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Islam in Africa Final Study Guide

by: Raleigh Zook

Islam in Africa Final Study Guide RELA 3900/ RELI3900

Marketplace > University of Virginia > RELA 3900/ RELI3900 > Islam in Africa Final Study Guide
Raleigh Zook
GPA 3.55

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About this Document

These notes cover terms learned from midterm forward, and also includes some key terms from before the midterm. They go over topics such as Sufism, colonialism, education, and current-day Islamic r...
Islam in Africa
Cynthia Hoehler-Fatton
Study Guide
islam, religion, Africa, Muslim, Sufism, Colonialism, Education, reformist, islamist, Fundamentalism
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Raleigh Zook on Tuesday May 10, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to RELA 3900/ RELI3900 at University of Virginia taught by Cynthia Hoehler-Fatton in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 18 views.


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Date Created: 05/10/16
Islam in Africa Final Review Term Definition Berlin Conference 1884; Partitioning of Africa; Switzerland was not a part of partitioning Majlis “2nd step” after Quranic school—extended study for expertise --Ilm school --Specific texts The Glowing Hearth School in “Ambiguous Adventure” Symbolically represents Quranic schools Silsila • Spiritual procession • Led to more elaborate hierarchies • Sufis Wali • Sufi saint • Friend of God • Spiritual leader • E.g. Uthman dan Fodio Muhammad Ahmad al-Mahdi • Battle of Khartoum à Revolt against the British • Proclaimed Mahdi • Jihadist Sufism • Sudan Fanah One of the Sufi stages; Annihilation of self; Destroying ego Rabia Poet from 7 Century, Basra. Ran through the streets with water and fire to demonstrate the need to love God, not simply fear Him Tijaniyya Sufi order; al-Tijani (“Seal of the Saints”) --Believed in a direct link with God and Muhammad Ibra “Lamp” Fall • Ahmadu Bamba follower (importance of shaykh) • Manual labor; Mouride • Wore dark robes to represent work ethic Zein • “Wedding of Zein” • Juxtaposes the imam • Shows uncontrollable, excitable experience of Sufism • Nima=wife Zar Sudanese cult; Djinn practices; Foreign djinn were “Ethiopian” Maishatani Devils and demons (one of the three types of djinn); Inflict punishment; Associated as followers of Satan Islamism Muslim reform à Modern jihadists; Boko Haram for examples; Global era…began in 1970s Muslim feminism Reinterpreting Quran; Protections --Bikisu Yusuf Boko Haram Terrorist group (Nigeria) started in 2003 by Mohammad Yusuf…implemented fundamentalism and disproved of Western education Chibok girls Taken by Boko Haram from North Nigeria Islam Noir Less threatening version of Islam (contrasted with Mediterranean Islam)…not “pure Islam”…it was strictly African, which made them more controllable to imperialists --Benign --Termed by colonizers Most Royal Lady Character from “Ambiguous Adventure” who was the aunt and suggested the children attend Western schools Tariqa 1. Sufi brotherhood 2. Mystical path of Sufism Baraka God’s blessing; Spiritual power Maqam The term for the stages of Sufism: 1. Abstinence 2. Repentance 3. Patience 4. Satisfaction 5. Trusting God 6. Annihilation 7. Eternity Zawiyah Lodge/Retreat centers for Sufis Rumi Poet from 13 Century Afghanistan; Jurist and scholar who wrote in Persian, Arabic, and Greek; Nothingness is everything Muridiyya/Mourides • One of the most true, widely- established sub-Saharan Sufi orders • Started in 1886 with Ahmadu Bamba • Incorporated a lot of Tijani ideals and teachings, but finally broke from Qadiyyia to pursue own Sufi form • Encouraged submitting to masters (marabout); Complete obedience • Emphasis on manual labor as a source of spiritual growth and support—peanut farming; Hard work and prayer are one of the same, which was new. There was a spiritual awakening that occurred due to work. • Strong economic and political base due to successful, large peanut farms Baye Fall Attracted followers in U.S. (mostly young and African American)—MIC, AMD --Subset of young Mourides who see themselves as laborers/warriors for God; work hard; proceeds go toward Mouride movement; Want Bamba to bless them --Wear patchwork cloaks; Amulets; Dreadlocks—Not from elites, primarily laborers --Also known as artists—ecstatic form of dkhir Bori Cult; Suppressed by Sokoto Caliphate; Facilitate healing; Relationship with Saudi Arabia; Women’s involvement Jinn/Jini Fallen angels led by one who disobeyed God and was cast out of paradise; Helpful OR harmful—mind of their own --Only ones able to take possession of people—person becomes host; medium Mawlid/Maulidi The celebration of the Prophet’s birthday; Condemned by Islamists Kanem-Bornu Empire from 11 -18 Centuries --Background for the growth of Boko Haram movement…They were on the fringes trying to resist the Sokoto Caliphate Al-Shabaab Somalia; Launching terrorist attacks against schools (in Kenya) and West Gate Mall; “Movement of Striving Youth”—theme of young, displaced, underprivileged youth --Based in a contested region…southern region was promised to them, but not given which led to resentment in Somalia toward those who lived in this area. Dispute over territory and land (ethnicity issue) --Al-Qaeda and other foreign groups are capitalizing it Born out of ICU (Islamic Courts Union) in 2006 --Economic factors; Millennialism factor (reform); Political factors; Religious factors Review: Islamization Islam rooting itself in local areas/contexts • Dream interpretations (also Africanization) • Swahili coast: Abandoned vernacular languages and adopted Arabic, but still used both languages, only “Swahili-ized” Africanization Islam tailored into African cultural values and contexts • Pottery, art, architecture • Quran and hadith translated into Fulfude, Hausa, etc. • Linking of praise genres (e.g. Traditional Hausa women sang in Islamic form) • Different pilgrimage sites (e.g. Touba in Senegal because of the Mourides; Uthman dan Fodio’s tomb) à Appropriated/sanctified model of the hajj Mutuality An openness to foreign values and practices Shahadah “There is no God but God, and Muhammad is his messenger.”


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