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Anatomy and Physiology

by: Meaghan Raw

Anatomy and Physiology BIOH 113 - 01

Marketplace > University of Montana > BIOH 113 - 01 > Anatomy and Physiology
Meaghan Raw
GPA 3.0

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Human Form and Function II
Heather Dawn Labbe (P)
Study Guide
anatomy, Physiology, form, and, function
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This 13 page Study Guide was uploaded by Meaghan Raw on Tuesday May 10, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIOH 113 - 01 at University of Montana taught by Heather Dawn Labbe (P) in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 59 views.


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Date Created: 05/10/16
BIOH 113 Chapter 22: The Respiratory System - The respiratory system acts with the cardiovascular system to bring oxygen to the body and removes carbon dioxide from the body Major Functions: - To supply the body with oxygen and dispose of carbon dioxide - Respiration: o Pulmonary ventilation- air moving into and out of the lungs o External respiration- gas exchange between the lungs and blood o Transport- transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the lungs and tissues o Internal respiration- gas exchange between systemic blood vessels and tissues Classification: - Structural o Upper respiratory o Lower respiratory - Functional o Conducting zone o Respiratory zone Structures: - Upper respiratory o All structures above the vocal chords o Mouth, nose, nasal cavity, pharynx, and larynx - Lower respiratory o Trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, lungs Functions: - Respiratory zone o Site of gas exchange o Consists of bronchioles, alveolar ducts, and alveoli - Conducting zone o Provides rigid conduits for air to reach the sites of gas exchange o Includes the nose, nasal cavity, pharynx, and the trachea Important transitions within the airways as they get smaller: - Cartilage support structures change - Epithelium types change - Amount of smooth muscle increases Nose and Nasal Cavity: Nose: - The only externally visible part of the respiratory system - Functions: o Provides an airway for respiration o Moistens and warms entering air o Filters air clearing it of debris o Houses olfactory receptors Nasal Cavity: - Lies in and posterior to the externa nose - Divided by a midline septum - Opens posteriorly into the nasopharynx via internal nares - Cranial bones form the roof - The floor is composed of hard and soft palates - Superior, medial, and inferior conchae o Protrude medially from lateral walls o Increase mucosal area o Enhance air turbulence and help to filter air - Respiratory mucosa: o Lines balance of the nasal cavity o Glands secrete mucus containing lysozyme and defensins to help destroy bacteria - Inspired air: o Humidified by the high water content in the nasal cavity o Warmed by rich plexuses of capillaries Paranasal Sinuses: - Sinuses in bones that surround the nasal cavity - Sinuses lighten the skull and help to warm and moisten the air Pharynx: - Funnel shaped tube of skeletal muscle that connects to the: o Nasal cavity and mouth superiorly o Larynx and esophagus inferiorly - Divided into three regions: o Nasopharynx o Oropharynx o Laryngopharynx Nasopharynx: - Lies posterior to the nasal cavity, inferior to the sphenoid, and superior to the level of the soft palate - Strictly an air passageway - Pseudostratified columnar epithelium - Closes during swallowing - Pharyngeal tonsils lie high on the posterior wall - Pharyngotympanic (auditory) tubes open into the lateral walls Oropharynx: - Extends inferiorly from the level of the soft palate to the epiglottis - Serves as a common passageway for food and air - Stratified squamous epithelium - Palatine tonsils lie in the lateral walls - Lingual tonsil covers the base of the tongue Laryngopharynx: - Serves as a common passageway for food and air - Lies posterior to the upright epiglottis - Extends to the larynx, where respiratory and digestive pathways diverge - Stratified squamous epithelium Larynx: - Voice box - Attaches to the hyoid bone and pens into the laryngopharynx superiorly - Continuous with the trachea posteriorly - Three functions: o Provide a patent airway o Act as a switching mechanism to route air and food into the proper channels o Functions in voice production Structure and Function: - 9 cartilage types - Vestibular folds- play no part in the voice; help to close the glottis - Vocal folds- vibrate as air goes by Vocal Production: - Speech: intermittent release of expired