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HCR 240- Exam 5 Study Guide

by: SunDevil_21

HCR 240- Exam 5 Study Guide HCR 240

Marketplace > Arizona State University > HCR 240 > HCR 240 Exam 5 Study Guide
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Study guide for Exam 5
Human Pathology
Study Guide
pathophysiology, patho
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by SunDevil_21 on Tuesday May 10, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to HCR 240 at Arizona State University taught by Fortier in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 13 views.


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Date Created: 05/10/16
Exam #5 Review Testicular descent occurs in 2 stages. Cryptorchidism causes infertility in males, low  testosterone (hypogonadism), etc.  Pampiniform plexus maintains temperature of testicles Main actions of testosterone: anabolic effects (builds up bones, muscles, body hair, promoted  metabolism) Hypogonadism: low testosterone, symptoms include: fatigue, erectile dysfunction, depression,  decreased libido, feminized features, bone density/osteoporosis. Can be caused by pituitary tumors, etc  Primary  Secondary  Tertiary Erection involves sympathetic pathways  Ejaculation: L1 & L2 spinal cord reflexes. Emission causes sperm to move from epididymis to  the urethra Efferent impulses from the spinal cord procedure contraction of smooth muscle in the vas  deferens and ampulla Virility is to men as fertility is to women Cardiovascular disease Hormonal disease Neurological, hematologic Ch 52 Phimosis & Paraphimosis  Phimosis  Paraphimosis Peyronie Disease: affects tunica albuginea Manifestations are painful erection,  Mechanisms of priapism: primary = trauma, infection, and neoplasms; secondary  hematologic Risk Factors of Penile Cancers Cryptorchidism: infertility, malignancy, etc Testicular torsion Orchitis: mumps virus, infection of testes.  Cell types of testicular cancer: NONSEMINOMA tumors are diagnosed with a biopsy. Types of prostatitis Prostate tumor grading system: T1, T2, T3, T4.  CHAPTER 53 Uterus parts and the three layers Functions of the ovaries and the oviducts Endocervical secretions, form mucoid plug during pregnancy Menstrual cycle Actions of estrogens on reproductive processes Phases of the endometrial cycle, and know the differences Menopause and urogenital atrophy: vaginal dryness, urinary stress incontinence, vaginitis, UTIs, etc. Prolactin: stimulation of alveolar milk secretion CHAPTER 54 Bartholin cyst Vulvodynia: chronic burning, stinging, irritation, and rawness Different forms/subsets: Vaginitis: inflammation of the vaginal canal Causes of vaginal cancers, exposure of ST HPV (most common is HPV 16 and 18), rarely from  local irritation such as prolonged use of pessary Polyps: associated with post­coital bleeding Diagnosis of cervical cancer: pap smear demonstrating SIL, biopsy, colposcopy Disorders of the uterus Endometrial cancer Leiomyomas: SUBMUCOSAL, subserosal, intramural Ectopic pregnancy: fetal implantation outside of the uterus, fallopian tubes is the most common,  delayed/displaced ovum transport. Ovarian cysts: most common form of ovarian cancer, Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) Body hair, menstrual irregularity, etc Breast Cancer Paget’s Disease CHAPTER 55 Lymphogranuloma venereum: chlamydia trachomatis  Low risk HPV: 6, 11; High risk: 16,18; Everything else = Med risk Herpesviruses: Neurtropic alpha group is Sextually transmitted Chlamydia is the most common STD, 2 forms: RETICULAR BODIES multiply by binary fission ←­­ Syphilis: SECONDARY is highlighted RPI is treatment for syphilis CHAPTER 56 Functions of the skeletal system, storage reservoir for calcium, hematopoietic connective tissue, structure, shape, etc Action of Calcitonin: Action of Vitamin D: increases intestinal absorption of calcium. Increases action of PTH,  moderates calcium and phosphorus  Bone formation and mineral metabolism can be disrupted by abnormal PTH, Calcitonin, and  vitamin D Tendons vs. ligaments Synovial joint: diarthrosis Bursae: fluid filled sac or cavity countering friction at a joint. Shoulders, knees, hips, etc.  BURSITIS is inflammation of the bursa Synovial joint pain vs bursitis Acute vs Overuse injuries (chronic injuries such as carpal tunnel syndrome) Types of joint injuries: Strain(tendon), Sprain(ligament) Classification of fractures Bone Healing and causes of bone healing delay Complications of fractures Compartment syndrome, increased pressure in a muscle compartment, can lead to muscle and  nerve damage Osteomyelitis: bone infection. Hematogenous, CONTIGUOUS, Chronic Types of malignant bone tumors: osteosarcoma, and the types of sarcomas. Chondromas: surface or medullary hyaline cartilage CHAPTER 58 Bone growth happens at the epiphyseal plate, and when adult, it becomes the epiphyseal line. Osteogenesis imperfecta: hereditary, Type 1: defective synthesis of type 1 collagen OSGOOD­SCHLATTER disease: involves microfractures in the area where patellar tendon  inserts into the tibial tubercle Scoliosis and its classification: neuromuscular scoliosis develops from neuropathic or myopathic diseases such as muscular dystrophy Osteoporosis is the most common bone disease Risks of osteoporosis: family history, female, post­menopausal, smoking, sedentary, calcium  deficient, etc. Dual­energy x ray absorptiometry (DXA) to diagnose of the bones and hip Osteomalacia Rickets Paget’s disease: progressive skeletal disorder Arthritis: Rheumatoid! ESPECIALLY the criteria for rheumatoid arthritis Serum rheumatoid factor is positive in 70% of people, but not a criteria for diagnosis because  you can suffer from the symptoms Lupus: beta cell hyperactivity, multisystem disease, UV light makes it worse, rashes,  Osteoarthritis Gout: high uric acid CHAPTER 60­61 Papule small and deal with the top layers of skin, nodules large and deal with the deep layers of the skin and connective tissues Pruritis: itch Causes: histamine, tryptase, opioids, bile salts, bradykinin, neuropeptides, substance P. Xerosis: dry skin Uses emollients, humectants, occlusives. DO NOT USE ASTRINGENTS (witch hazel Rashes and Lesions Infections: secondary are the deeper cutaneous layers of the skin Ulcers, cellulitis Acne vulgaris; Acne conglobata: affect persons with anemia, elevated white blood cell counts  sedimentation rates, and neutrophil; counts. Lichen Planus Acute (short term)  and Chronic effects of UV sunlight Degrees of burns Treatment of burns Pressure ulcers Three major skin cancers: basal cell carcinoma is the most common skin cancer of white  skinned people Melanomas Skin disorders of infancy


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