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by: Hannah Levine

Theatre History II, FINAL STUDY GUIDE THEA 24200

Marketplace > Ithaca College > Theater Arts > THEA 24200 > Theatre History II FINAL STUDY GUIDE
Hannah Levine
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Final Study Guide
History of Theatre II
Dr. Chrystyna Dail
Study Guide
theatre, history, Theatre History II
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Hannah Levine on Tuesday May 10, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to THEA 24200 at Ithaca College taught by Dr. Chrystyna Dail in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 43 views. For similar materials see History of Theatre II in Theater Arts at Ithaca College.

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Date Created: 05/10/16
Hannah  Clarke  Levine’s     FINAL  EXAM  STUDY  GUIDE   SPRING  2016     This  took  several  hours  to  complete  in  addition  to  the  40+  pages  of  notes  I  took  in   class;  please  don’t  share  this  study  guide  with  people  without  talking  to  me  first!     PLAYS  AND  THEORIES:     As  with  last  semester,  I  have  no  information  on  the  plays  or  theory  readings,  just   class  notes.  Sorry!  That  said,  be  sure  to  look  below  under  “PEOPLE”  for  some  info  on   the  people  who  wrote  the  theory  readings.  Best  of  luck!   From  Morn  to  Midnight       Blood  Wedding     Trifles   Mother  Courage  and  Her  Children       The  Strong  Breed     The  Bald  Soprano   Edward  Gordon  Craig   Adolphe  Appia   Karel  Brušák     F.T.  Marinetti   Tristan  Tzara       Alain  Locke     W.E.B.  DuBois   Antonin  Artaud   Bertolt  Brecht     Wole  Soyinka     Eugene  Ionesco     PEOPLE:     F.T.  Marinetti  (1876-­‐1944)  wrote  the  first  Futurist  manifesto;  son  of  a  wealthy   businessman;  educated  in  Italy  and  Franch;  had  tons  and  tons  of  expendable  income  and   really  didn’t  want  to  work,  so  he  decided  to  start  his  own  arts  movement     Tristan  Tzara,  Rumanian  born,  was  one  of  the  six  founders  of  the  Dadaist  movement  in   Zurich     Max  Reinhardt  (1873-­‐1943)  most  effectively  brought  Georg  Büchner’s  plays  to  20   th century  audiences  well  after  Büchner  had  died;  one  of  Brecht’s  major  influences  (Brecht   worked  as  his  assistant  for  two  years);  arguably  the  most  prolific  stage  director  of  the  20   th century;  eclectic  in  form  and  content;  forced  to  flee  Germany  in  1933  then  began  directing   in  the  US;  he  was  also  an  actor  and  put  together  a  late-­‐night  cabaret  in  Germany  called   Sound  and  Smoke,  which  later  became  the  experimental  Kleines  Theater  before  he  became   the  director  of  the  Deutsches  Theater  in  1905  (a  1000-­‐seat  mainstream  theatre)  and  then   purchased  the  300-­‐seat  house  next  door  for  the  experimental  Kammerspiele  theater,  thus   making  “Art  Theatre”  popular  for  the  first  time;  his  cabaret  also  heavily  influenced  Cabaret!     Maurice  Maeterlinck  (1862-­‐1949),  one  of  the  major  French  Symbolist  writers,  wrote   Princess  Maleine,  an  overnight  success  considered  by  some  to  be  more  beautiful  and  tragic   even  than  Macbeth  or  Hamlet  which  also  contains  repetitive  dialogue  and  huge  pauses;  he   believed  that  “Great  poetry  is  made  up  of  three  principle  elements:  first,  verbal  beauty;   then,  the  contemplation  and  passionate  portrayal  of  what  actually  exists  about  us  and   within  us,  that  is  to  say,  nature  and  our  sentiments;  [something  about  enveloping  the  whole   work  in  an  atmosphere  proper  to  it].  