PSY 438 CH 16 Study Guide
PSY 438 CH 16 Study Guide 438
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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by Benny Ye on Tuesday May 10, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 438 at University at Buffalo taught by Joyce Lacy in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see Sport Psychology in Psychlogy at University at Buffalo.
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Date Created: 05/10/16
Chapter 16 Concentration Definition: mental effort placed on sensory or evaluation, basically whatever that’s important in a given situation 4 components 1. Focus on relevant cues in the surroundings a. Using selective attention ( attend to some cues and disregard others ) b. External focus produces better performance than internal focus 2. Maintaining attentional focus a. Gets harder as time goes on, ability to regain concentration after distracted 3. Maintaining situational awareness a. Ability to size up the situation (attending to opponent’s technique, movement, ball flight patterns) 4. Shift of attentional field a. As environment changes, attention also changes Associative Info Processing Dissociative Info Processing Monitoring body functions and feelings Monitoring the psyche by trying to distract (tension in muscles, heart rate, breath) oneself Associative used during competition Dissociative used during practice Dissociative known to decrease fatigue 3 processes of Attentional Focus 1. Attentional selectivity: some info screened out, other info enters in [ analogous to a flashlight ] a. Distractions make it harder let info in b. Attentional focus (AF) should not be too narrow or too wide 2. Attentional capacity: only a fixed amount of info can be processed in a moment a. Controlled: mental effort an consciousness in doing a task b. Automatic: does not require attention, automatic doing 3. Attentional Alertness: increases in emotional arousal narrows (AF) and vice versa 3 types of attentional focus are board, narrow and internal Common internal attentional problems Attending to the past mistakes Attending to the future Choking under pressure o Making a mistake and as a result unable to recuperate back to optimal performance. Person focuses too much on body mechanics Conscious processing : more scientific research backing that athletes may focus too much on a task, that could have been automatically done Attentional threshold : pressure and their attention to task over exhausts athlete’s capacity to concentrate Too focused on irrelevant cues Fatigue (mental or somatic) External attentional problems Visual distractions Auditory distractions Self-talk can enhance concentration because when an appropriate amount is applied, then it can motivate one to be persistence, fix bad habits/routines, and give more effort. Serves as a mediator between the event and the emotional response. Components of self talk Positive o “ You can do this”, “ Do not mind the audience “, “ I need to calm down” Negative o “ I am doing this wrong, “I am too tired and weak” Neutral o “ What time does my mom get home from work?” Nature of self-talk content Structure [ e.g. single words, famous quotes] st nd Perspective [ 1 person uses “ I “ and 2 person uses “ you, me “ Task instruction [ specific or general] Self Talk serves two major functions Cognitive Motivational Skill development, skill execution Self confidence, readiness, coping, regulation of arousal Ironic Process Theory says focus on what to do instead of what not to do, because thinking of not messing up causes a mistake, but not always true. Supportive coaching produce more positive self talk than negative while punishing coaching produces the opposite Techniques for improving self-talk 1. Thought stopping: let undesirable thoughts come up briefly, then try to clear the mind of them using cue or triggers a. Identify negative thoughts b. Stop the thoughts in their track c. Refocus on relevant thoughts pertaining to situation 2. Changing negative self talk to positive takes practice, but it redirects focus to provide motivation a. Write down negative thoughts b. Substitute the phrase in a positive light c. Follow the steps of thought stopping 3. Combining self talk with self feedback a. Enhances concentration, performance, and involvement b. Self feedback tells them what to improve on c. Become your own coach, Improving concentration anytime, anywhere Train with the distractions, stimulating real competition Using motivational and instructional cues or words, keep them short and sweet Non judgmental thinking Establishing consistency by implementing daily routines Develop more than one plan, prepare for worst case scenario Overlearn and master a skill to make it automatic
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