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CSU / Psychology / PSY 325 / Is there any hope for someone with chronic accessibility of aggressive

Is there any hope for someone with chronic accessibility of aggressive

Is there any hope for someone with chronic accessibility of aggressive

Description

School: Colorado State University
Department: Psychology
Course: Psychology of Personality
Professor: Karla gingerich
Term: Winter 2016
Tags: PSY325, Psychology, and personality
Cost: 50
Name: PSY 325 Final Exam Study Guide
Description: This study guide covers the last unit of the class, which will account for half of the final questions.
Uploaded: 05/10/2016
9 Pages 26 Views 9 Unlocks
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Study Questions for the Textbook:  Unit 5 Gingerich PSY325 Spring 2016


Is there any hope for someone with chronic accessibility of aggressive or hostile constructs?



Chapter 15

1. “Chronic accessibility” is a very important concept in this chapter and as you might recall,  in a previous chapter (chapter 12).  Explain what it is, and give an example that depicts  what chronic accessibility has to do with personality.  

a. The trait approach has addressed personality processes from the very beginning,  recognizing that people are different from each other precisely because they think,  feel, and desire differently (p. 542)

i. In other words, people with different traits see the world differently ???? these  perceptions affect how they react to the events in their live (which affects  

what they do)

ii. Ex: highly neurotic people tend to feel negative events strongly, which leads  to intense experiences of anger or depression, which leads them to act in  


What is meant by perceptual defense?



ways that just make everything worse  

2. Is there any hope for someone with chronic accessibility of aggressive or hostile  constructs? If you want to learn more check out What is the harmonic series in math?

a. Yes, recognizing the process of traits leading to bad outcomes helps to avoid these  outcomes

b. In the case of neuroticism, people who are mindful (being highly aware of and  attentive to the present) can avoid overreacting to bad events in their lives   3. What is meant by perceptual defense?  How might it be related to shyness? a. Perceptual defense is the flipside of chronic accessibility

b. The perceptual system appears to have the ability to screen out information that  might make the individual anxious or uncomfortable (p. 550)

c. Evidence seems to suggest that the mind has mechanisms to not only selectively  attend to certain stimuli, but also actively screen out other stimuli that could cause  too much anxiety


Why is it useful to be able to shift between long-term and short-term goals?



If you want to learn more check out What values for race and sex tend to increase income?

4. Explain what the research on short-term memory has to do with personality. a. The more rich and complex each (of the limited 7) idea in STM is, the more rich and  complex your thinking can be

b. The limit to STM implies that you can only think about 7 things at a time, but you can  create a  We also discuss several other topics like What is the definition of temperature?

5. Describe the dual-process model of thinking.  

a. Dual-process models contrast the roles of conscious and unconscious thought i. The key difference in these models is that conscious thought is slower

b. A recent personality model contrasts reflective and impulsive determinants of  behavior

i. Reflective determinants are slow and largely rational

ii. Impulsive determinants are fast, almost automatic, and sometimes irrational 6. On page 559, it basically says that what people they say they want doesn’t give us very  much information about what they really want.  “Instead, watch what they do.”  Do you  agree?

a. Goals are the ends that one desires

i. Strategies are the means the individual uses to achieve their goals

Page 2

b. David Shapiro says that people claim to have particular goals but make little or no  moves toward fulfilling them If you want to learn more check out What are the three types of business?
Don't forget about the age old question of What are the organs of the endocrine system?

