ALL NOTES FOR LS 2 COMPILED
ALL NOTES FOR LS 2 COMPILED Life Science 2: Cells, Tissues and Organs
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Life Science 2: Cells, Tissues and Organs
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This 27 page Study Guide was uploaded by Grace Lee on Wednesday May 11, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Life Science 2: Cells, Tissues and Organs at University of California - Los Angeles taught by Esdin/Friscia in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see Life Science 2 in Life Science at University of California - Los Angeles.
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Date Created: 05/11/16
Lecture 7-esdin Muscles pt. 1 focus: activity of muscles, how muscles actually work ● when they are working they do two things: 1. Contract (aka shorten) 2. Produce force(overall goal of muscles) ● Muscles are excitable cells, meaning they exhibit electrical activity such as depolarization ● Similar but not identical to neurons ● Final outcome of AP in a neuron: release neurotransmitter ● Net effect of AP in a muscle: force production ANATOMY OF MUSCLES: ● Muscles respond to neurons (sensory>interneurons>effector (which is this case muscles!)) ● Different types of muscles ● Skeletal (voluntary) ● Smooth (involuntary) ● Found around muscles, Eg. ciliary muscles/iris of eye ● Cardiac(involuntary) LEVELS: ● Each muscle in body is classified as an organ ● Muscle (organs)>many fascicles (muscle bundles)>muscle fibers (individual muscle cells) >muscle fibers made of myofibrils (contractile proteins, arranged well) ▪ Have to zoom into myofibrils to get full understanding (Full explanation continues below) ▪ Made of functional contraction units sarcomeres bound by z lines MYOFIBRILS: ● Made of multiple types of proteins arranged organized ● Alternates btwn dense and less dense areas ● Made of sarcomeres: functional unit of a muscle/contraction (cuz if understand this you can apply to understand how muscles work in general) ● Each sarcomere composed of thin and thick filaments and bound by Zlines FORCE PRODUCTION IS INTERACTION BTWN THIN & THICK FILAMENTS (myosin head & actin molecule) ● Thick filament<each filament made of proteins ● Made of myosin (which is a protein which is a seq of amino acids w/ a spec 3D shape w/ specific active site which is important for its functions) ● two heads and two tails ● Myosin head (w/ 2 major binding sites) aka cross bridge ● actin binding site & ATP binding site ● Where most of activities occur ● Myosin tail ● Myosin attached to Zline by protein called titin ● Thin filament ● Made of three proteins: 2 regulatory, 1 contractile protein ● Actin: globular protein that polymerizes as intertwined helix ● Has a binding site for myosin cross bridge ● But not active at rest cuz protein covering it called tropomyosin ● Tropomyosin: ribbon that binds myosin binding site ● Both actin and myosin are contractile proteins: cuz where contraction occurs for force production to happen ● Troponin: made of three spherical subunits w/ three binding sites: ● Actin binding site ● Tropomyosin binding site ● Calcium binding site ● Tropomyosin: ribbon that binds myosin binding site on actin ● Troponin and tropomyosin are regulatory proteins: ● Control when or when not actin is ready What happens during muscle contraction? > Sarcomere physically shortens What causes binding to occur? ● Two major components: ATP & CALCIUM ● ATP: Comes from cellular respiration ● Muscles have lotsa mitochondria ● glycolysis(cytosol)>pyruvate ox(mito)>citric acid(mito)>ETC (cristae) ● Calcium: stored inside muscle cell in Sarcoplasmic Reticulum (modified SER) ● Muscle INTRACELLULAR calcium (vs neural EXTRACELLULAR ca) ● Same calcium different source ● Cycles SR>cytosol>SR ● Very important ion, numerous functions ● can’t from outside cell, needs to be readily available ● As opposed to neurons where it comes from outside of cell ● High intracellular level can toxic, so must maintain very low (10^-9M) ● If hang around cytosol cause depolarization therefore need organelle ● SER modified in muscles to Sarcoplasmic Reticulum ● SR found around myofibrils ● Lateral