Anatomy and Physiology
Anatomy and Physiology BIOH 113 - 01
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This 13 page Study Guide was uploaded by Meaghan Raw on Tuesday May 10, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIOH 113 - 01 at University of Montana taught by Heather Dawn Labbe (P) in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 59 views.
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Date Created: 05/10/16
BIOH 113 Chapter 22: The Respiratory System - The respiratory system acts with the cardiovascular system to bring oxygen to the body and removes carbon dioxide from the body Major Functions: - To supply the body with oxygen and dispose of carbon dioxide - Respiration: o Pulmonary ventilation- air moving into and out of the lungs o External respiration- gas exchange between the lungs and blood o Transport- transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the lungs and tissues o Internal respiration- gas exchange between systemic blood vessels and tissues Classification: - Structural o Upper respiratory o Lower respiratory - Functional o Conducting zone o Respiratory zone Structures: - Upper respiratory o All structures above the vocal chords o Mouth, nose, nasal cavity, pharynx, and larynx - Lower respiratory o Trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, lungs Functions: - Respiratory zone o Site of gas exchange o Consists of bronchioles, alveolar ducts, and alveoli - Conducting zone o Provides rigid conduits for air to reach the sites of gas exchange o Includes the nose, nasal cavity, pharynx, and the trachea Important transitions within the airways as they get smaller: - Cartilage support structures change - Epithelium types change - Amount of smooth muscle increases Nose and Nasal Cavity: Nose: - The only externally visible part of the respiratory system - Functions: o Provides an airway for respiration o Moistens and warms entering air o Filters air clearing it of debris o Houses olfactory receptors Nasal Cavity: - Lies in and posterior to the externa nose - Divided by a midline septum - Opens posteriorly into the nasopharynx via internal nares - Cranial bones form the roof - The floor is composed of hard and soft palates - Superior, medial, and inferior conchae o Protrude medially from lateral walls o Increase mucosal area o Enhance air turbulence and help to filter air - Respiratory mucosa: o Lines balance of the nasal cavity o Glands secrete mucus containing lysozyme and defensins to help destroy bacteria - Inspired air: o Humidified by the high water content in the nasal cavity o Warmed by rich plexuses of capillaries Paranasal Sinuses: - Sinuses in bones that surround the nasal cavity - Sinuses lighten the skull and help to warm and moisten the air Pharynx: - Funnel shaped tube of skeletal muscle that connects to the: o Nasal cavity and mouth superiorly o Larynx and esophagus inferiorly - Divided into three regions: o Nasopharynx o Oropharynx o Laryngopharynx Nasopharynx: - Lies posterior to the nasal cavity, inferior to the sphenoid, and superior to the level of the soft palate - Strictly an air passageway - Pseudostratified columnar epithelium - Closes during swallowing - Pharyngeal tonsils lie high on the posterior wall - Pharyngotympanic (auditory) tubes open into the lateral walls Oropharynx: - Extends inferiorly from the level of the soft palate to the epiglottis - Serves as a common passageway for food and air - Stratified squamous epithelium - Palatine tonsils lie in the lateral walls - Lingual tonsil covers the base of the tongue Laryngopharynx: - Serves as a common passageway for food and air - Lies posterior to the upright epiglottis - Extends to the larynx, where respiratory and digestive pathways diverge - Stratified squamous epithelium Larynx: - Voice box - Attaches to the hyoid bone and pens into the laryngopharynx superiorly - Continuous with the trachea posteriorly - Three functions: o Provide a patent airway o Act as a switching mechanism to route air and food into the proper channels o Functions in voice production Structure and Function: - 9 cartilage types - Vestibular folds- play no part in the voice; help to close the glottis - Vocal folds- vibrate as air goes by Vocal Production: - Speech: intermittent release of expired air while opening and closing the glottis - Pitch: determined by the length and tension of the vocal chords - Loudness: depends on the force at which the air rushes across the vocal chords - The pharynx resonates, amplifies, and