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Political Science Entire semester of notes

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Political Science Entire semester of notes Political Science 141

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Notes from the entire semester
American Government and Politics
Eric Loepp
Study Guide
Politics, Science, The Presidency, supreme, court, Media
50 ?




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This 29 page Study Guide was uploaded by Brittany Notetaker on Wednesday May 11, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Political Science 141 at University of Wisconsin - Whitewater taught by Eric Loepp in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see American Government and Politics in Political Science at University of Wisconsin - Whitewater.

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Date Created: 05/11/16
  Political Science 141­04 Eric Loepp Chapter one Justice seems easy in abstract yet difficult in the particular. Key questions: How should limited resources be allocated and who bears the burden of  providing those resources. Government is a set of institutions and procedures that rule a land and its people. Government  can be very simple such as a student government or complex such as the US national system. ­Why have a government? To avoid anarchy. Government is essential because there is  no way to enforce rules. Need some basic form of government or there will be chaos. ­”If men were angels, no government would be necessary.” Madison no one person is  perfect. THis is realistic due to the fact that everyone will put oneself before others. Goals of the government:    ­Goal one: Provide order ensure some sort of order. Founders were VERY  concerned about factions or a group of people with a common interest and coming together to  dominate all the others. Ultimate goal is to prevent any one faction from gaining power. ­Goal two: Promote General Welfare.  There are things that affect the country as a whole but not necessarily any given individual  citizen. People DO NOT like to sacrifice for the common good.  What is politics?  ­ Politics refers to the conflicts and struggles over the leadership, structure, and  policies of government.  Major themes: ­ Politics is about conflict. ­ Political process matters. Process is a set of rules that impacts an outcome. ­ Politics is a persuasive strategic game. Conflict: Politics is often a zero­sum game in which one group’s gain is another group’s loss. Chapter Two Key Questions: What motivated the founders to make the decisions they did? ­ We split from Britain because of the lack of representation, high taxes, and  religion. Colonists displeased with Britain meddling in affairs and taxation without  representation. There was a growing anti­british feeling. More and more groups from in  opposition to British rule. In 1776, we formally declare independance and a declaration  of war. ­ We win now what? The Articles of Confederation lay out their first national  government and loosely held the 13 states together. It failed due to the lack of national  government and given to much power to the states. We feared centralized power.  Congress could not tax and there was no president.  ­ Shays Rebellion 1787. Daniel Shay leads a group of farmers in rebellions against the state of Massachusetts to prevent foreclosures on their land. Shay’s rebellion shows  that the federal government had no power and shined a light on the problems with the  government.  ­ Constitutional conventions begins in May 1787 each state sent representatives to Philadelphia.  Original ideas  was to “fix” the Articles of Confederation. The group  decided the Articles of Confederation had too much wrong and a new government  began. ­ James Madison are all people good or bad? Madison were wary that people  would go against what the government would say.  Major issues to tackle 1) How much power should the national government get relative to the states. 2) What is the “right amount” of democracy? 3) What could be done about slavery? ­Most difficult issues during the convention  ­ Declaration of Independence said all men are created equal  Selling Constitution to America ­Movement to get constitution ratified and pass it.  ­Should we support a new system in which a great deal more power is granted to a central  government? Those in favor were called Federalists. Those not in favor were the Anti­Federalists.                The Federalist Papers: ­Papers written to advocate the ratification of the proposed constitution.  ­85 essays were penned (anonymously) by Madison, Hamilton, and Jay ­ Anti­Federalists also published a series of papers criticizing the proposed Constitution.  A big problem were factions. Big challenge: How do you keep a majority from oppressing a minority. How do you control  mischiefs of a faction? We do not have a pure democracy!! ­ We have a republic which means that the masses elect a subset of people who are in charge  of making and enforcing laws. We delegate power to a select group of individuals and they look  out for us in law and policy.  Pluralism: the more factions you have the more they offset each other and no individual group  grows too big or too powerful. Small vs. Large States The Great Compromise: How do you staff congress. Legislator has two chambers based upon  population.  Bicameral legislature: a lower chamber where representation is based on population and an  upper chamber where all states are represented equally. This is precisely what we got and still  have today. There are more balancing!!! Such as, National power deals with coinage,treaties  with other countries, trade, and war. While state deals with taxes, infrastructure, and education. Reserved Powers: if the Constitution does not give a particular power to the federal  government that power therefore belongs to the state.  Federalist Paper 51 Part one: A faction is a small, organized, dissenting group within a larger one and we can cure  factions’ mischiefs by removing the cause of factions however this would lead to giving  everyone the same opinion or destroying liberty.  