sacs=end segments release calcium w stimulate ● Calciu m release triggered by series events MUSCLE CELL ● Modified plasma membrane: sarcolemma ● Main difference w regular plasma membrane has ● more inward extensions/invaginations deep into cytoplasm called T-tubules ● Conveniently pass thru side of sarcoplasmic reticulum ● SR have openings called lateral sacs ● T-tubules have voltage sensitive calcium channels: dihydropyridine receptors (DHPR) ● Sensors cuz nothing important passes thru, just changes conformation when volt change ● Ryanodine receptors/foot proteins on Lateral sacs (openings) of SR ● Let calcium through SR plasma membrane even tho its a positive ion ● Ryanodine receptors are LIGAND gated calcium channels: DHPR acts as ligand ● Calcium moves from inside SR to cytosol What triggers Ca release? Motor neuron release signals/neurotransmitter at neuromuscular junction to muscle fibers 1. Action potentials at axon terminal stimulate release of acetylcholine (ACh) into synaptic cleft 2. ACh binds to ACh receptors activate cause Na+ entry into cell (like graded potential in dendrites of neuron leads to AP, but since in muscle not graded potential but end plate potential, EPP) 3. Membrane depolarizes 4. EPP cause action potential in muscle cell (propagation) 5. AP travels down sarcolemma and dip into T-tubules (so not just at the surface) 6. AP activates DHPR 7. DHPR activates by touch ryanodine receptors (ligand is part of DHPR) to release Ca2+ out Where does Ca Go? Released Ca ions bind to troponin (to calcium binding site) Troponin, bound to tropomyosin, slides away from actin expose myosin binding site o (sliding filament theory) Myosin binds to actin o ATP binding site on myosin head is actually an enzyme called ATPase ▪ Actually breaks down ATP, gets energy from covalent bond of phosphase o Energy now on myosin head Cross Bridge (Myosin Head) Cycle (happens as long as calcium is available) INITIAL: ATP &Pi bound to myosin cross bridge <energized state, waiting for actin avail 1. Actin exposed, myosin head binds to actin 2. Pi unbinds from myosin head due to protein conformation change when two proteins connect 3. Power stroke (myosin bends cause sarcomere to shorten) occurs < where force actually produced o 135>90 degree change o Angle of myosin head changes 4. ADP unbinds 5. ATP binds to myosin head on binding site, detachment occurs 6. Different ATP hydrolyzed to ADP&Pi, brings myosin head to energized state How cycle stops? 2major steps before stops 1. Remove acetylcholine (stop the excitation) 1. Enzyme on the membrane Acetylcholine esterase: breaks down acetylcholine 1. Remove calcium 1. Ca2+ pumped back to SR: primary active transport 1. Release it by diffusion from SR to cytoplasm Where muscles get energy from? ● Glucose and oxygen to produce energy ● 3 sources energy ● 1. Creatine phosphate ● Phosphagens (Creatine phosphate/arginine phosphate) ● 2. Cellular Respiration ● 3. Glycolysis followed by fermentation Muscles part 2 Last part: discussed muscles, start to finish how muscle contraction occurs. Understand how muscles contract, how turn on and off. when use skeletal muscles no matter how simple activity we get fatigue. PG 21 ON ESDIN 6 NOTES: “Where does muscle get the energy from?”-FROM GLUCOSE AND OXYGEN fatigue because muscles need atp to function ● myosin in a high energy state need atp to disconnect myosin from actin ● need to return calcium back to make muscles relax ● gonna get to a point where muscles demand exceed available, so need to relax atp resources come from multiple sources ● eg. going to wooden center: bench press, you get atp from ● limited amount of atp already made(5mM), lasts < a second, immediate go into reserved amount ● then start to make it ● first source: Creatine phosphate source (high energy) ● high energy molecule that has phosphate group readily available to donate ● convert adp to atp, need a phosphate group, which is provided by this molecule ● Doesn’t consult mitochondria/other cuz need to make it quick ● Creatine kinase hydrolyzes phosphate and adds it to atp ● very quick source! more than arginine ● phosphagens ● vertebrates use creatine phosphate ● invertebrates use arginine phosphate ● lasts additional second, not limited in creatine phosphate pool ● BUT limited in creatine kinase enzymatic activity ● second sudden full blown source: cellular respiration ● glycolysis, pyruvate oxidation, citric acid cycle, oxidative phosphorylation (ETC) ● if using glucose start with glycolysis ● if using fatty acids start with citric acid cycle ● advantage: very good source of energy, adequate amount of ATP ● disadvantage: dependent on oxygen availability cuz heart/muscle can’t supply ● requires mitochondria, oxygen is final acceptor of electrons ● muscles have very large capacity to exercise but heart and lungs have limited capacity to pump blood and obtain oxygen from environment ● no matter how hard muscles work must rely on heart and lungs ● when beating maximally: maximum heart rate ● oxygen demands exceed availability-OXYGEN DEBT ● running out of delivery to muscles ● cellular respiration going up, max out and gradually decrease cuz of oxygen debt WHICH IS GRADUAL ● event ually mitochondria out cuz run out of atp ● third source: glycolysis followed by fermentation ● glycolysis ● independent of oxygen and mitochondria ● final product pyruvate normally go to mitochondria to become acetyl CoA ● since no O2, convert to lactate by fermentation ● lactate is useless cuz can’t immediately use to produce atp ● circulates through blood to liver to convert back to pyruvate ● associate lactate with fatigue ● not a waste product, it can be used again to make atp ● glycolysis produce 2 NADH, but need NAD+ to produce NADH ● normally recycle NADH back to NAD+ thru ETC ● but that part is shut down so need new recycling method ● NAD+ provided thru fermentation to keep glycolysis going ● only 2 ATP produced, so fatigue will happen after resources deplete ● eventually need a break muscle fatigue is simply draining out, running out of ATP caused by ● local increase of inorganic phosphate ● ADP+Pi building up, lacking conversion back to ATP cuz mitochondria’s gone ● buildup of acid ● lactate is good, but in form of an acid ● therefore affect PH, start to decrease PH>detrimental effect to muscles ● depletion of energy ● need to take break until muscles are back to normal supplements boost ability to produce ATP to be able to use muscles more ● e.g. GNC’s creatine ● also mega-creatine ● monohydrate (form of monohydrate creatine) ● label claims to give: energy, focus, endurance, strength ● physiologically speaking CANNOT ● can have all creatine in world but limit enzymatic activity so max out very quickly ● amount take in huge, but amount to muscles is low ● this is improvement increase in performance (eg increase in force) fades away in very short period of type ● honeymoon stage: works and then stop ● more so for people who work out more many diseases associated with muscles ● skeletal muscles you have to be very careful because voluntary muscles ● eg. diaphragm control respiration ● problems can lead to death cuz respiration will cease tetanus: muscles are overactive, active uncontrollably and don’t relax < (2 points on final): TETANUS shot required where there is muscle: caused by rusted muscle invaded the skin seen a lot in the jaw caused by bacteriClostridium tetani o produce pwrful toxin Tetanospasmin (tetanus neurotoxin (TeNT)) travels thru circulation to nervous system ▪ toxin inhibit inhibitory neurons on muscles ● causing overstimulation/over excitation ● most bacteria are aerobic, but this is anaerobe (can live in really harsh conditions) Botox: a drug that is injected into facial area, claim to fight wrinkles wrinkles happen with old age, overstimulation of neurons, neurons are constantly sending action potentials to muscles so constantly contract so get shot of botulinum toxin, and skin o acts on motor neurons, inhibiting release of neurotransmitter, acetylcholine o as result of not release, muscles can now relax now have good idea of muscles, some idea of certain conditions associated with muscles -threw in circulatory and respiratory system, will discuss extensively very soon Endocrine system System of control; regulates the other systems NERVOUS VS ENDOCRINE ● nervous