I  have  no  doubt  that  this  last  is  the  most  important”;   often  had  blind  or  elderly  protagonists;  created  static  drama,  in  which  the  action  and   dialogue  are  less  important  than  the  silences  (so  there  was  a  lot  of  muttering,  chanting,  and   repetition)       Erwin  Piscator  (1893-­‐1966)  studied  under  Reinhardt  and  produced  in  Germany,   Moscow,  and  the  US;  arguably  the  most  significant  named  influence  on  Brecht;  he   developed  the  theory  of  “Epic  Theatre”  and  believed  that  the  stage  is  a  “play-­‐machine  that   operates  as  an  arena  for  battling  ideas”;  every  single  theory  he  developed  was  adopted  and   perfected  by  Brecht;  his  theatre  was  mainly  a  mix  of  expressionism  and  agit-­‐prop  (The   Political  Theatre,  1929);  also  started  the  school  of  theatre  at  the  New  School     Mei  Lanfang  (1894-­‐1961),  a  very  well  respected  dan  performer  from  a  long  line  of  Beijing   Opera  actors,  noticed  that  female  actresses  were  being  treated  poorly  and  advocated  on   their  behalf;  refused  to  perform  during  the  Japanese  occupation;  toured  in  the  1930s  and   was  a  huge  inspiration  to  Meyerhold  and  Brecht  when  he  performed  at  the  Moscow  Art   Theatre     Georg  Kaiser  (1878-­‐1945)  wrote  From  Morn  to  Midnight  and  was  one  of  the  most   significant  Expressionist  playwrights     Emmy  Hennings,  German  born,  is  one  of  the  six  founders  of  Dadaism     Bertolt  Brecht  had  many  named  influences  (Victor  Shklovsky,  Mei  Lanfang,  Georg   Büchner,  Max  Reinhardt,  Erwin  Piscator,  and  early  German  Expressionism)  but  even   more  unnamed  influences  aka  his  side  hoes  –  he  would  travel,  find  a  new  female  partner,   sleep  with  her,  co-­‐write  at  least  one  play  with  her,  and  then  fucking  leave  and  take  all  the   credit;  evolved  Piscator’s  idea  of  Epic  Theatre  (see  below  for  description);  wrote  several   successful  plays  (Mother  Courage;  The  Good  Person  of  Setzuan;  etc.)     Helene  Weigel,  (1900-­‐1971)  was  Brecht’s  wife  as  well  as  the  actress  who  originated  roles   like  Mother  Courage  and  several  other  leads  in  Brecht’s  works.     Vsevolod  Meyerhold,  an  avant-­‐garde,  Russian  communist,  was  the  first  director  to  be  the   People’s  Artist  of  the  Republic.    Heavily  influenced  by  Frederick  Winslow  Taylor’s  theories   on  how  to  industrialize  labor  (Taylorism),  he  developed  biomechanics  (see  definition  in   “terms”  below);  saw  the  actor  as  being  no  different  from  the  laborer  and  wanted  to  pair   proletariat  ideals  with  theatre;  believed  in  using  the  physical  to  achieve  the  emotional;  also   known  for  constructivist  design  (machine-­‐like  setting,  moving  sculpture,  steps,  platforms,   ramps,  actors  in  uniform  coveralls,  etc.);  favored  director  of  Mayakovsky;  despite  having   been  the  Communist  party’s  golden  boy  for  a  while,  he  was  accussed  of  Formalism  when  he   directed  Maykovsky’s  The  Bath  House  in  1930  (also  he’d  been  writing  avant-­‐garde  pieces   under  a  pseudonym  and  held  his  own  ideals  over  those  of  the  state);  arrested  in  1939  when   Stalin  decides  that  only  socialist  realism  is  acceptable;  executed  in  1940  (as  was  his  wife).     Vladimir  Mayakovsky  (1893-­‐1930)  was  loved  and  respected  by  both  pro-­‐  and  anti-­‐ Stalinists  and  is  one  of  the  most  controversial  and  popular  playwrights  in  Russian  history;   led  the  avant-­‐garde  movement;  known  for  The  Bedbug  (1928);  worked  often  with   Meyerhold;  died  playing  Russian  Roulette.     Antonin  Artaud  competed  worldwide  with  Brecht  for  domination  as  theatre  theorists;  he   suffered  from  many  severe  mental  illnesses  (namely  schizophrenia)  and  lived  only  to  be   53);  equal  parts  set  designer  and  actor;  was  with  the  surrealist  movement  for  two  years   before  being  kicked  out  by  Breton  for  being  too  spiritual,  then  formed  Théâtre  Alfred  Jerry;   heavily  influenced  by  Balinese  dance,  eastern  religions,  and  occult  sciences;  best  known  for   writing  The  Theatre  and  its  Double  (1938);  hospitalized  in  1937  and  died  of  cancer;   developed  Theatre  of  Cruelty  (see  below);  into  spirituality;  saw  characters  as  archetypes;   Wagnerian  belief  in  a  singular  Creator  manning  the  helm  of  any  show;  existentialist,   optimist,  but  doesn’t  believe  in  digestible  theatre;  believes  that  theatre  has  the  potential  to   change  the  world  if  done  right.     