Part two: A faction is a small, organized, dissenting group within a larger one and we can cure  factions’ mischiefs by trying to control them however this would lead to minorities and majorities  and majorities would override any minority faction while majorities can be dealt with by  preventing majorities from forming and prevent majorities from oppressing others so what we  truly need is a REPUBLIC. Supremacy clause­ This clause proclaims that all laws passed by the national government  supersede any laws passed by the state government.  A state must execute a federal law just  as would execute a state law.                               Slavery ● The Constitution  does not really talk about slavery.  There was no logical way to  handle slavery.  Southern states wanted them counted as part of the state's population  because it would boost representation;  Northern states did not.  ● John Adams was the only founding father who do not own slaves.   ● The “solution” is to count slaves as three­fifths of a person for the purposes of  representation.  Have to reach a middle ground. Slaves have no voting rights. ● That's all the constitution says about slavery.  The founders knew that slavery  was a hypocrisy  but they were constrained.  The south would not have been a part if  there was nothing written towards slavery.  Federalists  ● Centralized government ● Pro constitution  ● Wealthy elite ● Elites run the show  Anti­federalist ● State control ● Wary of constitution  ● Farmers,  blue collar ● Common man representation The bill of rights were given so the Anti­Federalists  to agree to support the constitution. Bill of  rights to give individuals say.                    Three major differences 1. Representation: Anti­Federalists wanted more representatives and greater  representation of various interests. 2. Threats of majority: Anti­Federalists worried about aristocracy in itself; federalists worried that a majority of the people would suppress the minority.  3. Governmental power: Federalists wanted a more centralized  government while  Anti­Federalists wanted more local control.                      What do we get ● Constitution  is short with seven different articles the first three deal with the main government.                   The legislature  ● Representatives 435 serve two years  ● Senators 100 six years. ● Representatives seats are up for election  at the same time but only one third of  the Senate is ever up for election. ● Bicameral  or two chambers ● Key Goal: was balancing accountability with reasoned public policy.           Federalism and Separation of Power Key concept: How does governmental power work? Power determines who gets to make policy. ● Federalism refers to a diversion of power between multiple governments.   Example: Chancellor, College Letters and Sciences, Political Science department.  ● National and state government have certain powers reserved only to them.   However, they share concurrent power in other stresses.  Examples: police authority   and taxes.                       Privileges and immunities ● States have to treat citizens of other states as they would their own.  Promotes  travel and economic activity asking states.  However, there are exceptions.                       Full faith and credit (FFC) ● Every state has to respect each other's laws just as they have to respect the  national government’s laws.  ⅔  Notes: ● We can loosely divide the history of federalism into two general periods and  several specific forms. 1.  Dual feudalism (1789­1937) 2. Cooperative federalism (1937­1960s)               ­Fiscal federalism              ­ Coercive federalism               ­ New federalism ● Federalists/ Anti­Federalisits still fight over proper scope of national vs. State  power.                                National Supremacy is established ● McCulloch vs. Maryland: (1819) SCOTUS affirms national Supremacy and  Congress implied/enumerated powers. The federal government does not want to tax a  federal bank. State cannot tax the federal government. Shook the government to show  the national Supremacy! ● Dual federalism:  The idea of multiple government ruling on their own. The state  and national governments work in largely separate jurisdictional spheres. Not much  interaction with each other.                                            ­different levels of government yet kept separate. ● Barron v. Baltimore: (1833) distinguishes federal vs. state. The bill of rights only applies to the federal government, not the state. Only protection from the federal  government. ● The Supreme Court plays a major role in shaping the nature of federalism. ● The interpretation of the commerce clause which says Congress can regulate  amoung other things trade between stated. The commerce clause was vague and began to have different meanings. Similarly, the New Deal (1930s) relied heavily on the  national government becomes more involved in activities historically under the states.  Federal government supported stares through subsides or grants­in­aid (basically  bribes) ● Federal and state governments enjoyed “supportive relations” and even  partnerships.                                                 Analogy ● The “marble” (cooperate) cake reflects different levels of government working  together. The “layer” (dual) cake means that the state and national governments are  separate. Work within own policy areas. Agriculture people would not work with  education people. ● Fiscal federalism is when the feds funnel money down to the states. ● Key idea is that there are always strings attached ● Grants­in­aid: A grant is federal money that is given to the states to support local  projects and goals. Grants come in many shapes and forms, and each have different  rules and requirements governing their use. ● Categorical grants: Money that is earned by Congress to go to states to states for use in specific areas. Congress gives states x number of dollars to use in y policy area. ● Block grants: money is given to use in a specific policy area but the state decides precisely how that money is used. State has MORE authority over how it is spent. ● Project grant:, Money for which states compete via proposals to federal  agencies. ● Formula grants: Money is given based on a formula example x dollars spend on  food stamps. ⅖                                         Federal over time ● Cooperative federalism era  saw pretty friendly and supportive relationships  between the states and the federal government. Federal government is playing a larger  role in public life.  ● Coercive federalism is when states are forced to comply with federal  requirements in order to receive money.  ● Unfunded mandates are programs or standards imposed on states by the federal government that do not come with money. Example: Wheelchair accessible buildings. ● 1984: Drinking age became tied to state highway funding and if the states did not comply they did not get funding. ● Justice Rehnquist: “Congress can offer relatively mild encouragement to the  states to enact higher minimum drinking ages than they would otherwise choose.” ● No Child left behind Act (NCLB) requires states to comply with federal testing  standards in order to keep receiving federal money for education.  Civil Liberties ● Civil Liberties: Refer to protections that citizen have FROM certain actions by  the government.  ○ This is what the government must do ● Rights refer to obligations imposed on the government to guarantee that all  citizens are protected equally ● Civil liberties come in conflict with the greater good Example: Yelling fire in a  crowded movie theater. ● We have to set some limits. However in Court they tend to lead towards the First  Amendment.  ○ The First ten Amendments to the Constitution comprise the Bill of  Rights and contains phrases such as and shalt not. Technically the Bill of Rights  are in reality liberties. ○ We could amend the constitution. It won’t happen but we can.  ❖ First Amendment: Freedom of religion in the establishment  clause creates the wall between church and state. The government cannot   establish a national church but it’s not easy. People disagree about the wall such  as should be religious symbols be displayed in public schools. ➢ The government cannot infringe on a person’s right  to worship or not worship ( free exercise clause) ➢ You cannot use fighting words that instigate  violence or damaging conduct.  ➢ Freedom of the Press: the press enjoys much of  the same freedom of speech as the public. Libel and slander refer to  malicious and untrue written and oral statements but are hard to prove. ❖ Second Amendment: The right to bear arms.  ➢ Established the rights of an individual to own  firearms in District of Columbia v. Heller (2008). The 2nd amendment  states that one can have a firearm unrelated to possessing it for a milita.  McDonald v. Chicago (2010) again rules the states cannot prohibit people from owning guns in their homes for the purpose of self­defense. The  second Amendment is mostly a STATE issue. ❖ Fourth, Fifth, Sixth, and Eighth Amendment: Rights for those  criminally accused.  ➢ Due Process: Guarantee that individuals receive  all rights to which they are entitled. Violating due process can get the  case thrown out even if the defendant is clearly guilty.  ➢ Miranda v. Arizona (1966) SCOTUS rules that any  person placed under arrest must be informed of their legal rights. ➢ Why can the TSA go through my stuff despite me  committing no crime? ■ 4th Amendment protects people  from unreasonable searches of their property however it comes  down to privacy v. public safety ■ Exclusionary rule: Evidence  obtained illegally cannot be used in a criminal trial. ● There is a good faith  exception if the authorities believed the search was legal. ●    ★ 5th Amendment citizens have a right to a grand jury, which is called to determine  if a trial is warranted or not.  ★ Double jeopardy: A person cannot be tried for the same crime twice.   ★ Self incrimination: gives people the right to not incriminate oneself. “I plead the  fifth” ★ Eminent domain is the power of the government to take private property from  citizens for public use. ★ 6th Amendment: The right to counsel… Defenders have a right to a “speedy”  trial, impartial jury, and a lawyer. ○ Public defenders are lawyers who are assigned to defendants who cannot afford their own attorneys. ★ 8th Amendment: Protection of criminal defendants from excessive force by the  government. Week Five Civil Rights ● Civil Rights are claims that citizens are entitled to make on the government. ○ Rights ARE NOT Liberties ● General rule: Civil rights narrow at the beginning but evolved slowly. ● Civil war jump started several key amendments (Reconstruction Amendments)  13,14,15  ○ Equal protection (14), Abolishes Slavery (15), and government  cannot discriminate (15) ● Equal protection refers to the idea that everyone must be equal under the law. ● Brown v. Board of Education ● Roe v. Wade ● Bush v. Gore ● Obergefell v. Hodges ● Voting: the constitution did not include a provision declaring the right for all  citizens. Therefore it used to be only a small percentage of people. Now in order to vote  you must be a citizen, registered, and 18.  ● Women’s Suffrage: denied equal rights under the rationale that they needed to  be protected by men (protectionism) how we thought culturally.  ● “Men is or should be woman's  protector and defender.” (Justice Bradley 1873)  ● 1918 most states allowed women to vote but had no federal protection. ● 1919 the 19th amendment guaranteed women the right to vote in federal  elections. ○ This was 50 years after the civil war and the 14th amendment.  ● Women still faced/face discrimination in education ○ Title IX (nine) of the 1972 education act explicitly forbids gender  discrimination in education. ● The Equal Rights Amendment was an amendment floated around in the 1970s  ● Poll tax is a specific amount one had to pay (usually a ridiculous amount) in order to vote ○ Voting rights Act in 1965 took over a century for voting rights for  blacks to be fully legalized. Got around the 15th Amendment by putting up  barriers such as literacy tests and poll taxes. ○ Laws to outlaw segregation and provide equal opportunity were  passed but unenforceable.  ○ Southern States passed Jim Crow laws that institutionalized racial  segregation. Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) SCOTUS rules that segregation is legal  as long as blacks and whites enjoy equal facilities. (Separate but equal). Court  ruled that the 14th amendment was not intended to remove all distinctions based  on color. NOT EQUAL. ○ Brown v. Board of Education (1954) SCOTUS views the 14th  Amendment in terms of consequences of segregation, which were clearly not  equal, Plessy v. Ferguson was overturned. Court rules that states could no  longer discriminate on the basis of race in any law making way and the federal  government would from this point on intervene against discriminatory practices in states. This did not end discrimination ○ Dejure is outlawed but de facto is what is in effect. ● It would take a proactive movement on the part of legislators to work towards  “equal protection” in practice Review Questions 1) Which of the following best explains why the first crack at a national government would end up a pretty miserable failure? a. The executive was not given sufficient power to act in a time of national crisis b. It did not include protections for freedom of speech c. The Founders overcorrected for their fear of centralized power d. Too many provisions were legally ambiguous, leading to chaos 2) Why did the Founders opt for a republican system over a direct democracy? a. A large majority of Americans at the time were uneducated, and therefore simply did not know enough about politics to participate effectively b. They worried people would make impulsive decisions if given direct power to make policy themselves c. They were concerned a manipulative minority of political elites would (effectively) brainwash the masses into voting against their own interests d. The Founders were well aware that no direct democracy had ever worked before for longer than a few years 3) The Great Compromise can still be seen today when we look at __________. a. The structure of Congress b. Race relations c. State vs. national power d. Judicial review 1) The best way to characterize the evolution of federalism in the U.S. would be to say that… a. The early days saw considerable cooperation between state and federal government but over time the federal government has grown increasingly dominant b. State and federal governments worked together closely until the midtwentieth century when a series of SCOTUS rulings gave the states more power than the federal government via selective incorporation c. Initially the federal government focused on foreign affairs and states dealt with domestic issues, but globalization in the twentieth century has seen the federal government exercise it’s national supremacy more frequently than in the past d. Early on the state and local governments worked largely within their own spheres, but then they began to work together, with the federal government first incentivizing and later demanding compliance with federal policy 2) Due to the __________ clause of the Constitution, Wisconsin can make my dad, visiting from Oregon, pay more for a fishing license than they demand of me for the exact same license. a. Equal protection b. Privileges and immunities c. Full faith and credit d. Due process 3) Which Supreme Court case was most instrumental in affirming dual federalism for roughly the first half of American history? a. McCulloch v. Maryland (1819) b. Cohens v. Virginia (1821) c. Barron v. Baltimore (1833) d. South Dakota v. Dole (1987) 1) If these four different people were to all claim a Fourth Amendment violation, which of them would have the strongest legal case? a. Sarah, who works for a private company that required a drug test as a condition of employment b. Kyle, who was unhappy that his school principal allowed police to search his locker c. Jeff, who learned that the government had been tracking his credit card purchases d. Kendall, who is upset that her purse was searched as she entered Lambeau Field for a Packers game 2) Which of the following cases would does the government have the strongest case for prior restraint? a. A reporter in Iraq discovers that the U.S. plans a secret raid against Iranian nuclear facilities a few days before the mission is scheduled b. The Los Angeles Times discovers that the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved a drug in part, it appears, because of political pressure from a powerful member of Congress c. The Tampa Bay Times plans to run an op­ed right before the midterm elections criticizing the Obama Administration for not doing enough to clean up after the BP oil spill d. A radical right­wing newspaper repeatedly publishes anti­Obama rhetoric, often including hate speech 3) Which of the following questions best examples the challenge posed by the establishment clause? a. Can a religious group sacrifice animals in the course of worship? b. Can athletes lead a group of players in prayer before a public high school football game? c. Can religious groups hold meetings in public parks? d. Can a citizen avoid being drafted into military service by objecting to war on religious grounds? 1) Imagine that UW­Whitewater wanted to increase racial diversity in its student body. Based on the current (February 2016) constitutional status of affirmative action, which of the following practices would most likely be upheld by the court system? 1) UW­Whitewater may switch to a process where all new applicants are scored on a 100­point scale and non­white students get 15 points automatically 2) UW­Whitewater may reserve between 8% and 12% of new admissions for racial minorities 3) An applicant’s race may be considered but a quota system may not be used 4) Race cannot be considered under any circumstances 2) Just as __________ overturned Plessy v. Ferguson (1896), __________ overturned Bowers  v. Hardwick (1986). 1) Brown v. Board of Education (1954); United States v. Windsor (2013) 2) Gratz v. Bollinger (2003); Grutter v. Bollinger (2003) 3) Brown v. Board of Education (1954); Lawrence v. Texas (2003) 4) Roe v. Wade; Fisher v. University of Texas (2015) 3) If you asked a critic of laws that would require voters to show an ID in order to cast a ballot, what would he be most likely to say? e 2) Republican turnout might increase, potentially hurting minorities’ interests. 