system controls through physical connection to synapse, and neurotransmitter release ● must be physical connection ● neuron>impulse travels and neurotransmitter released into synaptic cleft>effector cell response ● endocrine system: long-distance connection no physical connection necessary ● endocrine gland>hormone release into blood>travels to target cell>response ● system is made of organs called glands, scattered all over the body, not physically connected ● heart, stomach, small intestine labelled because considered part of endocrine system ● ENDOCRINE ORGAN: any organ that releases a chemical messenger (hormones that each have specific target cells) that travels in the blood ● classify as PURE/PRIMARY ● hypothalamus(in brain), pineal, pituitary (9 diff hormones), thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal glands, pancreas, gonads ● or as MIXED ● thymus, heart, stomach(digestive), kidneys(renal), and small intestine(digestive) Hormones need blood to send chem messengers Several things to note 1. important to understand chemical structure of hormones o can be steroids or peptides o secretion/synthesis vary o structure determines mechanisms of action on target cells o want to know if hydrophilic or hydrophobic ▪ does it just goes thru the plasma membrane or does need diff mechanism ▪ how to synthesize/make it (diff for hydrophilic or hydrophobic) 2. Hormones need specific target cell, or target organ 3. Only selective cells respond to the hormone In order for a hormone to be functional, regardless of the chemical composition, it must have 1. Unique function 2. Unique target cell(or target organ) - Every single cell are exposed but only some respond bc it has specific target protein 3 different structures of hormones 1. peptides (small proteins) Mode of travel: travel thru blood freely o all are hydrophilic, water soluble and travel easily in blood ▪ released from cell through exocytosis o synthesis in ribosomes and RER as preprohormone o receptor on membrane, extracellular receptor< G-protein o use protein machinery to be synthesized o like any protein, goes through lotsa modifications 1. preprohormone before Golgi, hormone has addition seq of amino acids & is inactive 2. found as a preprohormone throughout the cell 3. Golgi: cleave part of preprohormone to make active, now prohormone 2. steroid (cholesterol, lipid) Mode of travel: using transport protein to go through blood o all are hydrophobic ▪ released from plasma membrane through simple diffusion o have to have binding protein/other mechanism to help travel in blood o synthesized in SER and mitochondria< mitochondria plays role in lipid manufacture o Permeates easily through membrane and makes into cell but still needs receptor: ▪ called hormone-receptor binding complex o Always intracellular receptor but location differs: ▪ Nuclear receptor: inside nucleus ▪ Cytoplasmic receptor: inside cytosol 3. amine (single amino acid that is modified) Mode of travel: o can either be hydrophobic or hydrophilic o only three types Intracellular mechanisms/ extracellular mechanisms Intracellular: Specific binding site on DNA: HRE (Hormone Response Element) ● binding site on DNA to give signal to make this gene ● to make mRNA ● to cytosol to synthesize protein ● some changes within cell: physiological response > different response based Extracellular: If hormone is extracellular a peptide cannot cross membrane like normal hormone does - so it bind to Gprotein coupled receptor on outside - Gprotein has 3 subunits, alpha subunit activates adenylyl cyclase synthesize cAMP activate kinase synthesize protein and goes on, cell response Intracellular vs extracellular hormones Intracellular ● always when involve DNA (gene expression) o therefore it’ll be major changes ● slow Extracellular ● not usually involve DNA o therefore more local changes ● Fast Endocrine pt. 2. Last time more general (organs, chemical composition, how hormone released/travels/affect target cell) Homeostatic mechanism to trigger the gland! What is the triggering mechanisms? : 3 levels of control of regulation: Humoral control (gland released based on concentration of specific variable in the