Final Exam Study Guide
Final Exam Study Guide 21001
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This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Hannah Kennedy on Tuesday May 10, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 21001 at Kent State University taught by Devon M. Hawkins in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 67 views. For similar materials see Intro to Ethics in PHIL-Philosophy at Kent State University.
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Date Created: 05/10/16
Kennedy 1 Ethics Final Review 1. Metaethics—Lindemann a. What is Lindemann’s definition of feminism? b. What is gender to Lindemann? c. Where does power fit in for Lindemann? d. Describe why feminist ethics is both prescriptive and descriptive e. State and describe the two central commitments of feminist ethics f. Explain if feminist ethics is easily separated from feminist politics and why Quote Translation “If feminism is about gender, and gender is the name for a social system that distributes power unequally between men and women, then you’d expect feminist ethicist to try to understand, criticize, and correct how gender operates within our moral beliefs and practices” “Feminist ethics is normative as well as descriptive. It’s fundamentally about how things ought to be, while description plays a crucial but secondary role in helping us figure that out.” 2. Metaethics—Hume a. Define phenomenalism b. Define sentimentalism c. Give the different kinds or perceptions and the definition of each Kennedy 2 d. Describe and define impressions and ideas e. Explain why morality is not derived from reason (aka why we can’t get an “ought” from an “is”) f. Contrast philosophy’s two parts g. Based on Hume’s proof, describe why reason alone cannot influence action h. Describe Hume’s Fork and the two kinds of human understanding i. State Hume’s account of morality and what he states we derive morality from Quote Translation “If morality had naturally no influence…the rules of morality, therefore are not conclusions of our reason” “so that when you pronounce any…you have a feeling or sentiment of blame from the contemplation of it” 3. Metaethics—Mackie a. What is moral skepticism? b. State the argument from relativity/disagreement and state the counterarguments as well as Mackie’s responses to them Kennedy 3 c. State the argument from queerness and state the counterarguments as well as Mackie’s responses to them d. State why we still believe there are objective values Quote Translation “disagreement about moral codes seems to reflect…way of life because they approve of monogamy” “this has two parts…utterly different from our ordinary ways of knowing everything else.” “The fact that the word “good” serves as one of our main moral terms is a trace of this pattern of objectification.” 4. Metaethics—Gensler a. Define relativism b. State Ima’s three characteristics of relativism and give Gensler’s responses to them c. State the objections to relativism d. Describe the subjectivist fallacy Quote Translation “the objective view says that some things…still could accept much relativity in other areas” “Respecting a range of cultural difference…is Kennedy 4 socially approved must thereby be good” 5. Metaethics—Enoch a. Describe the 3 objectivity tests b. Give the definition of objectivity c. State the 3 objections to objectivity Quote Translation “Objective facts are those we seek to discover, not those we make true. And…when it comes to moral truths, we are in a position…or the scientist… than that of the legislator (who creates laws) “If moral disagreement undermines the objectivity of moral conclusions…perhaps it’s possible to do so. But it’s not going to be easy” “So it seems as if the only way of accommodating the importance of toleration is actually to accept morality’s objectivity, not to reject it” “Nothing here, then, is simple. Until we get such a conclusive argument against moral objectivity, then, objectivism should be the view to beat” 6. Metaethics—King, Jr. a. Describe the 4 steps in a nonviolent campaign b. Describe the goal of nonviolent direct actions c. Describe the importance and role of character (aka why is King a virtue ethicist) d. Give examples of virtue ethics like virtues of love and vices of hate Kennedy 5 e. Give examples of universal values f. Explain King’s thoughts on extremism and moderation g. Describe just and unjust laws h. Describe the difference made legal vs. sameness made legal Quote Translation “This ‘Wait’ has almost always meant ‘Never’. We must come to see, with one of distinguished jurists that ‘justice too long delayed is justice denied’” “One who breaks an unjust law…is in reality expressing the highest respect for the law “Such an attitude stems from a tragic misconception of time, from the strangely irrational notion…that will inevitably cure all ill” “Human progress never rolls in on wheels of inevitability; the time is always ripe to do right” “T.S.Eliot has said: ‘The last temptation is the greatest treason: To do the right deed for the wrong reason.” 