enhances sound quality - Sound is shaped into language by the action of the pharynx, tongue, soft palate, and lips Trachea: - Flexible and mobile tube extending from the larynx into the mediastinum - Composed of three layers o Mucosa- made up of goblet cells and ciliated epithelium o Submucosa- connective tissue deep to the mucosa o Adventitia- outermost layer made of C-shaped rings of hyaline cartilage Bronchi: - The carina of the last tracheal cartilage marks the end f the trachea and the beginning of the right and left bronchi - Air reaching the bronchi is saturated with water vapor and warm and cleansed - Bronchi sub divide into secondary bronchi with each supplying a lobe of the lung - There are 23 orders of branching in the lungs Bronchial Tree: - Tissue walls mimic that of the trachea - Bronchioles: o Consist of simple cuboidal and simple columnar epithelium o Complete layer of circular smooth muscle o Lack cartilage support and mucus producing cells o Last structure of the conducting zone is the terminal bronchiole Respiratory Zone: - Defined by the presence of alveoli - Begins as terminal bronchioles - Respiratory bronchioles lead to alveolar ducts then to terminal clusters of alveolar sacs composed of alveoli o Alveoli: Provide surface area for gas exchange Make up most of the lungs volume Approximately 300 million of them Respiratory Membrane: - Air blood barrier o Alveolar and capillary walls - Alveolar Walls o Single layer of type one epithelial cells o Permit gas exchange by simple diffusion o Secrete angiotensin converting enzyme o Type 2 secretes surfactant - Alveoli o Type one squamous pneumonocytes Make up the walls of alveoli Together with the capillaries make up the blood air barrier o Type two granular pneumonocytes Secrete surfactant Reduce surface tension o Surrounded by fine elastic fibers o Contain open pores that: Connect adjacent alveoli Allow air pressure throughout the lung to be equalized o House macrophages that keep alveolar surfaces sterile Lungs: Anatomy: - Lungs occupy all of the thoracic cavity except the mediastinum - Root- site of vascular and bronchial attachments - Costal surface- anterior, lateral, and posterior surfaces in contact with the ribs - Apex- narrow superior tip - Base- inferior surface that rests on the diaphragm - Hilus- indentation that contains pulmonary and systemic blood vessels - Cardiac notch- cavity that accommodates that heart - Left lung- separated into upper and lower lobes by the oblique fissure - Right lung- separated into three lobes by the oblique and horizontal fissures Blood Supply: - Lungs are perfused by two circulations o Pulmonary o Bronchial - Pulmonary arteries o Supply the blood to by oxygenated o Branch profusely o Feed into capillary network surrounding alveoli - Pulmonary veins o Carry oxygenated blood from the respiratory zones to the heart Pleurae: - Thin double layered serosa - Parietal pleura: o Cover the thoracic wall and the superior face of the diaphragm o Continues around the heart and between the lungs - Visceral pleura: o Covers externa lung surface o Divides the thoracic cavity into three chambers A central mediastinum Two lateral compartments each containing a lung - Functions: o Produces a serous fluid which has two major roles Reducing friction between the cavity wall and the organ Creates surface which keeps the lungs inflated Pulmonary Ventilation: - A mechanical process that depends on volume changes in the thoracic cavity - Volume changes lead to pressure changes which lead to the flow of gases to equalize pressure Breathing: - Consists of two phases: o Inspiration- air flows into the lungs o Expiration- gases exit the lungs Inspiration: - The diaphragm and external intercostal muscles contract and rib cage rises - Intrapulmonary volume increases - Intrapulmonary pressure drops below atmospheric pressure - Air flows into the lungs and down its pressure gradient until intrapulmonary pressure = atmospheric pressure Expiration: - Inspiratory muscles relax and the rib cage descends passively - Thoracic cavity volume decreases - Elastic lungs recoil passively and intrapulmonary volume drops - Gases flow out of the lungs down the pressure gradient until intrapulmonary pressure is equal to atmospheric pressure Factors Affecting Ventilation: - Airway resistance - Alveolar surface tension - Lung compliance Respiratory Volumes: - Tidal volume o Air that moves into and out of the lungs with each breath - Inspiratory reserve volume o Air that can be