Jean  Genet  (1910-­‐1986),  one  of  the  primary  Absurdist  writers,  was  born  an  illegitimate   child  abandoned  to  foster  care;  he  spent  most  of  his  early  life  in  French  prisons  and  grew  to   believe  that  good  and  evil  are  both  extremes;  he  found  the  absurd  in  extreme  evil;  believed   that  we  are  always  wearing  masks  and  can  never  get  to  any  true  essence;  wrote  The  Blacks;   theatre,  like  life,  “should  be  a  hall  of  mirrors  where  man  is  trapped  by  an  endless   progression  of  images  that  are  merely  his  own  distorted  reflection.”     Samuel  Beckett  (1906-­‐1989),  another  of  the  primary  Absurdist  writers,  is  best  known  for   Waiting  for  Godot  (staged  1953),  which  conveys  “sense  of  mystery,  bewilderment,  and   anxiety  when  confronted  with  the  human  condition,  and  despair  at  being  unable  to  find  a   meaning  in  existence”;  born  in  Ireland  but  spent  his  life  in  Paris;  was  in  James  Joyce’s  close   personal  circle;  didn’t  believe  in  habit,  routine,  or  social  intercourse  and  felt  that  artists   need  solitude  (that  said,  he  was  totally  married  and  had  friends  so  maybe  he’s  just   pretentious);  wrote  in  his  second  language,  French,  because  he  thought  it  needed  to  be  a   struggle.     Albert  Camus  (1913-­‐1960),  originally  an  Existential  theorist  but  ultimately  the  founder  of   Theatre  of  the  Absurd,  ditched  Sartre  when  he  joined  the  Communist  party  saying  that   rather  than  choosing  the  lesser  of  two  evils,  they  should  just  not  choose  evil  at  all;  wrote   The  Myth  of  Sisyphus,  the  essay  that  influenced  Absurdity;  guiding  principles:  humanity  has   no  rational  foundation  and  the  divorce  between  man  and  his  life  constitutes  the  feeling  of   Absurdity;  “In  order  to  be  a  man,  refuse  to  be  a  god,”  (read:  basically,  live  and  let  live).     Jean-­‐Paul  Sartre  (1905-­‐1980),  an  Existential  philosopher  and  theorist,  wrote  nine  plays   introducing  the  guiding  principles  of  existentialism  (read  full  explanation  of  existentialism   below);  joined  French  Communist  part;  guiding  principles:  rid  oneself  of  guilt  for  defying   authority,  the  only  failure  is  not  choosing  to  act,  and  engagement  is  inherently  dangerous;   “Man  is  condemned  to  be  free.”       Eugene  Ionesco  (1909-­‐1994)  is  the  third  primary  Absurdist  writer;  Rumanian  born  but   grew  up  in  France;  wrote  his  first  play  as  an  assignment  in  an  English  class  and  fell  in  love   with  it;  his  first  several  plays  (The  Bald  Soprano  and  The  Chairs)  failed;  attempted  to   eradicate  any  reference  to  theatrical  tradition;  completely  against  didactic  theatre  (didn’t   want  to  teach  the  audience  anything),  especially  Brecht;  truth  means  the  absence  of   commitment  because  the  minute  you  commit  to  something,  you  fall  into  conformity;  anti-­‐ cliché,  ideology,  and  materialism     Susan  Glaspell  helped  found  the  Provincetown  Players  and  wrote  Trifles;  everything  else   about  her  we  learned  with  the  playwright-­‐to-­‐playwright  project  instead  of  in  class,  soooo  I   hope  you  remember  that  stuff!     Wole  Soyinka  (b.  1934)  is  considered  the  “greatest  living  African  playwright”;  educated  in   Nigeria  and  England;  explores  parallel  plans  of  past/present/future,  the  need  for  sacrifice,   role  of  artists  in  society,  and  Ogun  (Yoruba  god);  wrote  The  Strong  Breed  (1962)  and   Death  and  the  King’s  Horsemen  (1975);  was  imprisoned  for  two  years;  won  Nobel  Prize  for   Literature  in  1986.     