air while opening and closing the glottis - Pitch: determined by the length and tension of the vocal chords - Loudness: depends on the force at which the air rushes across the vocal chords - The pharynx resonates, amplifies, and enhances sound quality - Sound is shaped into language by the action of the pharynx, tongue, soft palate, and lips Trachea: - Flexible and mobile tube extending from the larynx into the mediastinum - Composed of three layers o Mucosa- made up of goblet cells and ciliated epithelium o Submucosa- connective tissue deep to the mucosa o Adventitia- outermost layer made of C-shaped rings of hyaline cartilage Bronchi: - The carina of the last tracheal cartilage marks the end f the trachea and the beginning of the right and left bronchi - Air reaching the bronchi is saturated with water vapor and warm and cleansed - Bronchi sub divide into secondary bronchi with each supplying a lobe of the lung - There are 23 orders of branching in the lungs Bronchial Tree: - Tissue walls mimic that of the trachea - Bronchioles: o Consist of simple cuboidal and simple columnar epithelium o Complete layer of circular smooth muscle o Lack cartilage support and mucus producing cells o Last structure of the conducting zone is the terminal bronchiole Respiratory Zone: - Defined by the presence of alveoli - Begins as terminal bronchioles - Respiratory bronchioles lead to alveolar ducts then to terminal clusters of alveolar sacs composed of alveoli o Alveoli:  Provide surface area for gas exchange  Make up most of the lungs volume  Approximately 300 million of them Respiratory Membrane: - Air blood barrier o Alveolar and capillary walls - Alveolar Walls o Single layer of type one epithelial cells o Permit gas exchange by simple diffusion o Secrete angiotensin converting enzyme o Type 2 secretes surfactant - Alveoli o Type one squamous pneumonocytes  Make up the walls of alveoli  Together with the capillaries make up the blood air barrier o Type two granular pneumonocytes  Secrete surfactant  Reduce surface tension o Surrounded by fine elastic fibers o Contain open pores that:  Connect adjacent alveoli  Allow air pressure throughout the lung to be equalized o House macrophages that keep alveolar surfaces sterile Lungs: Anatomy: - Lungs occupy all of the thoracic cavity except the mediastinum - Root- site of vascular and bronchial attachments - Costal surface- anterior, lateral, and posterior surfaces in contact with the ribs - Apex- narrow superior tip - Base- inferior surface that rests on the diaphragm - Hilus- indentation that contains pulmonary and systemic blood vessels - Cardiac notch- cavity that accommodates that heart - Left lung- separated into upper and lower lobes by the oblique fissure - Right lung- separated into three lobes by the oblique and horizontal fissures Blood Supply: - Lungs are perfused by two circulations o Pulmonary o Bronchial - Pulmonary arteries o Supply the blood to by oxygenated o Branch profusely o Feed into capillary network surrounding alveoli - Pulmonary veins o Carry oxygenated blood from the respiratory zones to the heart Pleurae: - Thin double layered serosa - Parietal pleura: o Cover the thoracic wall and the superior face of the diaphragm o Continues around the heart and between the lungs - Visceral pleura: o Covers externa lung surface o Divides the thoracic cavity into three chambers  A central mediastinum  Two lateral compartments each containing a lung - Functions: o Produces a serous fluid which has two major roles  Reducing friction between the cavity wall and the organ  Creates surface which keeps the lungs inflated Pulmonary Ventilation: - A mechanical process that depends on volume changes in the thoracic cavity - Volume changes lead to pressure changes which lead to the flow of gases to equalize pressure Breathing: - Consists of two phases: o Inspiration- air flows into the lungs o Expiration- gases exit the lungs Inspiration: - The diaphragm and external intercostal muscles contract and rib cage rises - Intrapulmonary volume increases - Intrapulmonary pressure drops below atmospheric pressure - Air flows into the lungs and down its pressure gradient until intrapulmonary pressure = atmospheric pressure Expiration: - Inspiratory muscles relax and the rib cage descends passively - Thoracic cavity volume decreases - Elastic lungs recoil passively and intrapulmonary volume drops - Gases flow out of the lungs down the pressure gradient until intrapulmonary pressure is equal to atmospheric pressure Factors Affecting Ventilation: - Airway resistance - Alveolar surface tension - Lung compliance Respiratory