i. Self-contradictions mean that if we want to know what people want, we  should watch what they do (whether or not they actually execute their  

strategies to achieve their goals)

ii. I agree with this

7. Why is it useful to be able to shift between long-term and short-term goals? a. Keeping your eye on a general, long-term goal can help you to choose wisely and to  organize more specific, short-term goals

i. When goals are well-organized, one can live life smoothly and with clear  purpose

b. If you know general goals, everything you do on a daily basis can be organized to help  reach them (short-term goals on a daily basis)

c. When people don’t have general (long term) goals, they spend their time on activities  that do not serve personally relevant goals; therefore, their life is chaotic and  disorganized—nothing important gets done

d. If the relationship between the two is too one-sided, you may become too inflexible  to accomplish your important short-term goals (if focused on the long term) i. Ex. Focusing on world peace, but forgetting to be nice to your family

ii. We must be able to shift flexibly between the two

8. As you read this, think about your “current concerns” and “personal projects,” and how  these relate to your personality

a. Current concern: an ongoing motivation that persists in the mid until the goal is  either attained or abandoned Don't forget about the age old question of What is hydroxyl?

b. Personal projects: while a current concern in something people think about, personal  projects are what people do

9. What are your “judgment goals” and your “development goals?”  Do you understand how  they might be different?  Are you generally an “entity theorist” or an “incremental  theorist?”  How does this relate to how you explain failures?

a. Judgment goals: judgment refers to seeking to judge or validate an attribute in  oneself; i.e., goal of convincing yourself you are smart, beautiful, or popular b. Development goals: the desire to actually improve oneself; i.e. to become smarter,  more beautiful, or more popular

c. Entity theorists: believe that personal qualities such as intelligence and ability are  unchangeable, leading them to respond helplessly to any indication that they do not  have what it takes

d. Incremental theorists: believe that intelligence and ability can change with time and  experience

i. Their goals, therefore, involve proving their competence AND increasing it 10. What is the McDonald’s script?  Give an example of a script/strategy that is relevant to  personality.

a. The McDonald’s script is based on the idea that if you’re hungry, you go to get a  burger, and from there, you know what to do at McDonald’s, based on an abstraction

Page 3

derived from the usual pattern (and so you follow this script without thinking about  it) (p. 566)

i. This script can be thought of as a strategy—a sequence of activities that  progress toward a goal; in this case, to acquire food

b. Example: the rejection sensitivity: a maladaptive strategy of automatically responding  with fear and hostility to the slightest sign of disinterest from a significant other  person

i. In certain triggering situations of this strategy, the authoritarian personality  responds to the situations involving authority relationships with a style of  behavior that is obsequious to those of higher rank and contemptuous to  those of lower rank

11. Explain this statement from page 569:  “…pessimism has its virtues too.”   a. Cultural values in the U.S. tend to prefer an optimistic personality, but pessimism has  its virtues too

b. An optimistic, self-enhancing style may help motivate individual achievement but  interfere with motional intimacy and interpersonal sensitivity

c. Pessimism may prove more adaptive than optimism in culture that emphasize these  more collectivist values

d. Too much optimism can be dangerous, leading to carelessness and needless risk taking

e. Optimists are generally happier, but this doesn’t mean that pessimists would be  happier if they simply changed their strategy

i. Changing strategies is not necessarily a good idea—pessimists would perform  worse if forced to think optimistically; it deprives them of their usual negative  thinking used to manage anxiety

12. How is emotion a “personality process?”

a. Emotions (from cognitive psychology) can be viewed as procedural knowledge,  similar to skills of riding a bike or singing—which cannot be learned or fully expressed  through words, but only through action and experience

b. An emotion is a set of mental and physical procedures; it is something you do, not  merely a set of concepts or a passive experience, and therefore qualifies as a  personality process

i. Ex. You don’t recognize that everything you’re doing physiologically is part of  the emotion, but all other activities of your body and mind amount to the  emotion (instead of thinking to yourself, “wow, I am angry”)

13. What are the two dimensions of the “emotions circumplex?”

a. The emotions circumplex model assumes that all emotions vary along 2 dimensions,  from aroused to unaroused, and from negative to positive  

i. Thus, “defiant” is both aroused and somewhat negative, while “envious” is  more negative but less aroused

