PSC 1 Midterm 3 Study Guide
PSC 1 Midterm 3 Study Guide PSC 1
Popular in General Psychology
Popular in Psychlogy
This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kayla Dillard on Monday May 9, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSC 1 at University of California - Davis taught by Dr. Simonton in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 115 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Psychlogy at University of California - Davis.
Reviews for PSC 1 Midterm 3 Study Guide
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 05/09/16
4/25/16 Psychological Treatments Psychotherapy: any psychological intervention designed to help people resolve emotional, behavioral, or interpersonal problems, with the goal of improving the quality of their lives • ~20% ofAmericans have received psychotherapy at some point in their lives • women, CaucasianAmericans, higher socioeconomic groups, highly educated, people with medical insurance tend to seek help more often People who provide treatment • clinical psychologists • scientist-practitioner model (Ph.D.) • practitioner-scholar model (Psy.D.) Psychiatrists • • medical doctor—can prescribe medicine • Counseling Psychologists • Clinical Social Workers • School Psychologists • Marriage and Family Therapists • Psychiatric Nurses Effective Therapists • little difference in effectiveness between experienced and novice therapists • professionals know how to operate within the system and choose more effective treatments Insight Therapies • aim to cultivate and expand self-awareness and self-knowledge • Psychoanalysis • developed by Sigmund Freud • goal is to decrease guilt and frustrations and to bring aspects of the unconscious to conscious awareness • treatment tends to be lengthy and expensive • six core techniques • free association—client says wha comes to mind • interpretation—therapist forms explanations • dream analysis—dreams reveal unconscious themes • resistance—client avoids what is really going on • transference—client projects feelings onto therapist • working through—helps client gain insight into their problems • Psychodynamic Therapy • focuses more on symptom relief • theoretical approach • issues: • research shows insight is not necessary to relieve distress • little evidence for “repression” or hurtful memories • HumanisticApproach • therapies emphasize development of human potential and the belief that human nature is basically positive • focused on the importance of taking responsibility for our lives and living in the present • person-centered therapy • developed by Carl Rogers • non-directive • therapist must be: • authentic and genuine express unconditional positive regard • • show emphatic understanding • goal is to increase awareness and heightened self-acceptance, moving towards self- actualization • Cognitive-BehavioralApproaches • BehavioralApproach • general principals of learning are applied to the learning of maladaptive as well as adaptive behaviors • focuses on specific problem behaviors and the variables that maintain them—less focused on underlying problems • goal is to change maladaptive behaviors by learning new, desirable ones • Exposure Therapies • clients are confronted with anxiety-provoking situations with the goal of reducing their fear • we can “unlearn our automatic anxiety responses by challenging avoidance strategies • effective for treating specific phobias, panic disorders, agoraphobia, social phobia, and anxieties associated with OCD • Systematic Desensitization • therapist helps client build an anxiety hierarchy and learn relaxation techniques • people cannot be relaxed and anxious at the same time • uses counterconditioning by repeatedly pairing an incompatible relaxation response with anxiety • Flooding • more extreme form of exposure therapy • client experiences extreme exposure to an anxiety-provoking object or situation for prolonged periods (e.g. 1 hour) • Modeling in Therapy • used to build and develop effective coping skills (particularly social skills) • assertion training and behavioral rehearsal • Cognitive-Behavioral Therapies • our beliefs and automatic interpretations about ourselves and the wolf can strongly influence our feelings and behaviors • Cognitive-FocusedApproach • focused on how cognitions and thought patterns maintain • goal is to challenge core beliefs and distorted thoughts • most helpful for depressions and anxiety disorders • Group therapies • individuals with common problems met regularly with a therapist to help themselves and none another • client realizes that he/she is not alone • ex: alcoholics anonymous, family therapies 4/26/16 Psychological Treatments II • Biomedical treatments—attempt to directly alter the brain’s chemistry or physiology to treat psychological disorders • Drug Therapies • psychopharmacotherapy—use of medications to treat psychological problems • today antidepressants are the most commonly prescribed medications among adults • medications do not help patients build active coping skills, so it is best when paired with therapy • for mood disorders: • depressive disorder: • antidepressant medications • cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) • bipolar disorders: • lithium • anti convulsive medications (seizure-reducing) • for anxiety disorders: • adult anxiety disorders: • CBT • short-term relief: • Valium or Xanax (can be addicting) • general relief • SSRIs • specific phobias • systematic desensitization • schizophrenia • medications are essential • thorazine or haldol • many unpleasant side effects • psychological treatments: social skills training • Electroconvulsive Therapy • involves brief electrical pulses to the brain to produce a seizure • used to treat severe problems as a last resort • can result in short-term confusion or memory loss • electromagnetic stimulation • vagus nerve stimulation • transcranial magnetic stimulation deep brain stimulation—used for extreme parkinson’s and other extreme • circumstances • Psychosurgery • brain surgery to treat psychological disorders • prefrontal lobotomy—sever connection between prefrontal cortex and rest of the brain • used as an absolute last resort with severe OCD, depression, and bipolar disorders 4/28/16 Module 3 Human Development • Human development continues throughout the lifetime • special considerations in human development • bidirectional influences • ex: children can effect the environment and the environment can effect children • cohort effects: effects that result from a group of people growing up at a particular time • ex: younger generations text more whereas older generations talk on the phone • early experiences: early experiences effect later development (ex: parenting), humans are resilient—we are influenced throughout our lives • nature vs. nurture—we are influenced by genetics and environment • obstacles to healthy prenatal development • teratogens: environmental factors that can negatively impact prenatal development • alcohol and fetal alcohol syndrome • rubella and birth defects such as deafness • pika virus and microcephaly • Prenatal development • all major organs are established by 9 weeks • brain begins developing at 18 days gestation • proliferation: neurons develop very quickly • more neurons are developed than are needed at infancy and they migrate and form brain structures • Physical development • infancy • born with reflexes that help them survive: sucking reflex (to eat), rooting reflex (touching baby’s face will make it turn towards the touch) infants that are swaddled develop slower • • adolescence • onset of puberty starts around age 12 but range until 18 on average • onset of puberty starts around age 11 and ranges until 14 on average • adulthood • as we age: • decreased muscle tone, increased fat • decline in sensory abilities • reproductive changes • declines in motor coordination • increased age-related diseases • there is great variability in how people age • Cognitive Development: developing mind and brain • occurs in a series of stages and is more continuous • learning occurs through physical experience, social interaction, and biological maturity • Cognitive theorists • Vygotsky: • children learn through social and cultural influences (scaffolding, training wheels— parents provide structure for children to learn new skills) • zone of proximal development—children are ready to use the scaffolding provided by the parent • Piaget: • children are little scientists (learn and discover by interacting with the world around them) and develop in stages, they are not mini adults • conducted research with children in Universities in Switzerland and France • ASSIMILATION: incorporation of new info into current way of thinking about the world • child knows four-legged animal is a dog, sees cow and says “doggy” • ACCOMMODATION: modify the current way of thinking to include new information • new understanding of doggie and cow—dog is at home, cow lives on farm • Sensorimotor (birth-2years): children understand the world around them based on physical interactions • Preoperational (2-7years): children can perform mental operations on objects, they see things only from their point of view • he used the three mountain task to test this (also could be that they just cannot do mental rotation) • Concrete operational (7-11 years): children can perform mental operations, but only for actual physical events Formal operational (11 years to adulthood): children can think abstractly • 5/2/16 Human Development II • Other methods for testing cognitive development • impossible tasks and looking time • high amplitude sucking paradigm (higher rates of sucking indicates alertness) • newer ways: • theory of mind: understanding that not everyone knows all of the same things you know • Cognitive development: • adolescence • prefrontal cortex is responsible for impulse control and it is not fully developed until after teenage years • learn that not all answers are black and white adulthood • • ability to recall people, places, and things begins to decline after age 30 • decrease in processing speed with age • free real ability declines but recognition and cued recall remains intact • accumulated knowledge stays the same or increases with age (older=wiser) Social and Moral Development • temperament: basic social, emotional, and behavioral style that emerges early and appears to be largely influenced by genetics and culture • tends to be stable throughout lifetime • majority of temperaments (American children) fall into 3 categories: • easy 40%, difficult 10%, slow to warm up 15%, none of these 35% • attachment: strong emotional connection we share with those to whom we feel closest • attachment theory • Konrad Lorenz and imprinting • imprinting: some bird species chicks will follow the first moving object near the nest • evolutionary: imprinting contributes to survival • human infants do not imprint • Harry Harlow and infant rhesus monkeys—showed that comfort is really important • MaryAinsworth’s Strange Situation Procedure—child’s reaction to mother during reunions • attachment styles in human infants • secure attachment—child sees mother as secure base because she has been reliable in the past • insecure attachment—child is unsure if mother will provide comfort because she has been inconsistent in the past • insecure avoidant—mother has not been available and child avoids seeking comfort • disorganized—child responds inconsistently • Parenting styles • permissive, authoritative, authoritarian, uninvolved • mothers: exhibit more mutual attention, more affection, more time • fathers: more physical play, preferred playmates • same sex parents: no difference in