Volumes: - Tidal volume o Air that moves into and out of the lungs with each breath - Inspiratory reserve volume o Air that can be inspired forcibly beyond tidal volume - Expiratory volume o Air that can be evacuated from the lungs after a tidal expiration - Residual volume o Air left in the lungs after strenuous expiration Respiratory Capacity: - Inspiratory o Total amount of air that can be inspired after a tidal expiration - Functional Residual o Amount of air that remains in the lungs after a tidal expiration - Vital o The total amount of exchangeable air - Total lung o Sum of all the lung volumes Dead Space: Anatomical: - Volume of conducting respiratory passageways Alveolar: - Alveoli that cease to act in gas exchange due to collapse or obstruction Total: - Sum of anatomical and alveolar dead spaces Respiration: External: - Factors influencing the movement of oxygen and carbon dioxide across the respiratory membrane o Partial pressure gradients and gas solubility o Matching of alveolar ventilation and pulmonary blood perfusion o Structural characteristics of the respiratory membrane Internal: - The factors promoting gas exchange between the systemic capillaries and tissue cells are the same as those acting in the lungs o Partial pressure and diffusion gradients are reversed Anatomy and Physiology 113 Chapter 23: The Digestive System - The alimentary canal is also known as the gastrointestinal tract (GI Tract) - It has accessory organs - Functions: ingestion, secretion, digestion (chemical and mechanical), mixing and propulsion, absorption, and defecation Composition: - Alimentary Canal: extends from the mouth to the anus through the ventral body cavity - Accessory Organs: teeth, tongue, salivary glands, liver, gallbladder, and pancreas Metabolic Processes: - Catabolism: large molecules are broken into small molecules (In the GI tract it is called digestion) - Anabolism: small molecules are used as building blocks for large molecules (liver) Digestion: - Mechanical: all movements that facilitate catabolic processes (mastication, swallowing, mixing) - Chemical: water is used to break down chemical bonds (fats go to fatty acids and glycerol; carbs go to polysaccharides into monosaccharides; proteins go to polypeptides and amino acids) Anatomy of the GI Tract: - 4 layers: Mucosa, submucosa, muscularis, and serosa/adventitia Mucosa: - Mucus membrane made of various types of epithelium sitting on a loose CT called lamina propria o The oral cavity and the anus are non-keratinized stratified squamous o Stomach and the intestines are simple columnar - Lamina propria: a prominent lymphoid tissue that protects against disease - Muscularis mucosae: lies beneath lamina propria and is a thin layer of smooth muscle that throws the lining of the stomach and small intestines into tiny folds which increase surface area Submucosa: - Composed of loose CT that binds the mucosa to the muscularis - Contains blood and lymphatic vessels and an extensive network of neuron known as the submucosal plexus Serosa/Adventitia: - Outermost layer - If attached to surrounding tissues, it is called the adventitia - If it is contained in the peritoneal cavity it is called the serosa o Adventitia is a fibrous CT arranged around the organ it supports o Serosa: has a slippery mesothelium surface layer and it covers the intra-abdominal organs as the visceral peritoneum Digestive System Anatomy: - Peritoneum o Serous membrane of abdominal cavity  Visceral which covers the external surface of most digestive organs  Serosa of alimentary canal  Covers other intra-abdominal organs  Parietal which lines the cavity wall o Largest serous membrane o Wraps around most abdominopelvic organs o Continues around as the parietal peritoneum o There are 5 peritoneal folds  Greater omentum  Flaciform ligament  Lesser omentum  Mesentery- double layer that provides vascular and nerve supplies to the viscera am dos a means to hold digestive organs in place and store fat  Mesocolon o These are large folds that bind things together - Peritoneal Cavity o Lubricates digestive organs and allows them to slide across one another Blood Supply: - Arteries and organs they serve: o hepatic, splenic, left gastric = spleen, liver, and stomach o Inferior and Mesenteric = small and large intestine - Hepatic portal Circulation: o Collects nutrient rich venous blood from digestive viscera and delivers this blood to the liver for metabolic processing and storage GI Tract Beginning to End: - Mouth: o Oral or buccal cavity o Lined with stratified squamous epithelium o Contains the tongue, hard palate, and dorsum