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Recording Techniques I Final Study Guide

by: Bria Hammond

Recording Techniques I Final Study Guide MUSI 4390

Marketplace > University of Texas at Arlington > Music > MUSI 4390 > Recording Techniques I Final Study Guide
Bria Hammond
GPA 3.2

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These notes cover the material learned between the midterm and the end of the semester.
Recording Techniques I
Micah Hayes
Study Guide
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Bria Hammond on Wednesday May 11, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to MUSI 4390 at University of Texas at Arlington taught by Micah Hayes in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see Recording Techniques I in Music at University of Texas at Arlington.


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Date Created: 05/11/16
Recording Techniques 1: Final Exam Review What are the three (3) categories of sound? 1) Early reflections a. First few orders of waves; typically will occur within the first 50 milliseconds 2) Reverberation a. Exponentially dense cloud of reflections; calculated statistically rather than exactly 3) Direct Sound a. Sound that hits directly from the sound source What is the Law of the First Wavefront? - Our ears always interpret this as the most important What are the two (2) elements of Early Reflections? 1) Haas Effect a. Ability of our ears to localize sounds coming from anywhere around us 2) Haas Window a. The amount of time where a discrete echo is heard/occurs What are the two (2) elements of Reverberation? 1) Reverb Tail a. The general wash of sound that occurs after the early reflections in a natural or electronic reverb 2) Reverb Time a. The time for the sound to die away after the sound source ceases What are the characteristics of Reverberation? 1) Decay 2) Direct-to-reverberant ratio 3) Reverb tail 4) Reverb time When does the decay time start from reverberation? - At 60 dB At what point is the reverb tail dead? - At -60 dB What is direct-to-reverberant ratio? - The ratio between the intensities of the direct sound and reverberation Sabine Equation: What is Artificial Reverberation designed to do? - Emulate acoustic spaces What are the six (6) types of artificial reverberation? 1) Chamber Reverberators (1930s) a. AKA Echo Chamber; empty room with mic and speaker 2) Spring Reverb (early 1950s) a. Driving transducer on one end, receiving at the other; used for organs and guitar amps 3) Plate Reverb (late 1950s) a. Drive element and receivers on one side; damper on other side 4) Digital Reverb (late 1960s) a. Offers immense control; quality is debated 5) Plug-ins (late 1990s) a. Initially poor quality but have become better in recent years 6) Convolution Reverb a. Impulse response (IR) What are the six (6) elements of Digital Reverb? 1) Program a. Choose a pre-set and specific category 2) Pre-delay a. Control time for the first reflection/echo 3) High-Frequency roll-off a. The frequency the reverb begins to roll-off 4) Decay shape a. Short/loud reverb; the “tail” 5) Decay time a. Exact amount of time for direct sound to diminish at 60 dB 6) Wet/dry mix a. Controls direct-to-reverberant ratio What is an Impulse Response Function (IRF)? - The reaction of any dynamic system in response to some external change - Its output when presented with a brief input signal (an impulse) Quantization (Bit-Depth) - Number of buts used for each sample - Analogous to the up/down aspect of amplitude - Limits dynamic range Pulse-Code Modulation - Patented by Alex Reeves in 1938 - The source of all digital communication Digital Signal-to-Noise Ratio - Bit-depth determines this Nyquist Theorem - Developed by Henry Nyquist in 1929 Timeline of Tape-based Digital Machines: 1940s, 50s, and 60s - Thomas Stockham o Began experimenting w/ digital tape in 1969 o Develops Soundstream Recorder 1970s - Soundstream is the primary provider of digital devices throughout the 70s - First digital release is the Santa Fe Opera in 1976 1980s - Sony and Phillips: Created the Compact Disc (1981) - DAT o Became the standard 2-track master tape o The first commercially released digital CD – Billy Joel’s 52 nd Street on Sony 1990s - Digital Tape Machines o Modular Digital Multi-track (MDM) recorders were developed o Alesis released ADAT machines (uses VHS tapes) o Tascam releases DA-88 (uses High-8 tapes) - Digital Hard-disk Machines o RADAR o MX-2424 o Personal Computers - Digital Audio Workstations o Personal computers became powerful enough to handle audio Current Day - Still personal computer-based - Interfaces frequently have converters and preamps - 64-bit vs 32-bit floating technology What are some examples of Digital Audio Workstations? 1) Avid-Protools 2) MOTU – Digital Performer 3) Sonic Solutions 4) Steinburg – Cubase What is a Wordclock? - When digital machines must be connected at sample level and one machine must be the Master clock What is Jitter? - The result of multiple digital machines being out-of-sync Why are Hard-disk Recorders better than Tape-based ones? 1) Can record longer files 2) Random access editing 3) Non-destructive editing 4) Software integration


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