academic performance or social adjustment • stigma was associated with decreased well-being • single parents: child outcome depends • divorced parents: child outcome depends on severity of parental conflict before the divorce • divorce may be a relief from the arguing • possible difficulty with relationships in the future • Identity development • Erikson’s theory: identity development occurs in 8 distinct stages • • individuals go through stages in order • identity develops throughout the lifetime • gender identity: • sex refers to biological characteristics and gender refers to emotional identity • more than just being only male and only female • cisgender: gender identity is the same as what was assigned at birth • transgender: gender identity, expression, or behavior is different from what you were assigned at birth • gender roles: stereotypical behaviors associated with being male or female • social influences • gender roles are more strictly reinforced for boys than for girls • Morality development • Kohlberg • pre conventional, conventional, postconventional • adult years • careers • midlife crisis and empty nest syndrome 5/3/16 Learning I • Three main types of learning: • non associative: doesn't require linking two stimuli together • habituation: process of responding less strongly over time to repeated stimuli • getting used to something such as squeaking chairs and clock ticking • response to harmless stimuli • sensitization: process of responding more strongly over time to repeated stimuli • response usually to dangerous or irritating stimuli • associative: learning about the relationship between two pieces of information • classical conditioning: • neutral stimulus—does not elicit and automatic response (metronome) • unconditioned stimulus—stimulus that does elicit an unconditioned response (meat powder) • each stimulus was presented together and the dog learns that the metronome signifies the meat powder • conditioned response—trained response/salivating for metronome • extinction—stop pairing the metronome with the meat powder and the associated will go extinct • classical conditioning is used in: • advertisement • taste aversion (not wanting to eat food that made you sick in the past) addiction • • fears and phobias • operant conditioning: learning controlled by the consequences of an organism’s behavior • rewarding a dog for doing something will make it respond that way in the future • can be used to increase or decrease a behavior by adding or removing a stimulus • there is positive reinforcement, positive punishment, negative reinforcement, and negative punishment • differences between classical and operant conditioning: • classical: target behavior is elicited automatically, consequence is provided unconditionally, behavior depends on autonomic nervous system • operant: target behavior is emitted voluntarily, consequence is contingent on behavior, behavior depends on skeletal muscles 5/4/16 Learning I • more on operant conditioning… • variable reinforcement schedule: reinforcement variably instead of every time • shaping: training animals to do exotic tasks (ex: pigeons playing ping pong) • superstitions: (ex: wearing “lucky socks” every time your favorite teams plays because they won when you wore them in the past) • observational: learning by watching others • mirror neurons—same part of brain that is activated when you do an activity is activated when you see it done • biological preparedness: we are biologically prepared to learn to fear things that can harm us • learning fads • sleep assisted learning • accelerated learning • discover learning • learning styles 5/5/16 Memory • hyperthymestic syndrome: the ability to remember almost everything you experienced • savant syndrome: when people with developmental disabilities have genius capabilities incongruent with their mental disabilities (rare) Three memory systems • • sensory memory: information enters via the senses and remains for a brief period before it is moved to short-term memory • auditory: echoic • visual: iconic • short-term memory: • duration: between 5 and 20 seconds without rehearsal • maintenance rehearsal—simply repeating information over and over • not very useful at getting it into long-term memory • elaborative rehearsal—linking stimuli to one another in a meaningful way • visualizing • trying to understand the relations between stimuli • decay: information fades away over time • interference: other info gets in the way • working memory: where we “work” on (process and think about) information • info is either passed to long-term memory or it is lost • digit span: people can retain 7 plus or minus 2 numbers • chunking: grouping info into meaningful groups helps to remember it • primacy and recency effects: people are more likely to remember initial info and recent info more than the info in the middle • long-term memory: • capacity is enormous (as much as 500 encyclopedias 1500 pages each) • information lasts for many years (sometimes permanently) • explicit: things you consciously know • semantic—things we consciously know about the world • Who ran against Obama and Biden in 2012? • episodic—recall of events (episodes) of our lives • What did you do your last birthday? • implicit: things you know but do not deliberately recall • procedural: memory for motor skills and habits • priming (do not need to know in detail) conditioning (do not need to know in detail) • • habituation (do not need to know in detail) • memory processes: • attention: attending to information • rehearsal: processing information • maintenance • elaborative • works because of depth of processing • encoding: getting information into our memory banks • storage: keeping information in memory • retrieval: remembering information when it is needed
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'