Study Guide for Final Exam Art 1300
Study Guide for Final Exam Art 1300 Art 1300
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by lugarte2 Notetaker on Tuesday May 10, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Art 1300 at University of Texas at El Paso taught by Anne Perry in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 61 views. For similar materials see Art Appreciation in Art at University of Texas at El Paso.
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Date Created: 05/10/16
FinalExam 1 Chapter 11: Architecture Load-bearing construction: the elements are piled up and create a wall Terms: mortar (cement that holds the construction, is not always concrete) ; dry masonry (without cement) Post-and-lintel construction: 2 vertical posts hold a horizontal lintel Terms: tensile strength (when the material has the ability to extend across the space without support from below) ; colonnade; mortise (a little hole that is on the stones of Stonehenge) and tenon (a little part of the stone that goes inside the mortise) joinery Arcuated construction (Roman round arch, vault and dome): Round arch, the weight is transferred to the sides. Terms: arcade; barrel vault; dome; concrete; ring buttresses; coffer; aggregate Arcade Barrel Dome Concrete Coffer Aggregate Is used in the concrete mix of the Pantheon Cast-iron construction (Eiffel Tower) also known as Modular construction Steel-frame/steel-cage construction (skyscrapers) also known as steel cage Reinforced concrete construction (Guggenheim Museum, Frank Lloyd Wright “Falling Water” 2 Chapter 13: Ancient Art Chauvet Caves What? The paintings are images of animals Where? On subterranean caves How? They utilized mineral pigments and animal grass to keep the paintings on the wall Works like fresco (there is a chemical bond) Stonehenge -It worked originally as an astronomical observatory Pyramids at Giza -Tombs of pharaohs -Small Menkaure -Medium Khafre ( it has the sphynx at the front of the pyramid, symbolizes a guardian) -Big Khufu (2.3 million block of limestone) it was the first one that was built, Great Sphinx at Giza -It is 75 ft tall and carved out of the earth -The builders were treated as royals and lived near the pyramids Palette of Narmer -It has hierarchical scale (a way to exalt Narmer) -Narmer united upper and lower Egypt -Narmer is shown as powerful in front of the falcon god Horus and the bovine god Hathor -Composite view: torso and the eye are shown witha frontal view and legs and head are shown with a profile view -idealizes body type: tall, slender and young Ka Statue of King Menkaure and his Queen -Ka soul, they believe that stays for eternity and need a place to live -it is built in case that the mummified body wouldn’t last forever 3 Chapter 14: Classical Art GREECE: Greek sculptural styles: - Archaic; nude statue that is modeled on ancient Egyptian figures Kouros (young figure) Frontal and static - Classical; The statue is in a contrapposto pose Looks more naturalistic than the archaic sculpture Adult male Doryphoros Riace Warrior (has a bear) - Hellenistic Sensual Try to capture the attention of the viewer Dramatic Examples: Venus de Milo, Barberini Faun, Laocoon Parthenon - Pericles was the ruler at the time - 228 ft long - Sculptural Program by: Phidias - Visual refinements counteract the negative optical illusion - Pediments have freestanding sculptures East – Mythical birth of Athena West – Contest between Athena and Poseidon - Has 92 metopes represent mythical battles - Post intel dry masonry construction - Lord Elguin (the british ambassador to the ottoman turks) took almost half of the panathenaic procession - Scale Replica is located inNashville - Sculpture of Athena Is located inside the temple Carved wood with ivory skin and gold drapery helmet and shield Terms: acropolis; Athena; Pericles; visual refinements; pediment; frieze; metope; Panathenaic Procession; Lapiths and Centaurs; Phidias ROME: Pont du Gard (dry masonry aqueduct); - Emperor Augustus was the ruler at the time - Stretches 800-900 ft across the Garden River Colosseum (arcuated concrete construction); - Originally was called the Flavian Amphitheatre - Rome, Italy - It has 80 entrances - Cavea (bowl like interior) and Hypogeum (storage) - Velarium – creates shade - 80 % concrete - Stone seats - 4 levels - It held between 50,000 and 83,000 - Seating was according social class (important people in the front) - Superimposed limestone arcades Pantheon (domed cylinder, arcuated concrete construction) - Temple dedicated to all gods - Foundations were made with travertine - To degrees the weight a light aggregate (pumice) was used, also inside the dome there were coffers - The oculus was the only source of light - Exterior is a saucer dome - Interior is a true hemisphere 4 Chapter 16: Renaissance Italo-Byzantine (before the renaissance) Comes from Constantinople - wodden panel - tempera Florence – Birth of the Italian Renaissance Giotto Lamentation - This painting is on earth - Reflexes the humanity - Giotto is