blood) o Eg parathyroid glands (3 or 4) : small glands that regulate calcium blood ▪ Calcium stored in bones and as specific level in blood necessary ▪ Only increases ▪ Gland acts as receptor and control center (homeostatic) ▪ Release parathyroid hormone to bring Ca up when low: target bones stimulate to release ca ● Peptide hormone! ● Specifically increasing calcium when its low, bringing it down isanother hormone o Glucose, sodium all regulated this way Neural (nervous system stimulates) > more straightforward o E.g. Adrenal medulla (part of adrenal gland part of sympathetic nervous system) ▪ Neurons from spinal cord stimulate gland (on top of kidney). Hormonal o Gland is stimulated via another hormone (eg anterior pituitary) Hypophysis/pituitary gland: behind nose, protected by cupshaped bone, v important, w/o it you can’t survive ● Some part made of gland(ant), some part made of neurons(post) ● Two separate parts (even though its one) ● Anterior (6/7) (made of nonneural, epithelial tissue): ● Adenohypophysis (all are peptides) ● Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)/Luteinizing hormone (LH): acts on gonads<hormonal ● Reproduction, help in producing gametes/hormones ● Testes in males, ovaries in females: found in both gender tho, acts on both ● Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH): acts on thyroid<hormonal ● Stimulate to release own hormone to regulate metabolism ● Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH): acts on adrenal cortex<hormonal ● Stimulates adrenal cortex to release cortisol (help to cope with stressful situations) ● Prolactin: acts on mammary glands ● Milk synthesis (milk release is by oxytocin) ● Lactation phase ● Growth hormone (GH): acts on liver &bones&muscles ● Cause to grow/stronger: prenatal, in children, or maintenance (eg gainz) ● by hormonal control from hypothalamus ● Posterior (2): ● Neurohypophysis (cuz contain neurons & connected to hypothalamus, instead of neurotransmitters in vesicles, hormones are released!) ● They are synthesized in hypothalamus (cuz cell body of neurons there) ● But they say they are stored and released in neurohypophysis ● Supraoptic and paraventricular nucleus (nucleus is cluster of neurons) of hypothalamus release ▪ Used to thought to be separate, both release both ● ADH and oxytocin< stored in terminals for later release ● Oxytocin: target uterus and mammary glands ● Works on smooth muscles of uterus to stimulate uterus contraction to help delivery ● Important during lactation phase,breastfeeding> milk release ● Peptide hormone ● Vasopressin (antidiuretic hormone): target kidney ● Prevents water loss (%70 body), when overhydrated don’t need ADH ● Vasoconstrictor> blood pressure up ● Peptide hormone ● By neural control ● Hypothalamus: controls anterior pituitary by secreting hypophysiotropic (releasing) hormones ● Prolactin ● Dopamine (DA): When released, anterior pituitary gland does not released (inhibitory) ● Controls release of prolactin by releasing dopamine (inhibitory) ● Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH) and Luteinizing Hormone (LH) ● Gonadotropin releasing hormone(GnRH): stimulated FSH&LH inturn stimulate test/estradiol ● Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) ● Thyrotropin releasing hormone(TRH): Acts on anterior pituitary gland stimulate TSH ● Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) Stimulates adrenal cortex to release cortisol ● Corticotrophin releasing hormone(CRH): Stimulate release ACTH ● Growth hormone: excitory and inhibitory, tight control ● Growth hormone releasing hormone(GHRH): Stimulatory (growth hormone) ● Somatostatin(SS): Inhibitory (growth hormone) CONTROLLED BY HOMEOSTATIC SYSTEM: controlled by typical negative feedback o Receptor, control center, effectors o Axis: homeostatic system o Eg. hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis ▪ Hypothalamus stimulates release CRH>anterior pituitary release ACTH>adrenal cortex>cortisol ▪ Hypothalamus knows to release CRH based on level of cortisol on body:typ negative feedback ● Cortisol (steroid hormone) allows to cope with stress o Stress: a threat to homeostasis o Cortisol ensure