Athol  Fugard    was  a  member  of  the  Black  Consciousness  Movement  in  1960s-­‐70s  South   Africa;  focused  on  assertion  of  black  cultural  identity;  made  devised  theatre  (i.e.  Sizwe   Bansi  is  Dead  in  1972)  with  John  Kani  and  Winston  Ntshona.     Georg  Büchner  (1814-­‐1837),  proto-­‐expressionist,  is  one  of  Brecht’s  major  named   influences;  wrote  Danton’s  Death  and  Woyzeck  and  other  socially   th conscious/gritty/episodic/fatalistic  plays;  rediscovered  during  the  early  20  century  by   Reinhardt  and  never  actually  saw  his  own  plays  produced;  used  parataxis  (a  technique  of   using  short,  simple  sentences).     Tony  Pastor’s  Fourteenth  Street  Theatre  revolutionized  Vaudeville  when  it  opened  in   1865;  came  at  a  point  in  time  where  the  middle  class  had  expendable  income  post-­‐war,  so   women  became  a  target  audience;  addressed  the  need  for  clean,  family-­‐friendly   entertainment  with  no  smoking,  alcohol,  or  sexual  references;  introduced  practical  raffles,   etc.  to  keep  female/family  audiences  interested.     Federico  Lorca  (1898-­‐1936)  wrote  Blood  Wedding  and  is  one  of  the  creators  of  Theatre   of  the  Grotesque;  highly  influenced  by  Surrealism  (befriend  Luis  Bunuel  and  Salvador   Dali,  but  especially  Salvador  Dali,  who  he  also  had  a  ~thing~  with);  banned  during  the   Spanish  Civil  War  and  for  most  of  Franco’s  regime;  “The  theatre  is  a  school  of  weeping  and   laughter,  a  rostrum  where  men  are  free  to  expose  old  and  equivocal  standards  of  conduct,   and  explain  with  living  examples  the  eternal  norms  of  the  heart  and  feelings  of  man”;  he   was  a  poet  first  and  studied  law  in  Grenada  and  Arts  in  Madrid  in  1919;  raised  on  music;   highly  influenced  by  NYC  (specifically  Harlem)  and  appreciated  having  a  place  where  he   could  be  open  with  his  sexuality;  executed  by  firing  squad  in  1953  under  Franco  regime  for   being  associated  with  the  Libertarian  movement  and  for  having  a  Socialist  brother-­‐in-­‐law     Andre  Breton  (1896-­‐1966)    broke  with  the  French  Dadaists  in  1924  and  with  lots  of   influence  from  his  buddy,  Freud  (whose  theories  of  psychoanalysis  he  introduced  to   France),  created  Surrealism,  which  is  named  after  something  in  Apollinaire’s  play,  The   Breasts  of  Tiresias     Hugo  Ball  is  a  German-­‐born  founder  of  the  Dadaist  movement     Edwin  Christy  and  the  Christy  Minstrels  shaped  the  Minstrel  Show  art  form  (see  below   for  full  explanation  of  Christy’s  Minstrel  Shows)       MOVEMENTS/STYLES/TERMS/THEATRES:     German  Expressionism  first  emerged  in  1901  in  French  painting;  emphasizes  inner   feelings  about  objects/life  and  the  belief  that  beauty  resides  in  the  subjective  mind;  anti-­‐ industrialism  and  technology;  into  the  exploration  of  the  subconscious;  wanted  to   artistically  respond  to/address  social  problems;  aggressively  anti-­‐realist;  belief  that  we  as  a   society  have  the  choice  to  move  toward  complete  anarchy  or  complete  harmony   (destructive/utopian/mystic/activist);  fundamental  truth  is  found  within  the  spirit,   desires,  visions,  and  soul  of  humanity;  had  very  few  strong  female  characters  other  than   the  femme  fatale  (leading  a  man  to  something  evil);  Reinhard  Sorge’s  The  Beggar  in  1912   was  the  first  published  Expressionist  play  and  it  was  uncannily  similar  to  the  plot  of  Pippin;   most  significant  playwrights  were  Ernst  Tolle  and  George  Kaiser  (who  wrote  From  Morn   to  Midnight);  very  message  centered;  typically  features  a  search  or  pilgrimage  in  which  we   travel  through  the  protagonist’s  eyes;  dialogue  is  telegraphic  (short  and  sweet;  parataxis);   events  are  strongly  subjective;  characters  are  generic;  focus  on  gesture  and  pantomime;   basically,  think  Beetlejuice  or,  like,  anything  Tim  Burton  has  ever  done.     