3) Voter fraud might increase. 4) These policies infringe on minorities’ civil liberties.                                       Unit two Public opinion: how do people feel about politicians and political issues of the day.              There are two types of opinions Individual opinion and Aggregate opinion. ●  Individual opinion concerns what particular citizens think of politics.  ● Aggregate opinion concerns what the general public and their view. Public is  never ever of one mind. Early on, it appeared people did not know much at all. People  were inconsistent/ unstable in their opinions. Did not know much about politics at all.  “People are stupid.” There are two forms of opinions one can create. ● Pre­formed opinion is like ideology and other core beliefs. An example of this  would be are you a coke or Pepsi person. ● Latent opinions are opinions just below the surface formed on the spot. Key: We have generalized opinions and beliefs (like ideology) but most of our day­to­day  (latent) opinions are generated on the spot. We tend to draw only an immediate salient  considerations when rendering political opinions. 2/29 Happy Leap Day!! ● Initial reactions supporting tougher gun control were just that­initial­ they  eventually wore off (in an aggregate sense). By November 2013, support for gun control  returned to pre­Newtown levels. ● Public opinion usually work back down after spikes due to events ● Where do political opinions come from? ○ Political Socialization: We are socialized into politics, just like we are in other aspects of life. Our life experience,families,friends,and environment  shape our political views. ■ The single best piece of information for  guessing a person’s political party affiliation is your parents. ● Education: Schools often require civics courses. ● Context/Events: Where and how we live our lives means we are exposed to  different things that affect our political views. 3/2 Group Identity ● Identities: How we view ourselves within social groups ● Cohort Effects: These matter because people learn about politics from people  around them (2) people often look to people who “look like them” as a source  of political opinions and (3) politicians often strategically target certain social groups in campaigns ○ “I see myself as __________ and this shapes my worldview.” ○ Ex. Norm is a member of a Native American Tribe  Origins of public opinion ● Self­ interest: potential personal benefits matter ○ Example: income often affects attitudes towards tax policy ○ “Do I, or my group stand to benefit if so­and so is elected?” Measuring public opinion  ● Mass surveys are used in the US regularly to gauge public opinion. Gallup, Pew,  Etc. ● Politicians do their own polling too, often focusing on specific populations (say, a  particular state) ● A population is the group of people you want to analyze (it could be all  Americans, All women, all UWW students, etc) ○ Why don’t poll companies simply call every member of the  population? So much time and money and hard to get actual people. ■ Solution: Collect a representative sample that  reflects the larger population from which it is drawn.  ● Probability/random sampling: you give every person in the population the same  probability of being selected. ○ “If everyone has the same chance you create a representative  sample.” ○ Very hard to get a truly random sample ● What other groups might be over­or under­represented ○ Poles are inaccurate it’s a good guess ● Sampling Error/Margin of Error (MOE) is statistical part to try to correct the  imperfections. The MOE is a guess at how much error there is in a sample you are using to construct your poll. ● The higher MOE the less confident you can be that your results are accurate. ○ Creating a range of values­the MOE­ within which the “true”  answer lies. (Range of Data) ○ When confidence intervals overlap, there is no statistical  difference 3/7 Political Ideology  ● Individuals have a set of beliefs and ideas about how the political world should  work ○ View of the proper role and scope of government in social life. ○ Undimensional space running from extreme liberal to extreme  conservative. ■ Political actors (citizens,judges,etc) lie somewhere  on this spectrum. ● Liberals: Tend to prefer more government intervention and oversight, including  economic regulation and providing social services for the poor. ● Conservatives:tend to prefer less government intervention and oversight, such  as minimal economic regulation and fewer social services ○ Generally prefer a smaller role for the government ● shapes how people believe policy should be made or problems fixed ● The people are not all that polarized. Media and Democracy The media are an extremely powerful institution that is not technically a part of government  however, they educate the public and keep the government honest. Voters are normally  uninformed and the media in theory at least should help create a more informed public. Three types of media ● Print: Newspapers and magazines  ○ oldest type of media ○ local/national ○ Newspaper readership is dramatically declining but they provide  more detail in their stories and the wealthy and educated still tend to prefer print  news. ● Broadcast : radio, network/cable tv ○ Issues of regulation ○ Creation of FCC and government oversight ○ Broadcast news refers to projecting information to the public at large, often giving only minimal details about news events. These are the big networks abc, cbs,FOX, and NBC ○ Narrowcasting concerns developing media content designed for the appeal of specific people. These are CNN, MSNBC, Fox News, History, ESPN, HGTV, and MTV. ○ ● Internet: ○ Some governance but very open and competitive ○ allows citizens to journal through blogs, websites, etc. ○ Dominates other forms The News Cycle ● Rise of cable and Internet------> dramatic decrease in the time between when things happen and when we hear about it. ● 24 Hour cycle: (some) media offer news coverage all day everyday. ○ How does the news cycle affect politics? ■ Might not have the right information ■ Large errors ■ Incomplete information Media ownership ● American media is privately owned (conglomerates) ○ Also highly concentrated ○ Put news out that will make $$$ ○ Market forces impact everything we talk about from here on out. ○ Market forces: Incentivize media to make a splash and get attention. ○ Media wants to be first and sometimes they get ahead of themselves. ○ “If it bleeds it leads” Key: Businesses must make money while balancing freedom and regulation. ● Our media has some governmental regulation, but the media are still largely free to do as they please. Why can media say pretty much whatever it wants? Because of the first amendment ● A free, open, largely unregulated media is “engine of the American Democracy.” ● Equal time provision: Equal time for both candidates on non- news programming. This is still a law. ● Fairness doctrine: Equal time for two sides of a debate. This no longer applies because of the issues of freedom of speech. ● Prohibition of obscenity: Indecency, profanity, certain references are not allowed to air between 6am-10 pm. Example: Howard Stern. ● Government does not own the airwaves but it does regulate them. ● Prior restraint: An effort by the government to censor or block information from being printed. ● Elections are often framed as horse-races coverage becomes about who is winning, who is losing, who is attacking, who is defending, etc. ● Really hard to prove if media is ideologically biased KEY: We tend to believe the media are biased in the other direction then we ourselves believe. ● Soft news/infotainment: Mix hard news with commentary-they are openly “liberal” or “conservative” or “traditionalist” or “progressive.” The media caters to an audience. Political Parties ● What is a political party? A party is an organization which seeks to influence gvernment policy.By getting members of your party elected your party gets to shape poltical outcomes. Once elected parties (try) to help solve the collective action problems politicians face. ● Where parties come from (informal): The founders said they hated the idea of parties but they basically form them from the get-go. Federalists wanted a strong central banking system and high tariffs (Hamilton) but some people thought this was a dangerous expansion of power.(Madison/Jefferson). A majority of congress sided with Hamilton the minority realized their best hope of passing legislation was to get more jeferson supporters in congress and organize a movement of Jeffersonians. (This resulted in the Democratic Republicans) ● The Party Principle (formal): Parties incorporate elected officials, voters, donors, and activist. ○ The rise of the spoils system begins where individuals are rewarded for their loyalty with things like jobs. ○ Emergence of party machines that sought to gain political power by doling out government goodies to supporters. ○ We have two major parties Democrats and Republicans ○ Every president since Lincoln (1860) has been either Republican or a Democrat. ○ The other way to think about party formation is in terms we are familiar: Politicians are strategic actors they realize that collective action is hard and parties represent and avenue. Each legislator gets a payoff on each bill it should pass. ○ Informally or formally there is an incentive for politicians to join forces in the form of political parties. ○ Republicans and Democrats compete for influence and control of government so they can shape political outcomes. Single member districts: Each legislative district only has a single representative. Winner- take- all: Plurality voting is whoever gets the most wins. ○ Duverger’s law: When you have plurality voting and SMDS you will end up with exactly two major political parties. ○ SMDS means a third party would have to get more votes than the major parties to ever win anything. Minor parties usually divide one of the major parties but not both. ● Parties matter: As organizations, in government, in electorate ○ Parties as organizations----->Loose organizations that connect and organize people but have never been rigid, hierarchical organizations they are networks connecting politicians, activists, interest groups, donors media, voters, etc. Each party has a formal committee to organize party efforts (national) DNC and RNC. 1. Create a party platform 2. Recruit and nominate candidates 3. Assist candidates with their campaigns 4. Set policy and pursue policy goals in government 5. (Try to!) Maintain a positive image (brand) of the party. ○ The biggest public events are the national conventions every four years and are attend by thousands of party delegates from all fifty states. At the convention they 1) nominate the party’s presidential candidate and vice president 2) decide on the party’s platform 3) approve any rule changes to party procedures. ● Parties within the government ----> key basis for organization in congress especially the house. ○ Whomever holds the most seats in a chamber is the majority party ○ Committees are also organized by party. Each party gets x number of seats on committee y. ○ Party leaders decide who sits on which committees. ○ MCS in the same party work together to debate and strategize about party policy platforms ■ Democrats= caucus ■ Republicans= Conference ○ MCS can work together on bipartisan policy proposals but it’s less common now because of polarization. ● Parties within the electorate----> Many American possess a party identification. Party coalitions tend to differ in which groups of voters are attracted to them. ○ PID= individual’s attachment to a particular party but are not membership for everyone. ○ People associate with parties that share values, beliefs, and policy priorities. ○ Some parties identifiers also engage within party work which are called party activists. These people go out and do things on behalf of the party. ● Independents: Are those that do not affiliate with a political party. Percentage of independents have been pretty stable and are not necessarily smarter or better informed about politics. ● Democrats----> Liberals, African Americans, City dwellers, Secular, Latinos, West coast, Jews, Working class, New England, Most women, Unions and Union members. ● Republicans----> Conservatives, Religious, MEn, white americans, wealthy, business owners, suburban dwellers, rural dwellers, and the South. ● Key: Parties are distinct in both a general philosophical sense as well as in a specific policy sense. ● Republicans tend to prefer smaller government and more individual freedoms and protection. ● Democrats tend to see a larger role for government and focus more on group rights and protection. ○ Ideology NOT partisanship ○ Partisanship: Affiliation (official/unofficial) with a formal, organized political party. ○ Ideology is a philosophy, your belief system about how the political/ social world should work. Elections There are three objectives of elections 1. It’s how we select who will represent us a. Incumbent:Currently holding office 2. Shaping policy we express general policy preferences by supporting particular candidates or parties. 