14. Do the percentages of sources of happiness surprise you?  (See Figure 15.6)

Page 4

a. Happiness has 3 components: (1) overall satisfaction with life, (2) satisfaction with  how things are going in particular life domains (e.g., relationships, career), and (3)  generally high levels of positive emotion and low levels of negative emotion b. Sources of happiness:

i. Intentional activity: 40%

ii. Set point: 50%

iii. Circumstances: 10%

iv. I think we like to believe that circumstances will make us most happy, so we  strive for the perfect circumstances to be in; but in reality, this becomes our  intentional activity, which accounts for almost half of our happiness

15. Is there such a thing as too much happiness?

a. June Gruber and colleagues suggest 4 potential dark sides:

i. Happiness that is too intense can lead to a failure to recognize risky situations  or to pouring excessive energy into unproductive pursuits

ii. Happiness that is felt at the wrong time (when things are going badly) can  short-circuit efforts to make things better

iii. Directly “trying to be happy” can be counterproductive, if one then becomes  disappointed that they haven’t become happy enough

iv. There are types of happiness that cause problems for the person or those  around them, such as the hubristic or arrogant kind that might be felt by  

narcissists

1. May feel good now, but then leads to harming of other’s and the  

individual’s eventual downfall in the end

Chapter 16

1. Distinguish between the “I” and the “me.”

a. The “me” is a sort of object, which can be observed and described

b. The “I” is the rather mysterious entity that does the observing and describing 2. What’s the down side to too much self love?

a. It’s not good to let self-esteem get too high

b. If a person fails to recognize the ways that other people dislike or have lost respect  for them, they may risk exploitation or social ostracism

c. People who self-enhance (think they are better than others) can run into problems in  relations with others, mental health, and adjustment

d. Overly-high self-esteem can lead to behavior that is arrogant, abusive, and even  criminal

3. Does your self-view depend on your memories of your previous behaviors? a. A good way to remember something is to think about some specific way that it  relates to one’s self (enhancement of the LTM that comes from thinking of how  information relates to oneself = the self-reference effect)  

b. This effect explains why your most personally meaningful memories stick with you  the longest

Page 5

c. Study in China showed that the self-concept “might include the concepts of the  father and mother in Chinese people, supporting the independent/dependent self concept modeled in Eastern culture”

4. Why is accurate knowledge of the self important related to mental health?  How  accurately do you think you are in your self-knowledge?  Review the RAM model. a. Our opinions about our capabilities set the limits of what we will attempt b. Accurate self-knowledge is a hallmark of mental health for 2 reasons:

i. People who are healthy, secure, and wise enough to see the world as it is  (without need to distort anything) will tend to see themselves more  

accurately too

ii. A person with accurate self-knowledge is in a better position to make good  decisions on important issues ranging from what occupation to pursue, to  whom to marry

1. To choose right things like this requires accurate knowledge of your  

own interests and abilities

c. RAM model: Realistic Accuracy Model—a four stage process used to gain accurate  knowledge of anyone’s personality:

i. Person must do something relevant to the trait being judged

ii. The information must be available to judge

iii. The judge must detect this information

iv. The judge must utilize the information correctly

5. Do you know yourself better than your close acquaintances know you? a. Research indicates that we have better insight into our personal emotional  experience than anyone else does

b. But in a study that obtained personality judgments from both participants and their  close friends, the friends’ judgments more accurately predicted the behavior than did  the self-judgments in nearly every comparison

6. What’s the point of the stories about the heroes?

a. Only observers see these people as heroes; the heroes themselves think “they didn’t  do anything that anyone else wouldn’t do”

i. It’s the people on the outside that see the heroic stuff—its all in the  

perspective

ii. As more time passes, we are likely to realize the significance of our behavior  7. Using the RAM model, how can you learn more about yourself?

a. Can use introspection from RAM to learn more about ourselves

i. Introspection would be included during the 4th stage

ii. The utilization stage emphasizes the importance of accurate memory for and  honest evaluation of your behavior

b. Seeking to be “mindful”—to think about yourself nonevaluatively and to pay close  attention to current experience—can also be helpful

c. The second and third stages refer to the information you may be able to get from  other people about yourself