inspired forcibly beyond tidal volume - Expiratory volume o Air that can be evacuated from the lungs after a tidal expiration - Residual volume o Air left in the lungs after strenuous expiration Respiratory Capacity: - Inspiratory o Total amount of air that can be inspired after a tidal expiration - Functional Residual o Amount of air that remains in the lungs after a tidal expiration - Vital o The total amount of exchangeable air - Total lung o Sum of all the lung volumes Dead Space: Anatomical: - Volume of conducting respiratory passageways Alveolar: - Alveoli that cease to act in gas exchange due to collapse or obstruction Total: - Sum of anatomical and alveolar dead spaces Respiration: External: - Factors influencing the movement of oxygen and carbon dioxide across the respiratory membrane o Partial pressure gradients and gas solubility o Matching of alveolar ventilation and pulmonary blood perfusion o Structural characteristics of the respiratory membrane Internal: - The factors promoting gas exchange between the systemic capillaries and tissue cells are the same as those acting in the lungs o Partial pressure and diffusion gradients are reversed Anatomy and Physiology 113 Chapter 23: The Digestive System - The alimentary canal is also known as the gastrointestinal tract (GI Tract) - It has accessory organs - Functions: ingestion, secretion, digestion (chemical and mechanical), mixing and propulsion, absorption, and defecation Composition: - Alimentary Canal: extends from the mouth to the anus through the ventral body cavity - Accessory Organs: teeth, tongue, salivary glands, liver, gallbladder, and pancreas Metabolic Processes: - Catabolism: large molecules are broken into small molecules (In the GI tract it is called digestion) - Anabolism: small molecules are used as building blocks for large molecules (liver) Digestion: - Mechanical: all movements that facilitate catabolic processes (mastication, swallowing, mixing) - Chemical: water is used to break down chemical bonds (fats go to fatty acids and glycerol; carbs go to polysaccharides into monosaccharides; proteins go to polypeptides and amino acids) Anatomy of the GI Tract: - 4 layers: Mucosa, submucosa, muscularis, and serosa/adventitia Mucosa: - Mucus membrane made of various types of epithelium sitting on a loose CT called lamina propria o The oral cavity and the anus are non-keratinized stratified squamous o Stomach and the intestines are simple columnar - Lamina propria: a prominent lymphoid tissue that protects against disease - Muscularis mucosae: lies beneath lamina propria and is a thin layer of smooth muscle that throws the lining of the stomach and small intestines into tiny folds which increase surface area Submucosa: - Composed of loose CT that binds the mucosa to the muscularis - Contains blood and lymphatic vessels and an extensive network of neuron known as the submucosal plexus Serosa/Adventitia: - Outermost layer - If attached to surrounding tissues, it is called the adventitia - If it is contained in the peritoneal cavity it is called the serosa o Adventitia is a fibrous CT arranged around the organ it supports o Serosa: has a slippery mesothelium surface layer and it covers the intra-abdominal organs as the visceral peritoneum Digestive System Anatomy: - Peritoneum o Serous membrane of abdominal cavity Visceral which covers the external surface of most digestive organs Serosa of alimentary canal Covers other intra-abdominal organs Parietal which lines the cavity wall o Largest serous membrane o Wraps around most abdominopelvic organs o Continues around as the parietal peritoneum o There are 5 peritoneal folds Greater omentum Flaciform ligament Lesser omentum Mesentery- double layer that provides vascular and nerve supplies to the viscera am dos a means to hold digestive organs in place and store fat Mesocolon o These are large folds that bind things together - Peritoneal Cavity o Lubricates digestive organs and allows them to slide across one another Blood Supply: - Arteries and organs they serve: o hepatic, splenic, left gastric = spleen, liver, and stomach o Inferior and Mesenteric = small and large intestine - Hepatic portal Circulation: o Collects nutrient rich venous blood from digestive viscera and delivers this blood to the liver for metabolic processing and storage GI Tract Beginning to End: - Mouth: o Oral or buccal cavity o Lined with stratified squamous epithelium o Contains the tongue, hard palate, and dorsum of the tongue which are slightly keratinized - Palate: o Hard palate which assists the tongue in chewing o Soft palate which is a mobile fold that is formed mostly of skeletal muscle - Tongue: o Intrinsic muscles change its shape o Extrinsic muscles alter position o Lingual frenulum secures the tongue to the mouth floor o Functions include: Gripping and repositioning food Mixing food with saliva and forming bolus Initiation of swallowing and of speech - Salivary Glands and Saliva o Salivary Glands Produce and secrete saliva that Cleanses the mouth Moistens and dissolves food chemicals Aids in bolus formation Contains enzymes that break down starch Extrinsic Glands: Three pairs o Parotid o Submandibular o Sublingual Intrinsic Glands Buccal and labial Scattered throughout the oral mucosa o Saliva Source and Composition Secreted from the serous and mucous cells of salivary glands 97-99.5% water It is hypo-osmotic and slightly acidic - Teeth o Primary and permanent dentitions have formed by the age of 21 o 20 deciduous teeth and 32 total teeth by adulthood at 21 o Teeth are classified by shape and function o Dental Formula: 2I 1C 2PM 3M 2I 1C 2PM 3M X2 32 total teeth - Pharynx o From the mouth to the oro- and laryngopharynx allows for the passage of Food and fluids to the esophagus Air to the trachea o Lined with stratified squamous and mucous glands - Esophagus o Muscular tube going from the laryngopharynx to the stomach o Travels through the mediastinum and pierces the diaphragm o Joins the stomach at the cardiac orifice - Deglutition o Swallowing o Involves coordinated activity of the tongue and the soft palate o Buccal phase is where bolus is forced into the oropharynx o Pharyngeal- esophageal phase is controlled by the medulla and the lower pons o Peristalsis moves food through the pharynx to the esophagus - Stomach o Chemical breakdown of proteins begins and food is converted to chime o Structure Greater curvature: entire extent of the convex lateral surface Lesser curvature: concave medial surface Lesser omentum: runs from the liver to the lesser curvature Greater omentum: drapes inferiorly from the greater curvature to the small intestine o Anatomy Muscularis has an additional oblique layer that Allows the stomach to churn mix and pummel food physically Breaks down food into smaller fragments Epithelial lining is composed of goblet cells that produce a coat of alkaline mucus Gastric pits contain gastric glands that secrete gastric juice, mucus, and gastrin Stomach lining A thick coat of bicarbonate- rich mucus on the wall Epithelial cells that are joined by tight junctions Gastric glands that have cells impermeable to HCL Damaged epithelial cells are quickly replaced - Small Intestine o Runs from the pyloric sphincter to the ileocecal valve o 3 subdivisions Duodenum Jejunum Ileum o 2 types of ducts Bile Pancreatic o Anatomy Plicae circulares which are visible to the eyes Villi are also visible to the eye Microvilli which are not visible to the eye o Intestinal juice Secreted by intestinal glands in response to distension or irritation of the mucosa Slightly alkaline and isotonic with blood plasma Largely water, enzyme poor, and contains mucus o Digestion in the small intestine Chime enters the duodenum Majority of absorption occurs Chyme is released slowly into the duodenum - Liver o Largest gland in the body o 4 lobes Right Left Caudate Quadrate o Flaciform ligament Separates the right and left lobes anteriorly Suspends the liver from the diaphragm and anterior abdominal wall o Ligamentum teres Remnant of the fetal umbilical vein o Liver produces bile salts o Anatomy Hexagonal shaped liver lobules Portal triads consist of a bile duct, hepatic artery, and hepatic portal vein o Liver sinusoids enlarged leaky capillaries located between hepatic plates o Kuepfer cells hepatic microphages - Gallbladder o Thin walled green muscular sac on the ventral surface of liver o Stores and concentrates bile o Release bile via the cystic duct o CCK hormone - Pancreas o Lies deep to the greater curvature of the stomach o Secretes pancreatic juice which breaks down all types of food stuff o Releases insulin and glucagon - Large Intestine o Subdivided into cecum, appendix, colon, rectum, and anal canal - Colon o Ascending colon, hepatic flexure, transverse colon, splenic flexure, descending colon, and sigmoid colon - Rectum and Anus o 3 valves of rectum (stop feces) o 2 sphincters in the anus Internal External (only open during defecation)
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