Vocabulary for the Final
Vocabulary for the Final HIST 1378
Popular in The U.S. Since 1877
Popular in History
This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Julia Taboh on Monday May 9, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to HIST 1378 at University of Houston taught by Professor Matthew Clavin in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 98 views. For similar materials see The U.S. Since 1877 in History at University of Houston.
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Date Created: 05/09/16
Finals Vocab Chapter 28 G.I. Bill (Servicemen’s Readjustment Act of 1944) 16.1 million men fought in WW2 Bill was government issued Was considered one of the federal government’s most successful public service programs Soldiers who served in the war received either free or reduced tuition Schools became much more diverse, ethnically and economically Prior to WWII, only the idle class kids could afford to go to college; after WWII, working class kids could go to school Govt. gave soldiers homes in good neighborhoods Govt. gave veterans business loans, training, etc. Govt. payed for other job training Significance Bill led to a fast growing middle class Govt. played a significant role in the rise of America’s middle class Brown v Board of Education (1954) *Mention Plessy v. Ferguson* 1896: supreme court ruled Jim Crow laws constitutional; separate but equal Estimated less than 1% of black southerners attended school with white children in the early 1950s Black people couldn’t go into restaurants, hotels, vote, or serve on a jury Literacy clause Topeka, Kansas Oliver brown and some neighbors went to court They lived near an affluent white school but attended a crappy black school They lost every case in Kansas, and the Supreme Court accepted the case The court ruled in favor of Brown and neighbors White parents were terrified of their children being in interracial relationships The Supreme Court ruled unanimously in favor of Brown Case outlawed Jim Crow segregation Separate but equal was “inherently unequal”; repealed Plessy v. Ferguson Significance Most southern schools were not fully integrated until the 1989s The federal government switched sides again; it no longer supported white supremacy, segregation, and Jim Crow Helped launch the Civil Rights Movement Gave the go ahead for Civil Rights protestors; the govt. was on their side Confederate flag was seen as a symbol of resistance to the federal govt. and integration Little Rock Arkansas (1957) Central High School was an allwhite school in 1957 Rumors were circulating that nine black kids were going to be enrolled in the school, and white mobs began to form The governor Orval Faubus called in the Arkansas Coast Guard to keep the nine students from entering the school on the first day When school opens, the Little Rock Nine showed up; mobs started cursing at them and spitting on them The students are unable to go in, and have to go home; the whole incident is televised President Eisenhower received a lot of pressure to do something about the situation; he went on TV and told white Arkansas that the school WILL be integrated He sent thousands of armed troops to the south to protect the nine students; he also took control of the Arkansas coast guard and told them to protect the Little Rock Nine By the end of September, the Little Rock Nine were enrolled and allowed to attend classes Significance Showed that the Supreme court could pass laws, but not enforce them President and army were in favor of integration It was the first federal intervention in the south in years Led to greater white resistance Chapter 29 th 16 Street Baptist Church Was the headquarter of the Birmingham Civil Rights struggle Was seen a symbol of progress Sept. 1963: four members of the KKK snuck into the basement of the church and planted timed sticks of dynamite Dynamite exploded at the peak of the service Many people were injured, and four little girls were killed KKK members were arrested and tried, and were found not guilty Activists began to embrace violent resistance Significance Black power movement started to gain inherence; Black empowerment Nation of Islam was formed; its most famous preacher was Malcom X; it was a black supremacist party; believed white people were devils, and believed in self defense Black Panther party was formed in California Many black Americans began to question the nonviolent movement Led to the most significant piece of Civil Rights legislation since the reconstruction Gulf of Tonkin Resolution American advisers made sure that only people who were proAmerica were put in power; the Vietnamese only voted for those who were antiAmerican By the mid1960s, advisors began to disallow antiAmerican candidates from getting to power Lyndon Johnson – “I’m not going to lose Vietnam”; thought south Vietnamese were incapable of ruling themselves Gulf of Tonkin incident American naval ships patrolled the gulf for years August 1964: battleship reported that it was under attack in the gulf Ships fired at small Vietnamese ships that turned out to be fishing boats Reported again that it was under attack; fired at Vietnamese salvaging boat Congress got together and voted to give the president unlimited authority to the protect the U.S. (Forces) using all necessary methods; congress forfeited it war making powers to the president Significance Opened the door to abuse of power Vietnam became a debacle Domestic Political Pressure: congress didn’t want to be