7. Value Theory—Epicurus a. Define hedonism and describe whether it is prescriptive or descriptive b. Define and describe the importance of happiness c. Explain the difference between pleasure and pain Kennedy 6 d. Describe moderation and catharsis e. State the proof that we should not fear death 8. Value Theory—Mill a. Define utilitarianism b. State the Greatest Happiness Principle c. Define Consequentialism d. Describe the difference between happiness and pleasure e. Describe utilitarian and felicific calculus f. Explain the hierarchy of pleasures, how its established, and who is qualified to judge g. Explain the difference between higher and lower pleasures and give examples h. Explain why we might not seek or favor higher pleasures 9. Value Theory—Nozick a. Explain what the Experience Machine is and what it does b. State the reasons why we shouldn’t plug into the experience machine Kennedy 7 c. Describe the moral of the thought experiment d. Explain what Nozick thinks about the thought experiment 10. Value Theory—Heathwood a. Give Heathwood’s definition of welfare b. Explain the difference between welfare and morality c. Describe and state the difference between subjective and objective theories of welfare d. What is the desire theory of welfare and what qualifications does Heathwood offer? e. Give the objections to a subjectivist theory of welfare and state Heathwood’s responses 11. Value Theory—Kazez a. State the necessities for a good life b. Is there a “surefire” way to determine necessities? Explain. c. How does Kazez suggest we determine necessities? d. Does happiness matter? Where does it come from? 12. Value Theory—Plato a. Describe the Socratic dialectic Kennedy 8 b. Describe what a definition is c. State the divine command theory d. Give the definition of piety that Euthyphro offers and state how Socrates responds to each 13. Normative Ethics—Foot a. Define natural goodness and secondary goodness b. State the 2 important disclaimers about natural goodness c. Explain how we assess natural goodness d. Describe the Aristotelian categorical. What requirements does it have and how does it fit into assessing natural goodness for humans? e. What does Foot think about happiness as the soul end in life? 14. Normative Ethics—Smart a. Give smart’s definition of utilitarianism b. Define and describe extreme/act utilitarianism Kennedy 9 c. Define and describe restricted/rule utilitarianism d. Explain the difference between particular actions vs. classes of actions e. Explain the difference between one supreme moral principle vs. multiple moral principles f. What are rules of thumb? g. When might extreme utilitarians use rules of thumb? h. When might restricted utilitarians not use smaller moral rules i. Which kind of utilitarianism does Smart prefer and why? j. Give the Hitler example and its implications k. Describe the difference between the utility of an action vs. the utility of praising or condemning an action l. According to Smart, should everyone be an extreme utilitarian? 15. Normative Ethics—Kant a. Define deontology b. What makes us equal according to Kant? c. What is the only intrinsically valuable thing according to Kant? d. Why is a good will “good”? What makes it good? Kennedy 10 e. How do we measure goodness of the will? f. Describe actions contrary to duty, actions in accordance to duty, and action from duty g. State the categorical imperative h. State the universal law formulation of the CI i. State the endinitself formulation of the CI 16. Normative Ethics—Hobbes a. Define ethical egoism b. Define state of nature and give its characteristics c. Define state of war and give its characteristics d. What do we fight for in the state of nature/war? e. Define the law of nature and give the first four laws f. Define the right of nature Kennedy 11 g. Define the social contract and what it requires h. Define covenant and how it is enacted i. Explain why only a food would break the social contract j. What is Hobbes’ definition of justice k. Explain how the social contract relates to morality 17. Normative Ethics—Ross a. Define pluralism b. Distinguish between prime facie duties vs. duties proper c. Explain how we learn what our prime facie duties are d. Do we ever know for sure that our actions are right, even when guided by prime facie duties? e. Give the list of prime facie duties 18. Normative Ethics—Aristotle a. What are the genus and differentia of moral virtue? b. Explain how we become virtuous Kennedy 12 c. Explain what we must do to act virtuously d. Explain why virtuous actions are difficult e. Do all actions admit of a mean? f. Will the mean always be halfway between excess and defect? g. Explain why virtue is both a mean and an excess
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