Futurism  emerged  mainly  in  Italy  and  had  a  huge  impact  on  every  field  in  the  arts;  violent,   aggressive,  pro-­‐war,  pro-­‐machine,  and  misogynistic;  “We  wish  to  glorify  War  –  the  only   health  giver  of  the  world  –  militarism,  patriotism,  the  destructive  arm  of  the  Anarchist,  the   beautiful  Ideas  that  kill,  the  contempt  for  women”;  anti-­‐glorification  of  the  past  (i.e.   museums  and  libraries);  under  Marinetti’s  theories/influence,  consisted  of  Art  of  all  kinds   (picture-­‐poetry,  kinetic  sculpture,  Bruitisme  [dynamic  sound],  Sintesi  [synthetic  drama;   extreme  brevity,  discontinuity,  abstraction,  alogicality,  and  simultaneity]);  consisted  of   Serate  performed  in  evenings  in  cabarets,  galleries,  etc.  which  included  manifesto  readings,   poetry,  music,  art,  exhibits,  and  Sintesi;  typically  abstract,  simultaneous,  and  ending  in   violence  from  the  audience,  which  was  encouraged  and  actively  provoked;  innovations   include:  attempt  to  rescue  theatre  from  its  museum-­‐like  atmosphere,  direct   confrontation/intermingling  between  audience  and  performers,  embracing  of  modern   technology  and  multimedia  performances,  simultaneity,  multi-­‐focus,  anti-­‐literary/alogical,   and  breaking  down  distinct  separation  of  the  arts.     Dada  is,  by  definition,  indefinable;  most  likely  the  name  came  from  the  founders  opening  a   French  dictionary  and  pointing  randomly  to  the  French  word  for  “hobby-­‐horse”;  founded   by  Hugo  Ball,  Emmy  Hennings,  Richard  Huelsenbeck,  Tristan  Tzara,  Marcel  Janco,  and  Hans   Arp;  aggressively  anti-­‐war  (largely  an  active  response  to  the  war,  which  is  why  they  went   to  Zurich);  largely  influenced  by  the  aesthetics  but  resembles  Futurism  in  that  it  began  as  a   literary  movement  and  embraces  simultaneity,  noise  poetry,  etc.;  the  first  Dadaist   theatrical  piece  premiered  in  1916  at  the  Cabaret  Voltaire  and  then  really  began  to  emerge   in  1920s  Paris;  very  similar  to  Futurist  theatre  but  a  better  blend  of  nonsense  with   humanity;  finally  performance,  in  Paris  in  1924,  was  called  Relâche;  no  artistic  innovations   of  their  own  since  most  of  it  was  also  Futurist,  but  specific  theoretical  innovations  include   the  appreciation  of  the  process  of  creation  and  the  appreciation  of  artists  as  individuals  of   unrestricted  freedom,  combatting  madness     Surrealism  focuses  on  extreme  exploration  of  the  subconscious,  expression  of  thought   without  the  filter  of  reason  and  morals,  automatic  writing  and  painting,  intermingling  of   familiar  and  strange,  alienation,  juxtaposition,  alogicality,  and  discontinuity;  achieved  much   more  successfully  in  painting  and  film  (i.e.  Un  Chien  Andalou  [1928],  Luis  Buñuel  and   Salvador  Dali);  lots  and  lots  of  drugs;  see  André  Breton  above  for  more  information  on  the   founding  theories  of  the  movement     Biomechanics,  developed  by  Vsevolod  Meyerhold,  refers  to  the  idea  of  factory  labor  as   actor  training;  relies  on  the  absence  of  unnecessary  and  unproductive  movements;  rhythm   is  essential;  focus  on  body’s  center  of  gravity  and  general  stability  (actors  lifted,  did   acrobatics,  etc.);  wanted  bodies  to  operate  like  machines  and  respond  accordingly  to   anything  thrown  at  them;  believed  in  using  the  physical  to  achieve  the  emotional     Theatre  of  Cruelty,  developed  by  Antonin  Artaud,  is  essentially  an  inverted  Aristotle;   privileges  the  mise  en  scène  over  the  written  text;  prefers  adaptations  and  conglomerations   of  a  wide  range  of  texts;  claims  that  theatre  is  a  drug  for  the  audience  to  sooth  them  of  their   pity  and  fear  (i.e.  we  go  to  the  theatre  to  be  anesthetized/lobotomized);  “Violent  physical   images  crush  and  hypnotize  the  sensibility  