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Biological Anthropology Midterm Studyguide

by: Aaron Kleinert

Biological Anthropology Midterm Studyguide ANTH 002

Marketplace > University of California Riverside > anthropology, evolution, sphr > ANTH 002 > Biological Anthropology Midterm Studyguide
Aaron Kleinert
GPA 3.54

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Study guide for midterm 2, definitions and key terms you need to know
Biological Anthropology
Dr. Lee
Study Guide
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Aaron Kleinert on Tuesday May 10, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to ANTH 002 at University of California Riverside taught by Dr. Lee in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 29 views. For similar materials see Biological Anthropology in anthropology, evolution, sphr at University of California Riverside.

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Date Created: 05/10/16
Midterm 2 study guide  Evolution: Constructing a Fundamental Scientific Theory All living organisms on Earth are related through common ancestry. But how did this all  happen? And how do we know this? Darwin did not come up with biological evolution  out of the blue. His ideas were strongly influenced by many thinkers, from many different scientific disciplines. 1) How did the theory of evolution come to be?  2) What was Darwin’s contribution to the theory of evolution? In other words, why is he  so famous?  3) What has happened since Darwin in the development of our understanding of  evolution?  Charles Darwin and the HMS Beagle  In 1831, a young Charles Darwin— 22 years old—joined the crew of HMS Beagle for a  five­year voyage around the world. The Beagle sailed from England, around the tip of  South America, to the Galápagos Islands, around the southern coast of Australia and  Africa, and back to England. During this journey, Darwin collected thousands of  samples: plants, animals, fossils, and rocks. He made careful and important observations  in hundreds of notebooks about the organisms he encountered.  Things you need to know!!! why we are interested in nonhuman primates ­they share with us a recent ancestry (our closest living kin) and offer a window to our evolutionary past ­want to know how natural and sexual selection molded our ancestors after the split from  rest of the primates ­because they are intrinsically fascinating  amount of species and plants that inhabit earth today about 5 to 10 million only about 4,000 species are mammals  three groups of mammals metatheria prototheria eutheria  metatheria ­mammals that reproduce without a placenta, including the marsupials ­offspring born in near embryonic state, crawl from reproductive tract into her pouch and  and attach to a nipple; after further period of development, leads the pouch ­example: kangaroos, koalas, opossums  prototheria ­mammals that reproduce by egg­laying and then nurse young from nipples ­includes on Australian platypus and echidna  eutheria ­mammals that reproduce with a placenta and uterus ­includes some two dozen orders (one of which is primates) ­reproduce by internal fertilization, followed by implanting fertilized zygote on the wall  of the uterus  Primate ­mammal with grasping hands, large brain, a high degree of learned rather than  innate behavior, and other traits ­diverse; not all species share the same traits  suborders of Primates ­Strepsirhini (strepsirhine) ­Haplorhini (haplorhine)  Strepsirhini (strepsirhine) ­suborder of the order Primates that includes the prosimians,  excluding the tarsier ­includes lemurs (Madagascar), and lorises and galagos (mainland Africa and tropical  Asia)  Haplorhini (haplorhine) suborder of the order Primates that includes the anthropoids  and the tarsier  prosimian ­member of the primate suborder Prosimii that includes the lemurs, lorises,  galagos, and tarsiers ­aka lower primates  anthropoid ­members of the primate suborder Anthropoidea that includes the monkeys,  apes, and hominins ­aka higher primates  anatomical traits shared by all primates generalized body plan grasping hands with opposable thumbs or big toes flattened nails forward facing eyes with stereoscopic vision petrosal bulla enclosed bony eye orbits in the skull  generalized body plan ­gives them versatility (most primate species engage in a wide  variety of modes of travel) ­all nonhuman primates are quadrupeds but there is great variation in the usage of their  limbs ­some move by VCL, others walk/run  grasping hands with opposable thumbs or big toes ­the fundamental primate  adaptation ­allows grasping with greater precision than other mammals  flattened nails ­flattened nails instead of claws ­in all primates except marmosets and tamarins  forward facing eyes with stereoscopic vision ­forward field of vision is covered by both eyes and gives excellent depth perception ­peripheral vision to the sides and behind primates is constrained  petrosal bulla ­tiny bit of skeleton that covers and protects part of the inner ear ­the only bony trait shared by all primates (living or extinct) in no other mammalian  group  enclosed bony eye orbits in the skull may protect the eye more effectively than the open orbit of lower mammals  arboreal hypothesis hypothesis for the origin of primate adaptation that focuses on the  value of grasping the hands and stereoscopic vision for life in the trees  visual predation hypothesis hypothesis for the origin of primate adaptation that focuses  on the value of grasping the hands and stereoscopic vision for catching small prey  dental arcade ­the parabolic arc that forms the upper or lower row of teeth ­primates likely went an evolutionary reduction in the degree of specialization of the  teeth, evident in small canines/incisors and rounded molars most of them have ­dental formula for most primates: 2 incisors, 1 canine, 2 premolars, 3 molars  life history traits of primates single offspring large brains extended ontogeny  single offspring ­nearly all give birth to a single offspring ­single birth + long maturation period and amount of investment by mother ­more investment of time and energy in just a few babies replaces primitive mammalian  pattern of litters of offspring with less intensive care  large brains ­evolved increase in the volume of the neocortex ­increased surface area of brain might contribute to higher cognitive function  extended ontogeny ­primates live by both learned behavior and instinct ­extended length of each stage of life cycle ­must learn much information about living in a social group ­greater parental investment in infants because social skills require years of maturation  and practice  neocortex the part of the brain that controls higher cognitive function; the cerebrum  ontogeny the life cycle of an organism from conception to death  behavioral traits/activity patterns most primates are... ­diurnal ­possess color vision ­have limited olfactory senses ­social (live in groups)  diurnal active during daylight hours  nocturnal active at night  sociality group living; a fundamental trait of haplorhine primates (except orangutans)  characteristics of strepsirhines ­reliance on olfaction


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