3. Promoting accountability we can express dis(satisfaction) both how incumbents have done. RAE:Rules affect elections ● Primaries: Parties decide which candidate they want to run in the general election against the other party. ○ Closed: Only allow registered party members to participate. ○ Open: Allow voters to choose which primary they wish to participate in on. ● The convention: Summer→ parties hold convention and officially nominate its presidential and VP candidates. ○ General elections:Party Vs. Party ● The Electoral College: The method by which the American President and VP is elected. The college itself is a group of people appointed by each state who formally elect the president and VP. Each state is entitled to a particular number of electors there are 538 electors total based upon the membership in congress. To become president a candidate needs a majority of the 538 EC votes or 270. Whichever presidential candidate wins the plurality of the popular vote within a given state gets all EC votes in that state. ○ EC is biased towards smaller state. ○ One can lose the EC with the majority ● Retail politics has direct contact with the voters whereas wholesale politics have an indirect contact with the voters. ● Battleground states: States that are fairly evenly between parties. ○ Winning or losing a battleground state can be a means to winning or losing the presidential election. ● Ground Game: Mobilization to get your people to show up ● Key: We have to balance free speech with the idea that the super rich organizations or individuals should dominate the airwaves during campaigns. ● Hard money: Official donations made with the intent on defeating or electing a particular candidate. ○ Subject to limits ● Soft Money: “party” money given to ‘party’ efforts to mobilize voters and promote their policies agenda ○ Not subject to limits ● Compulsory voting:Is where one must vote or they have to pay a fine. Why not vote? 1) Voting is costly 2) No penalty if we do not vote 3) Have to be registered in order to vote 4) You have to learn about candidates 5) Have to find time Who does vote 1) Older folks 2) Wealthy 3) White 4) Female 5) More educated ***** campaigns and candidates keep this in mind.**** Common Cues? ● Party ID ● Incumbency ● Retrospective (How has it been lately) ● Personal characteristics ● Personal vote (what has this person done for me) ○ Correct Voting: Idea that you can make a reasonably informed decision that, more likely than not, you would have made if you had been fully informed. What is an interest group? ● An interest group is an organized group of people that work collectively to try and achieve policy goals by appealing to government officials . They seek particular ends and benefits. They provide a voice for Americans on important policy issues and are also the definition of a faction. Founders hoped that giving all groups of individuals tha to compete for influence would lead to reasoned compromise. (pluralism) This offers a means of collective action for a group of individuals that share a goal or objective. Interest groups could be a corruptive force if they exert too much influence over politicians. ○ Free riders: Can enjoy the benefits of something without putting in the same effort. ○ Individually Rational: Does not necessarily lead to the best collective outcome. ○ Selective Benefits: Those within the group get benefits. ■ Informational benefits:Newsletters,conference, etc. ■ Material/Selective: Special Services, insurance, and anything else that can be measured monetarily. ■ Solidary/Purposive benefits: Friendship and networking that come from being a part of something, even if you do not accomplish your goals. Inside Strategies: (In the government) Research: IGS prepare reports on issues to try and sway officials or the public. Hearings: Lobbyists often serve as expert witnesses Litigation: Inside court. Grassroots lobbying: Get people in organization to get involved. Key: MCS pay attention when (1) a lot of people are involved and (2) when those people are from their districts. MCS are responsive to those who participate. Outside strategies: Electioneering:Huge part of many IGS political life. They raise and spend money, they mobilize people, and run campaign ads. Key: Many IGS raise massive amounts of money but how much they spend and how they spend it depends on the groups. PAC:  Nice:Direct contributions to candidates/parties  Not Nice: Limits on raising/Spending Money SuperPAC: Nice: Raise/Spend unlimited money on electioneering advocate election Not Nice: Can’t Contribute to candidates or coordinate and MUST DISCLOSE DONORS!!! 501(c)(4):  Nice: Raise/Spend unlimited money on electioneering and do not disclose donors. Not Nice: Half or more of activities must be non­political cannot contribute.  501(c)(3):  Nice: Contributions tax­deductible What’s Not nice: Severe limits on lobbying 527: Nice: Raise/spend unlimited money on electioneering Not nice: Can’t contribute to/coordinate with candidates or parties and cannot advocate  election/defeat ***********NON­PROFIT************** General Rule: If it is about issues it is not subject to regulation. Magic words: Vote for, elect, support, vote against, defeat. Hedging bets: Donates money to both sides. ● IGS can matter, especially when issues are not salient(an issue that not  everyone knows) and when advocacy is one sided. ● Usually only try to pursue small changes because there will be less push back. ● IGS can succeed even on hot­button issues ● Key: IGS do not dominate policy making as much as believed. No correlation  between money spend and policy outcomes. Groups are often unsuccessful in lobbying.  ○  Ex: Chamber of Commerce and NAtional Federation of  Independent Business fought hard against Obamacare. ● Four Factors of IGS. ○ IGS target friends, not enemies, and are willing to bargain. ○ Many complaints come from losers­ of course they blame IGS, but it may not (always) be fair to do so. ○ IGS often take credit regardless of their actual role ○ IGS tend to work both sides.  Unit three: Congress  Key: How these institutions are organized and how they interact with each other. ● Congress: Has considerable­ but not unlimited­ power to affect  public policy. ○ Considerable (and intentional) constraint  ○ Great Compromise led to two chambers of  congress, the house and the senate, which disagree often ○ Congress is  bicameral (two chambers)=House of  Representatives +Senate ○ House= Two year terms where Senate is six year  terms and every two years ⅓ of the senate is up for reelection ○ Staggered elections: Happen because they like to  have old/wise people in senate and there is no limit on the number of  terms a congressman can serve.  ○ House=435 ○ Senate +100­­­>2 for each state  ­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­ 535 total  ● All three: House, Senate, and President: Must sign off on legislation thus no one  person or chamber can get everything it wants. ● A delegate votes according to what the people want  ● A trustee votes according to what she thinks is best for everybody, even if her  constituents do not agree. ● Alternative model:MCS can be politicos, acting as a delegate on issues people  care about and as trustees on more complex issues or people do not care about. ● Districts vary considerably in size, shape, and composition ○ Urban/Rural/Suburban ○ Wealthy/poor ○ White/Non­white ● MCS differ from each other quite a bit­ each tries to reflect the general or central  tendencies of their district. The Electoral Connection ● MC’s behavior in most instances is linked to their desire to be re­elected. ● MCS constantly fret about re­election and strategize accordingly ○ Advertising ○ Credit claiming ○ Position taking Pork Barrel Politics ● Pork Barrel Politics= legislation that benefits specific constituents that are  intended to help incumbents get re­elected.  ○ Logic is “if I bring $$ home to my district, the people will be happy  and re­elect me” ○ Congress gets re­elected because people “hate the institution but  like the specific person.” ○ The incumbency advantage refers to a variety of benefits  incumbents have that challengers do not ■ Casework ■ Pork  ■ Favors ■ Franking: Free postage ■ Media attention ○ It is very hard to unseat an incumbent ■ Raise more money, grant more favors, enjoy more  visibility, etc.  ● Redistricting­incumbency advantage­ strategic drawing districts. ○ Districts sometimes need to be changed­reapportioned­ when a  state’s population grows or shrinks. ○ Gerrymandering occurs when districts are redrawn to give a  political advantage to one party or another  ■ As Long as population are similar you’re golden Structure of congress ● Informal: Seniority, logrolling, earmarks/ pork barrel ○ More like “normas” than official policies ○ Seniority: Historically, the longest serving MC on a committee  serves as chair of the committee in which chairs have certain unique powers, so  it helps incumbents make the case for re­election. ○ Logrolling occurs when two or more MCS get together and  promise to vote for each other’s bill. Neither really care that much about the  other’s  issue because it does not really affect their own districts. But this also  means it is relatively costless to support someone else’s bill. This is the  distributive tendency. MCS all want part of the pie and will effectively support  each other’s bills in return for some pork. ● Formal: Parties and Committees ○ Parties are HUGE for congressional organization  ○ Recall: parties foster collective action but they can also lead to  stalemates, conflict with enterprise, and each new congress elects leaders.  ■ Speaker of the house heads the entire chamber  ■ Majority party= elects a majority leader ■ Minority party= elects a minority leader ■ Senate, majority and minority leaders are elected  but less powerful in the upper chamber because there is more people in  the House and an issue of herding “cats” ■ Party leaders give members their committee  assignments and control policy agenda ­when issues make or do not  make it on the docket. Not all MCS are created equal. ■ Party leaders incentivize MCS to vote one way or  another  ● When more than half of a party’s  MCS all vote the same way and more than half of the other party’s MCS all vote the other way it is said to be a party vote. ● Majority oppose each other; implies  party cohesion ● Party unity: What extent do  members of the same party vote together. The Presidency ● Recall: No president in Articles of confederation ○ The Founders wanted an “energetic” executive who would/ could  take quick and aggressive action when needed ○ But there was considerable debate over the powers of the  president and how he would be selected ○ Like congress, the president enjoys certain exclusive powers and  can check the other branches but is also himself subject to checks by legislature  and the courts.  Four Big Facts 1. Presidents matter both domestic and foreign policy 2. Power is multi­faceted  3. Power has increased over time a. As America grows, so does presidency and EB 4. Power is limited­ very, very limited ● “ I am the decider” G.W.Bush ● Congress is constantly dealing with collective action problems ○ Can act more on his own ● Presidents must be natural born, 35 years old, and a resident of the U.S for 14 or more years. ● President is both head of government (running the EB) and head 


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