Page 6

8. What is the procedural self?  How do we acquire this knowledge about ourselves, and how  can we change it?  (And by the way, do you find yourself falling into “the same old well rehearsed childhood routine” when you go home?  Funder talks about this on page 604.     What have you done, if anything, to “oppose old patterns?”)  

a. The procedural self typically takes the form of procedural knowledge

i. Procedural knowledge: consists of ways of doing things—or procedures— which is why it is also called “knowing how”

ii. You are not conscious of the knowledge itself and generally cannot, if asked,  explain it to anyone else very well

1. You learn these skills by doing them and sometimes by watching them  

(98% of the time)

b. Classic example: bike riding

9. What is your opinion about the idea of multiple selves?  (Recall how this relates to  culture.)  Do you have a sense of your “really real self?”  

a. The particular subset of selves that is active in working memory has conscious and  unconscious effects on behavior at any giving moment, depending on where you are  and you you’re with

i. Your experience of yourself may shift from moment to moment

b. The “really real self” is the inner hidden, and unchanging observer, perhaps even the  “soul” and the basis of free will

Chapter 17

1. How long have people been talking about personality disorders?  Diagnosing them?   What’s the DSM-5 debate about, regarding personality disorders?  

a. In the early 1800s, psychiatrist introduced term that meant “madness without  distortion of reality” and since psychiatrists have been trying to treat people with unusual personalities that got them into trouble

b. The DSM 5 debate was that old clinicians had grown comfortable with a  long0established standard list of disorders; the researchers insisting on a  

classification system based on empirical data rather than clinical experience

2. Describe personality disorders in general, to someone who doesn’t know what they are.   Do people who have them suffer?  Do they always involve social problems?  Are symptoms  of PDs stable?  Do people who have them know they have a problem?

a. Two defining features of PDs:

i. A person exhibits an unusually extreme degree of one or more attributes of  personality

ii. The associated extreme behavioral pattern causes major problems for the  person or for others

b. 3 other characteristics of PDs:

i. PDs are social; they manifest in interactions with other people

ii. They are (by the usual definition) stable—usually become visible in  

adolescence or even childhood and persist throughout life

Page 7

iii. Personality disorders can be ego-syntonic, which means the people who have  them do not think anything is wrong

3. How do you think schizotypal PD and schizophrenia might be distinguished?   a. Schizotypal: wears odd and unkempt clothing, espouse unique ideologies, experience  discomfort in relating to other people, have particular difficulty in close relationships i. When these patterns become extreme, they may be characterized as having  schizotypal personality disorder

ii. If it gets too extreme, it approaches schizophrenia—which is distinguished by  its hallucinations

4. Which disorder did Henry Murray describe in Hitler?

a. He describes Hitler as a textbook case of narcissistic personality disorder 5. How is antisocial PD different than psychopathy?

a. Antisocial personality disorder: when deceit and manipulation become core aspects  of an individual’s way of dealing with the world

i. Vandalism, harassment, theft, and a wide variety of illegal activities

b. Psychopaths are emotionally cold, they disregard social norms, and they are  manipulative and often cunning

i. Most psychopaths meet the criteria for Antisocial PD, but the reverse is not  true

6. Describe borderline PD.  Why is self-harm, including cutting, common in this disorder?   What is splitting?

a. Some are less consistent than usual people, and have thoughts, emotions, and  behaviors that are in flux and unpredictable even to them

i. On the “borderline” of severe psychopathology

ii. It’s hallmark is emotional instability

b. The reasons for self-harm are unclear; possibilities include:

i. Feeling guilty and are punishing themselves

ii. They are so emotionally disconnected that they must hurt themselves to feel  alive

iii. They have “emotional cascades” which are “vicious cycles of intense  rumination and negative affect” that lead to extreme suffering (p. 626)

c. Splitting: the tendency to view other people as either all good or all bad 7. How is OCPD different than simple conscientiousness?  How does it differ from obsessive compulsive disorder?