of  the  spectator”;  belief  that  people  are   inherently  bad  and  more  likely  to  always  choose  cruelty;  theatre  should  show  audiences   what  it  is  they’re  choosing  by  reflecting  their  inherent,  internal,  subconscious  cruelties;  the   spectacle  was  the  performance,  rather  than  the  text;  ideally,  spectator  would  be  at  the   literal  center  and  surrounded  by  the  spectacle     Theatre  of  the  Grotesque  comes  from  an  Italian  Renaissance  form  of  painting  known  as   chimera  (sp?);  grotesque  came  to  mean  “fantastical,”  at  first,  and  then  something  disturbing   in  the  19  century;  about  characters  always  on  the  verge  of  physical  or  psychological   transformation  (think  Caliban);  rides  the  delicate  balance  between  laughable  and   horrifying;  according  to  Victor  Hugo,  in  life,  and  therefore  in  the  theatre,  “the  ugly  exists   there  beside  the  beautiful,  the  deformed  next  to  the  graceful,  the  grotesque  on  the  reverse   of  the  sublime,  evil  with  good,  darkness  with  light”;  main  players  in  Spain  were  Federico   Garcia  Lorca  and  Ramon  Maria  del  Valle-­‐Inclan  (who  wrote  Divine  Words,  the  one  where   the  guy  gets  his  face  eaten  off  by  a  herd  of  pigs),  and  in  Italy  were  Luigi  Chiarelli  and  Luigi   Pirandello  (who  wrote  Six  Characters  in  Search  of  an  Author  and  believed  that  you  can   never  have  an  accurate  depiction  of  reality  or  of  a  person  because  we  always  perform   somewhat  inaccurately);  use  of  elaborate  metaphor;  ultimately  hopeful  and  positive;   existential  optimism;  multiple  truths  and  realities  exist  simultaneously     Epic  Theatre,  also  referred  to  as  dialectal  theatre,  was  developed  by  Erwin  Piscator,   despite  often  being  credited  to  Brecht,  who  fleshed  it  out;  purpose  is  to  “democratize  the   theatre”;  relies  largely  on  alienation  (see  below);  uses  historical  events  for  plots  structure;   purpose  is  to  alter  the  audience’s  consciousness     Alienation  Effect,  used  in  Epic  Theatre,  is  the  idea  of  being  brought  to  the  point  of   catharsis/climax  and  then  being  cut  off  immediately  in  order  to  think  about  why  you  were   cut  off;  actors  should  show  and  objectively  comment  on  a  character;  rehearsal  process  (and   sometimes  the  play  itself)  includes  speaking  in  third  person/past  tense  and/or  speaking     stage  directions;  gesture  used  to  indicate  inner  feelings;  direct  address  used  regularly;   should  be  in  as  open  a  space  as  possible;  what  you  see  is  what  you  get;  no  symbolism  or   illusion;  set  changes  should  be  visible  to  the  audience  and  lights  should  always  be  up;   central  character  expresses  the  dialectical  debate  (i.e.  Shen  Te/Shui  Ta);  the  audience   should  always  be  reminded  that  they’re  watching  a  play  (using  mixed  media,  often);  music   should  actively  oppose  the  emotional  moment;  audience  should  be  able  to  judge  what’s   happening  as  it  happens;  should  be  both  didactic  and  enjoyable     Masquerade  is  a  form  of  African  Indigenous  performance  in  which  the  spirits  enter  the   human  world  via  the  mask;  also  included  in  Nigerian  Total  Theatre       Existentialism  rides  on  the  basic  tenant,  “who  I  am  defines  what  I  am,”  and  asks  the   question  of  what  it  means  to  exist,  asserting  that  people  are  defined  entirely  by  their   actions;  a  person  doesn’t  exist  unless  consciously  and  freely  choosing  to  act  upon  their   choice;  every  choice  you  make  will  impact  someone  else  and  is,  therefore,  a  political  act;   non-­‐conformist;  reject  labels;  see  Jean-­‐Paul  Sartre  above     Symbolism  is  the  first  anti-­‐Realist  movement  and  developed  in  some  form  in  many   European  countries;  inspired  largely  by  Wagner,  Baudelaire,  and  Edgar  Allan  Poe;  based  in   John  Morás’  1885  manifesto,  