most important cause of the explosion in incarceration rates Social change by cohort effects vs. changes in individual attitudes Individual attitudes: enough people whose attitudes about an issue change during their  lifetimes, then society’s views might change Cohort effects: members of younger generation have a different attitude about an issue  than older generations, society’s views on the issue will change as older people die­  doesn’t mean any ones ideas actually change Climate change: long term shifts in temperatures due to human activity and particularly the  release of greenhouse gases into the environment Why is it a controversy? Costly regulations that would require expensive operational  upgrades have been a source of great anxiety to much of the business community. As a  rebuttal, lobbyists argue that such regulations would be disastrous for the economy. Some even question the scientific evidence. Who gets to pollute?  The catch­22 of climate change for developing nations 2 possible paths both with significant positives and negatives­  Further development and pollute Stay where they are which would not help their society


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