seeing the greatness of man New interest in classical antiquity Renaissance French for Rebirth Humanism – revival of the belief of the man greatness and individuals’ potential Chiaroscuro, linear perspective and atmospheric perspective were invented during the Renaissance Early Renaissance (1400-1500) - Florence Baptistery 1401-1402 - Competition panels between Filippo Brunellischi (first picture) and Lorenzo Ghiberti (second picture). They both did “Sacrifice of Isaac” on gilded bronze relief - “Sacrifice of Isaac” – Isaac’s father had to prove his love for God, so He asked him to sacrifice his son. The father has willing to do it, so he took Isaac and when he was about to kill him an angel came down from the sky and stop him. - The winner of the competition was Ghiberti - Ghiberti designed “Gatesof Paradise” for the Baptistery as a price for the competition and he was 20 years old - Filippo later designed the dome of the Baptistery - Ghiberti’s “Jacob and Esau” is one of the panels onGates of Paradise. It is a square form - “Jacob and Esau” – Isaac and Rebecca (his wife) had twins. The older one (Esau) wasthe one that was supposed to inherit his father lands. His mother Rebecca was manipulative and distracted Esau while Jacob (the second son) made his father believe he was Esau so that he would inherit his lands. - Donatello’s “David” - It was the first nude freestanding since ‘Classical Antiquity” (ancient Greece and Rome) It was a sculpture for the Medicci family (powerful bankers) that had an important role in early renaissance The boy has a Contrapposto pose - Masaccio’s “Holy Eternity” - He will later advance naturalistic style Gave the early signs of chiaroscuro Linear perspective is being used The donors for the painting were Mensi Northen Renaissance - Dutch artists th - Iluminated Mnuscript from the 18 century, was created by monasteires - Limbourg Brothers “May,” from Les Tres Riches Heures Du Duc de Berry The people on the painting are dressed up, even the horses The grass is green, which gives the impression of a warm time of the year - Robert Campin, Mérode Altarpiece “The Annunciation” the center image of the painting Very detailed The artist is interested in light detailed and color Oil on wood 1425-1428 The two people from the left are the donors of the painting The artist failed on the table in the middle of the painting, looks that everything is falling off it The viewer can appreciate the words written downon the bible that is in the middle of the bible Chiaroscuro is being used - Jan Van Eyck, Giovanni Arnolfini and His Bride Oil on wood 1434 Dog symbol for loyalty Women near the bed symbol for his work at home Man near the window symbolized that the man has to work and bring money home The painting symbolizes the sanctity of marriage High Renaissance (1500-1525) - Leonardo’s Mona Lisa He used a technique, created by himself, called “sfumato” The painting was stole for 2 years on 1911 - Leonardo’s Last Supper Located in Santa Maria delle Grazie, Milan 1498 Was restored by a woman It is not true fresco, he used tempera and oil on plaster - Michelangelo’s Pieta Marble sculpture The only sculpture that he ever sign The virgin is youthful The proportions are not real - Michelangelo’s David 17 ft tall Marble sculpture Comittioned by the citizens Looks older than Donatello’s David - Michelangelo’s Creation of Adam Located in Sistine Chapel Ceiling God is passing Adam’s spirit through his finger The viewers are expecting that moment when thereis a spark and Adam can have his spirit 5 Chapter 17: Baroque Art Baroque – Portuguese for irregular pearl of stone Reformation – revolt against abuses and corruption Counter-Reformation – revitalizes catholic congregations and minimizes the effects of the revolt Catholic Art - Distinctive aspects of catholic dogma - Biblical paintings - Encourage piety - Paintings are important as people are Protestant Art - Focused on the relationship between the individual and God - Avoid catholic dogmas - Humble biblical scenes - Low-key art Bernini, St. Peter’s Piazza and Colonnade 1656-67 - Bernini designed a plaza - Colonnade is a line of columns - “The loving arms of a mother church reaching out to embrace the faithful” - The colonnade symbolizes a hug - The Vatican is inside the colonnade David and St. Teresa in Ecstasy Caravaggio - Marble sculptures - 1654 - “St. Teresa in Ecstasy Caravaggio” – Mythical story where St. Teresa felt a pain in her side and thought that it was caused by one of God’s angels. Conversion of St. Paul - Paul was prosecuting Christians, but then he was confronted and changed his life. One day he fell off his horse and a bright light blinded him, he heard Jesus’s voice asking him why he was prosecuting Christians, then He told him to reach out to Damascus, who later cured his blindness. - Tenebrism – dark manner. When the painting has a small source of light Vermeer, Young Girl with a Water Jug - Secular – not religious - Genre scene – regular life.
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