though  the  first  explicitly  symbolist  manifesto  was  written  by   Gustave  Kahn  in  1889;  instead  of  finding  truth  in  reality,  they  were  into  the  “sixth  sense,”   the  ability  to  ascend  mentally  and  spiritually  through  art  that  we  all  have  but  only  some   actually  explore;  belief  that  everything  is  subjective;  truth  is  in  the  subjective,  the  spiritual,   and  the  mysterious  forces  at  work  in  the  world,  and  as  a  result,  truth  can  only  be  reflected   in  symbols  and  moods;  drama  itself  is  a  sacred  and  mysterious  rite;  considered  a   subversive  assault  on  morality  and  the  government;  akin  to  anarchism;  goal  to  achieve  a   spiritual  and  mental  transcendence  in  the  audience;  major  players  include  Paul  Claudel   (The  Satin  Slipper;  considered  the  greatest  Symbolist  playwright;  known  for  impossible  to   stage  plays),  Paul  Fort  (formed  Théâtre d’Art; audiences were aggressively split between huge fans and people who came to heckle), Aurélien-Marie Lugné-Poë (formed Théâtre de l’Oeuvre, which was much more professional and began every show with a crucial explanatory lecture), and Maurice Maeterlinck (see above)     Theatre  of  the  Absurd  rides  on  the  notion  that  a  person  becomes  lost  and  their  actions   senseless  if  they  are  separated  from  what  they  know;  absurdity  is  defined  as  “out  of   harmony  with  reason  or  propriety;  incongruous,  unreasonable,  illogical”;  abandoned  all   theatrical  rules;  achieved  anti-­‐conformity  in  form  and  content;  influenced  by  mime,   clowning,  the  grotesque,  dad,  and  theatre  of  cruelty;  unlike  the  existentialists,  they  never   believed  the  world  would  see  real  positive  change;  see  Samuel  Beckett,  Eugène  Ionesco,   and  Jean  Genet  above     Minstrel  Shows  were  more  popular  in  the  North  than  the  South;  there  was  a  precedent  in   American  theatre  already  for  shows  mocking  certain  cultures  (Jews,  Irish,  Germans,  etc.)   that  led  to  the  popularity  of  blackface  (“blacking”  or  “corking”  up)  by  1832;  began  with  TD   Rice  and  his  “Jump  Jim  Crow”  character;  minstrel  shows  didn’t  become  popular  as  a  full   night  of  entertainment  unto  itself  until  the  1840s-­‐early  20  century;  they  are  the  first   uniquely  American  theatrical  form;  Edwin  P.  Christy  and  the  Christy  Minstrels  shaped  the   art  form,  which  consisted  of  the  following:  Act  One  (sat  in  a  line  with  Tambo  and  Bones  on   either  end  and  Mr.  Interlocutor  [the  “straight  man”]  in  the  middle,  told  lots  of  jokes,  banter,   etc.,  and  ended  with  a  walk-­‐around),  Act  Two  (called  the  Fantasia  or  Olio;  individual   comedy  numbers  full  of  racially-­‐driven  comedy  and  lots  of  cross-­‐dressing),  Act  Three  (the   Burlesque,  aka  the  parody,  which  parodied  a  popular  cultural  event  or  figure);  black   minstrel  performers  came  to  exist,  though  even  they  corked  up     Vaudeville  (1860s-­‐1930s)  is  defined  as  a  show  consisting  of  unrelated  acts  following  one   another  in  succession;  began  in  its  most  common  form  at  Tony  Pastor’s  Fourteenth  Street   Theatre  (see  above);  Benjamin  F.  Keith  and  Edward  F.  Albee  (not  that  Edward  Albee;  his   grandfather)  formed  their  own  Vaudeville  theatre  in  1887  and  took  over  their  own  circuit,   called  the  Keith  circuit;  Keith  got  old,  Albee  took  over,  and  he  started  charging  artists  5%   booking  fees;  standard  Nine-­‐Act  Bill  consisted  of  the  following:  1.  The  Dumb  Act  (okay  to   trickle  in,  you  didn’t  really  need  to  hear  it),  2.  The  Crowd  Seller  (usually  a  male  and  female   singing  duet),  3.  Wake  Up  The  Audience  (sketch),  4.  Corker  (first  big  punch  and  some   secondary  names),  5.  Big  Act  (headliner  or  dance  number),  intermission  (at  which  point   raffles  could  be  entered),  6.  Famous  Comedy  Dumb  Act,  7.  