labeled as communist Gave the president a blank check to declare war whenever he wanted to 1968 Jan. 31 , 1968: N. Vietnamese attacked S. Vietnam and took over American embassy for 24 – 48 hours [Tet Offensive] My Lai Massacre: U.S. soldiers tried to friend Viet Cong members hiding in My Lai; civilians refused to tell the soldiers where they were, and the soldiers rounded them up and shot them; American helicopter flying overhead witnessed the shooting, and began to fire at any American soldier who continued to shoot at civilians The Orangeburg Massacre: black students protesting segregation of black patrons near a bowling alley were shot by police; three were killed and 27 were injured Many race riots were sparked by Martin Luther King Jr.’s assassination Robert Kennedy was gunned down; was the leading candidate for presidency who wanted to end the Cold War and pull troops out of Vietnam Youth demand antiwar candidate for president; attacked by police Nixon promised law & order; talked about the silent majority [white working class families who children were drafted] Led to the rise of the silent majority Election of 1968: referendum of Johnson’s presidency Significance Most violent year since the reconstruction The New Right; America became more conservative Chapter 30 United Farm Workers Joined the Freedom Movement; led by César Chávez Chávez dropped out of school, went to fight in WWII for American; came back from war and organized Latino workers Protested angst police brutality, use of pesticides, and for better working conditions Formed United Farm Workers – first agricultural labor union 1965 – UFW went on a strike against grapes; boycott spread from California all the way to Texas Chávez went of a food strike and nearly died Before he was assassinated, Robert Kennedy met with Chávez 1970: companies that owned grape fields gave in to the boycotters; a series of agreements were signed and the workers received better pay Significance Latino began to matter in the 1960s Proved that the civil rights tactics of change were effective Hispanicization Watergate Scandal 1968: Ellsberg – worked for the Pentagon Tasked with publishing reports of the success in Vietnam; repeatedly published negative reviews; found out his reports have been altered to give the people false hopes; gave his original articles to the New York Times to be published; became known as the Pentagon papers; his files were stolen from his psychiatrist and leaked to the public to discredit him; people began to wonder how low Nixon would stoop 1972: Reelection year; headquarters if Democratic party in Watergate Hotel; 5 men were arrested for breaking into the headquarters; paper trail showed connections to the White House and paychecks from Committee to ReElect the President(CREEP); Americans were ready to look past the event, but 2 reporters decided to investigate it 1973: many White House workers quit; Congress held televised hearings; revealed Nixon has hidden recording devices, and ordered him to hand them over; Nixon refused on grounds on National Security, and hired a special prosecutor Archibald Cox; Nixon fired Cox when he continuously asked for the tapes, and the same night, the attorney general and deputy general quit; there were calls for his impeachment; Nixon finally turned in the tapes, but there were blanks in the tapes Summer 1974: the first of 3 articles of impeachment were passed; before congress could vote on the other 2, Nixon resigned Significance Wide spread distrust of the government increased; showed that people couldn’t trust the govt. Chapter 31 Hostages (Iran Hostage Crisis) 1950s: America participated in regime change Iranian Shah was despised by the Iranians by the 1970s; he was very liberal and pro American Many in the Middle East equated secularization with antiIslam College students schooled in the west hated the shah because he killed his own people 1979: Hostage Crisis – on November 4 , Iranian college students took the American embassy in Iran hostage, and refused to let people go U.S. couldn’t attack Iran because they would lose their only remaining source of oil, and they couldn’t return the Shah because it showed weakness The hostages were released a few hours after Ronald Reagan won the presidential election of 1981 Significance American moral was at an alltime low The ceisis cost Jimmy Carter a second term as president Reagonomics Launced the Reagan Revolution; supply economics/trickledown theory Any surplus money should go to the elites Reagan cut taxes by 25% for all Americans Deregulation; take the govt. out of business Increased govt. spending on defense; spent trillions of dollars mostly deficit spending; cuts on social secutiry, Medicaid, health cr, and education; slashed fundung for AIDS care, called it a homosexual issue Significance Economic inequality was more prominent, btu the standard of liivig went up Weakth distribution 1980: top 1% owned 10% of the nation’s wealth 2010: top 1% owned 40% The Berlin Wall Was built after WWII to separate East (communist) Berlin and West () Berlin; when East Berliners tried to escape to West Berlin through the wall, they were killed in cold blood; some bodies were kept in the wall to show East Berliners that they couldn’t escape; Reagan clled for the fall of the wall, and the wall was down a few months later Significace Considered a victory for the U.S. and containment; U.S. became the only super power on Earth for 20 years
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