a. People with OCPD are bound by rituals and rules, may become “workaholics” who  work for work’s sake, rather than to get anything done, and are often miserly and  stubborn

b. OCD is a severe anxiety disorder characterized by compulsive behaviors i. OCPD is different because it generally does not include such specific  

compulsions, but it can be more far=reaching because it may affect all areas  of a person’s life

8. Explain “the Bad Five.”

Page 8

a. Organizes personality disorders in terms of 5 major domains of traits that are more  than reminiscent of the Big Five:

i. Negative affectivity: a tendency to feel negative emotions such as anxiety,  depression, and suspicion

ii. Detachment: a tendency to withdraw from and to avoid emotional contacts  with other people

iii. Antagonism: including deceitfulness, grandiosity, callousness, and  

manipulativeness; includes some hallmarks of narcissism

iv. Disinhibition: characterized by carelessness and impulsive behavior (the  opposite of this trait, compulsivity, involves a rigid overcontrol and  

perfectionism that can be almost equally maladaptive)

v. Psychoticism: a tendency to have bizarre thoughts or experiences, and to  exhibit eccentric behavior

9. Do you agree that labels are “absolutely necessary?”  (page 635)  Describe the debate. a. Labels can be useful if someone demonstrates one or more of the characteristics of a  personality disorder

b. Funder says there is simply no escaping labels

i. When a psychiatrist records impressions of a patient, they must write  something, so the more precise the labels, the better

10. Who would probably know better how long you will live, you or your friends?  a. Your friends will know how long you will live, to some extent

b. The friends’ ratings predicted longevity better than self-ratings did

11. How might personality and physical health be related?

a. Personality traits have been related to cortisol levels, indicators of immune function,  and vagal tone (parasympathetic nervous system)

b. The connections between these traits and actual health outcomes are less clear c. 2 pathways between personality and health:

i. Biological: a personality trait may predispose an individual to certain physical  reactions that have short or long-term consequences

ii. Behavioral: a personality trait may predispose an individual to certain  behaviors that have health consequences

1. Ex. Conscientious person may avoid smoking or driving dangerously???? may live longer because of these behaviors

12. Why did research on the Type A personality “drop off precipitously?”  And why did the  tobacco industry try to keep the Type A personality type alive?  

a. There is little evidence that a behavioral style aimed at striving to achieve is  associated with health risk; the reverse is seen to be true

b. Studies didn’t seem to be holding that Type A and heart disease were very strongly  related by the 1990s

c. Tobacco Industry considered it a crown jewel of their efforts to convince people that  smoking isn’t bad for you

13. Funder summarizes the research by saying, “Overall, the relationship between  emotionality and health is complicated.”  Explain.

Page 9

a. Some aspects of negative emotion probably just exacerbate feelings that are bad  already; other aspects can serve as a warning that motivates a person to change her  behavior or avoid risks

b. Claims that a better attitude can improve health are false and sometimes dangerous,  because they sometimes come close to blaming victims of disease for their fate; they  would be happier if they simply cheered up

c. The extent that positive emotions have an effect on health is unknown, and the  pathways between emotions and health remain open for exploration

14. What’s the relationship between conscientiousness and personality?

a. Conscientiousness is good for you

b. People low in that trait exhibited low persistence, poor self-control, and a lack of  long-term planning to do things to protect their health

15. What do you think of the list of indicators of six indicators of health?  Would you add  anything?  

a. The 6 indicators are:

i. Having the ability to do the things one wants to do

ii. Feeling good

iii. Having supportive social relationships and being able to support others iv. Being productive and getting things done

v. Having good memory capacity and being able to make good decisions

vi. Staying alive

Epilogue

1. A point Funder has been making throughout the text is that each approach answers a  different question about personality.  Which question has been most interesting to you? 2. Look at the topic headings in the Epilogue, and see if you can predict what the summary  statements are.  You’ve learned a lot this semester!

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