Headliner  Playlet,  8.  Chief   Attraction  (major  solo  headliner,  9.  Tech-­‐Heavy  Act  (animals,  etc.);  often  had  ridiculous   four-­‐show  days;  essential  legacy:  first  cheap/family-­‐friendly  entertainment,  relatively  non-­‐ discriminatory,  and  provided  excellent  training     Burlesque  (1860s-­‐1939)  didn’t  used  to  be  sexy  and  was  once  defined  as  a  plot-­‐based,  fully   composed  parody  or  spoof;  Lydia  Thompson  and  her  British  Blondes  first  sexualized   burlesque  with  the  first  all-­‐female  burlesque  that  was  more  about  clothing  than  plot  and   introduced  leg  shows;  Michael  Leavitt  and  the  Rentz-­‐Santley  Shows  (1869-­‐1879)  truly   originated  American  Bulesque  and  had  more  women  in  tights  than  actual  burlesquing   (usually  starring  Mable  Santley);  the  format  was  as  follows:  1.  Candy  Butcher’s  spiel,  2.   Opening  chorus  number,  3.  Monologues/songs/dances/etc.,  Intermission  (now  with   alcohol!),  4.  Another  Candy  Butcher  spiel,  5.  Specialty  number,  6.  Added  Attraction  (aka   strip  tease),  7.  Finale;  the  Golden  Age  of  Burlesque  came  from  1900-­‐1910  with  the  real   popularity  of  the  strip  tease;  the  strip  tease  was  primarily  monologue,  posing,  strutting,   dancing,  singing,  and  occasionally  bumping  and  grinding  (the  final  piece  of  clothing  wasn’t   removed  until  the  last  second,  after  which  she  would  run  off-­‐stage;  there  were  maybe  five   seconds  of  nudity  in  a  ten  minute  act);  the  Minsky’s  (1920-­‐1939)  introduced  the  bump  and   grind  and  fully  turned  burlesque  into  stripping,  until  Mayor  Fiorello  and  the  supreme  court     fully  banned  them  and  burlesque  in  general     Beijing  Opera  formed  after  performers  from  Anhui  province  bring  pihuang  music  system   to  Beijing  in  1790;  pihuang  consists  of  erhuang  (serious)  and  xipi  (happy)  music  styles;   incredibly  simple  set  (nearly  bare  stage  plus  a  curtain  on  the  upstage  wall)  but  richly   symbolic;  companies  were  initially  all-­‐male  but  all-­‐thmale  companies  formed  later,   followed  by  mixed  companies  in  the  20  century;  four  types  of  roles  [male  (sheng),  female   (dan),  painted-­‐face  (jing),  and  clown  (chou)]  each  of  which  is  subdivided  and  further   identified  by  melodies/pitches/etc.;  most  actors  start  in  a  certain  type  of  role  by  age  6  or  7   and  stay  there  their  entire  lives;  two  types  of  plays:  civil  (wen)  and  military  (wu),  which  are   further  subdivided  into  serious  (daxi)  and  comedic  (xiaoxi);  see  Mei  Lanfang  above     Post-­‐Colonialism  refers  to  the  period  in  Africa  following  the  Berlin  Conference  (1884-­‐85)   which  disbanded  the  European  colonies  in  Africa;  in  South  Africa,  this  presented  as  black   theatre  in  the  Western  Style  (i.e.  The  Girl  Who  Killed  to  Save,  1953,  which  was  written  in   English  and  performed  by  black  performers)  and  the  Black  Consciousness  Movement  (see   Athol  Fugard  above);  in  Nigeria,  the  most  populous  African  country  which  had  an   economic  surplus  from  an  oil  boom  and  impressive  infrastructure  and  education  as  well  as   government  funding  of  the  arts,  post-­‐Colonialism  led  to  Total  Theatre  (see  Wole  Soyinka   above)     Avant-­‐Garde,  a  movement  led  by  Vladimir  Mayakovsky  and  Vsevolod  Meyerhold  (see   above)     Eurhythmics  is  a  kinesthetic  system  of  learning  rhythm  developed  by  Emile  Dalcroze  and   used  by  Adolphe  Appia,  who  saw  light  as  the  visual  equivalent  of  music  and  was  the  first  to   design  a  multidirectional  light     Dialectic  is  defined  literally  as,  “the  art  of  investigating  or  discussing  the  truth  of  opinions”   or  “inquiry  into  metaphysical  contradictions  and  their  solutions”;  contextually,  it  refers   largely  to  the  work  of  Bertolt  Brecht            


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