Chapter 9 – Personality
- Dispositional traits: consistent aspects across different contexts / can be compared across a group along continuum representing high and low degrees of the characteristic
- Be familiar with Costa & McCrae’s Five-Factor Model: Case for stability > consists of 5 independent dimensions of personality: Neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experience, agreeableness, conscientiousness
- Neuroticism: 6 FACETS > anxiety, hostility, self-conscious, depression, impulsiveness, vulnerability
- What are the main criticisms of their theory:
o Block (1995) – issue w/ methodology that uses lay people to specify personality descriptors that were used to create the terms of the FIVE FACTOR Model
If you want to learn more check out What is the antiderivative formula?
o McAdams (1996,) – any model of dispositional traits says nothing about core or essential aspects of human nature
o Major criticism: directed to the notion of stability and change in personality
- Erikson’s Psychosocial Stages: trust vs. mistrust, autonomy vs. shame/doubt/ initiative vs. guilt/ industry vs. inferiority, identity vs. identity confusion, intimacy vs. isolation, generality vs. stagnation, ego vs. despair
- What changes when we shift from adolescence to adulthood? Character development, interpersonal style, conscious preoccupations, cognitive style - What changes during midlife? Gains & losses / Many adults face difficulty issues and make behavioral changes
- How realistic is the concept of the Midlife Crisis? Very little data supports claim that all people experience a crisis in middle age > midlife correction: reevaluating one’s roles and dreams and making the necessary corrections
- What are the most common goal themes in McAdams’ life stories? Have a story that is coherent, credible, open to new possibilities, richly differentiated, reconciling of opposite aspects of oneself, integrated within one’s sociocultural context
- Whitbourne’s theory contains concepts from what other developmental psychologist? PIAGET concepts of assimilation and accommodation - How do Younger and Older Adults differ with regards to possible selves? o Younger: family issues as most important / see themselves as improving in future Don't forget about the age old question of What are the hormones responsible for the adrenal medulla?
o Older adults: personal issues as most important / don’t see themselves improving
- Know the role of spiritual support and religion on health and self-esteem for older adults
o Older adults use religion to cope w/ problems: pastoral care, participating in religious activities, expressing faith in a God who cares for people
o Provides strong influence on identity
Chapter 10 Clinical Assessment, Mental Health, and Mental Disorders
- Psychological forces: normative changes can mimic mental disorders / nature of personal relationships
- Sociocultural forces: being paranoid may be adaptive in certain circumstances / cultural differences must be taken into account
- LifeCycle factors: an older person who wishes to go back to school / resistance to revealing personal information / sleeping patterns Don't forget about the age old question of Why alcoholic beverages are categorized as depressants?
∙ Be familiar with different assessment methods. What is considered the most effective form? o Mental status exams: useful in quick screening of measures of mental competence o Psychological functioning assessed through: interviews, observation, test or questionnaires o Three dimensions of social functioning: ties w/ social network, content of interaction w/ one’s social network, number and quality of interactions
∙ What are the major approaches to treating mental disorders?
o Medication, intervention, psychotherapy
∙ What are the primary issues with assessing for depression in older adults?
o Which therapy is the most effective for OAs? Psychotherapy, elctroconclusive therapy ∙ Delirium: caused by medical conditions (stroke, cardiovascular disease, metabolic condition ∙ Dementia: Alzheimer's
∙ What microscopic changes can be found in the brains of Alzheimer’s patients? Microfibrillary tangles, plaque If you want to learn more check out What is the classification of humans?
∙ What behavior technique has proven effective in reducing difficult behaviors in Alzheimer’s patients? How does it work? Behavioral strategies
∙ Parkinson’s: slow walking, difficulty getting in and out of chairs, slow hand tremors ∙ Huntington’s: involuntary flicking movement of arms and legs, hallucinations, paranoia, depression, & clear personality changes
∙ What extra risks do OAs face when it comes to alcohol consumption and alcoholism? - Disease of liver
- Various types of cancer
- Cardiovascular disease
Chapter 11 Relationships
∙ What do friendships help us foster in old age?
∙ Socioemotional selectivity theory: social contact is motivated by information seeking, self concept, emotional regulation
o How do Younger and Older adults differ in primary goals
∙ What are the 3 components of love identified by Sternberg: passion, intimacy, commitment o How do they change over time when in a relationship If you want to learn more check out What are alexis de tocqueville's problems with american democracy?
∙ Different types of elder abuse and neglect: physical, sexual, emotional or psychological, financial, abandonment, neglect, selfneglect
∙ What does marriage satisfaction look like over time? How do middleaged and older couples differ in terms of emotional expression?
o Early years: marriage is most intense > couple settle in a routine > decline in satisfaction o Midlife: marriages improve when children leave home > satisfaction remains low o Older: reduced potential for marital conflict and greater potential for pleasure ∙ How do older and younger mothers compare when it comes to parenting? Don't forget about the age old question of How do you determine electron density?
∙ What specific concerns to middleaged people face (“The Sandwich Generation”): Middle aged parents caught between their children and their parents as caregivers
∙ What different skills to grandparents pass on, according to the text?
∙ Gottman and Levenson report what difference in interaction of couples who divorce early or later in marriage?
∙ Understand Exchange Theory. Imagine how it would look in an actual relationship. What are other predictors of marital success?