of the tongue which are slightly keratinized - Palate: o Hard palate which assists the tongue in chewing o Soft palate which is a mobile fold that is formed mostly of skeletal muscle - Tongue: o Intrinsic muscles change its shape o Extrinsic muscles alter position o Lingual frenulum secures the tongue to the mouth floor o Functions include:  Gripping and repositioning food  Mixing food with saliva and forming bolus  Initiation of swallowing and of speech - Salivary Glands and Saliva o Salivary Glands  Produce and secrete saliva that  Cleanses the mouth  Moistens and dissolves food chemicals  Aids in bolus formation  Contains enzymes that break down starch  Extrinsic Glands:  Three pairs o Parotid o Submandibular o Sublingual  Intrinsic Glands  Buccal and labial  Scattered throughout the oral mucosa o Saliva  Source and Composition  Secreted from the serous and mucous cells of salivary glands  97-99.5% water  It is hypo-osmotic and slightly acidic - Teeth o Primary and permanent dentitions have formed by the age of 21 o 20 deciduous teeth and 32 total teeth by adulthood at 21 o Teeth are classified by shape and function o Dental Formula: 2I 1C 2PM 3M 2I 1C 2PM 3M X2 32 total teeth - Pharynx o From the mouth to the oro- and laryngopharynx allows for the passage of  Food and fluids to the esophagus  Air to the trachea o Lined with stratified squamous and mucous glands - Esophagus o Muscular tube going from the laryngopharynx to the stomach o Travels through the mediastinum and pierces the diaphragm o Joins the stomach at the cardiac orifice - Deglutition o Swallowing o Involves coordinated activity of the tongue and the soft palate o Buccal phase is where bolus is forced into the oropharynx o Pharyngeal- esophageal phase is controlled by the medulla and the lower pons o Peristalsis moves food through the pharynx to the esophagus - Stomach o Chemical breakdown of proteins begins and food is converted to chime o Structure  Greater curvature: entire extent of the convex lateral surface  Lesser curvature: concave medial surface  Lesser omentum: runs from the liver to the lesser curvature  Greater omentum: drapes inferiorly from the greater curvature to the small intestine o Anatomy  Muscularis has an additional oblique layer that  Allows the stomach to churn mix and pummel food physically  Breaks down food into smaller fragments  Epithelial lining is composed of goblet cells that produce a coat of alkaline mucus  Gastric pits contain gastric glands that secrete gastric juice, mucus, and gastrin  Stomach lining  A thick coat of bicarbonate- rich mucus on the wall  Epithelial cells that are joined by tight junctions  Gastric glands that have cells impermeable to HCL  Damaged epithelial cells are quickly replaced - Small Intestine o Runs from the pyloric sphincter to the ileocecal valve o 3 subdivisions  Duodenum  Jejunum  Ileum o 2 types of ducts  Bile  Pancreatic o Anatomy  Plicae circulares which are visible to the eyes  Villi are also visible to the eye  Microvilli which are not visible to the eye o Intestinal juice  Secreted by intestinal glands in response to distension or irritation of the mucosa  Slightly alkaline and isotonic with blood plasma  Largely water, enzyme poor, and contains mucus o Digestion in the small intestine  Chime enters the duodenum  Majority of absorption occurs  Chyme is released slowly into the duodenum - Liver o Largest gland in the body o 4 lobes  Right  Left  Caudate  Quadrate o Flaciform ligament  Separates the right and left lobes anteriorly  Suspends the liver from the diaphragm and anterior abdominal wall o Ligamentum teres  Remnant of the fetal umbilical vein o Liver produces bile salts o Anatomy  Hexagonal shaped liver lobules  Portal triads consist of a bile duct, hepatic artery, and hepatic portal vein o Liver sinusoids enlarged leaky capillaries located between hepatic plates o Kuepfer cells hepatic microphages - Gallbladder o Thin walled green muscular sac on the ventral surface of liver o Stores and concentrates bile o Release bile via the cystic duct o CCK hormone - Pancreas o Lies deep to the greater curvature of the stomach o Secretes pancreatic juice which breaks down all types of food stuff o Releases insulin and glucagon - Large Intestine o Subdivided into cecum, appendix, colon, rectum, and anal canal - Colon o Ascending colon, hepatic flexure, transverse colon, splenic flexure, descending colon, and sigmoid colon - Rectum and Anus o 3 valves of rectum (stop feces) o 2 sphincters in the anus  Internal  External (only open during defecation)


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