nutrient regulation o Stimulates different organs to regulate blood nutrient levels(glucose, fatty acids) Function of cortisol: nutrient regulation: stimulates different organs to regulate ● Increases the fuel availability to the brain, brain prefers glucose cuz quick source of energy ● Can’t store unlimited glucose ● Depends on size and metabolic activity ● Limited amount in liver (most here) and muscles (vary depend on muscle mass) ● Gluconeogenesis: making more glucose ● Want to make sure to have excess glucose ● Can’t make from thin air, comes from forms such as acetyl coa(acetate), pyruvate ● Controls level of glucose (Storage in liver and muscles) ● glycolytic hormone (glyco=lipid, lytic=breakdown) <stimulate lipid breakdown ● Break down fat, ya lose weight, but end up in emergency room ● Why break down fat?: 2 reasons ● Stimulates breakdown of lipids to make glucose ● To make sure brain gets all glucose ● Shift muscles to use fatty acids so glucose reserved for the brain ● Anti-inflammatory effects (immunosuppressive): decrease immune system response ● Affects memory function: stress causes you to forget stuff ● Worst of all functions: it’s a proteolytic hormones (protein breakdown) ● Break down protein, but never want this! <protein meant to be stored ● Highest amount in muscles (in the actin and myosin) ● Only prolonged stress: chronic stress eg pregnant females ● They get babies not healthy so affect growth as well ● Children who grow in stressed household ● Cortisol isn’t bad, high level of cortisol is BAD: individuals who are extremely stressed/pro athletes ● But positive effects of exercise counter negative effects of high cortisol in pro athletes **know where they come from where they go, what do them dooo, chem composition Process of inflammation, different types of white blood cells, innate vs adaptive immunity (cell vs humoral) IMMUNE SYSTEM Immune system: to detect non-self-antigens 1. Get rid of pathogens by identify Antigens: (often glyco)Protein markers on cell surface that say “this is me” ● Antigens are anything illicit immune response ● Body recognizes self-antigens ● Cell try to identify nonnative/ nonself antigens ● In autoimmune disease doesn’t recognize self as self (rupus, rheumatoid arthritis) and then attack it as if foreign ● Pathogens: foreign/nonself inside body ● Eg. bacteria (single cells prok), viruses(half alive, with DNA), parasites (eg tapeworms) 2. Get rid of old cells (proteins on surface and immune system get rids of them) Innate vs Adaptive immunity Innate (non-specific): same response no matter what pathogen, also inherited - Present in all animals and even some plants Adaptive (specific): body remembers a particular pathogen, advanced, vertebrates ● Instead of inherited, it has memory Cross talk between these two, overlap Together called immune response! Directed by white blood cells! Not by a specific organ WBC (leukocytes) types: (classified by function, a bit by how they stain) 1. Granulocytes: little grains (bits of endomembrane system) that get stained ● Mainly involved with the inflammatory response ● Couple of these ● basophils/mast cells: release histamines(cause leakage of blood vessels, vasodilation, bronchial constriction)<counteract inflammatory response) and various other cytokines ● Eosinophils: attack parasites (large pathogens) ● Neutrophils: can also be phagocytes ● 70% of WBCs ● Indiscriminately kill cells (self and non-self) and then die and bodies make pus ● Get to infected area, called by immune cells, indiscriminately care everything in path 2. Phagocytes/Monocytes: big cells engulf/phagocytize microorganisms and digest and present antigen - monocytes in one part of life and machrophages in another - 1. Relatively big cells that phagocytose/engulf other microorganisms - Process of phagocytosis: send pseudopods around hte microorganisms, take it in and lysozyme comes in and digest it 2. Antigen presenting cells: Also take a big of the microorganisms and put of it on surface: 3. Release cytokines: chemical signals that attract other immune cells - Basophils and monocytes both release ● Kill tumor/infected cells ● Lotsa different types 3. Lymphocytes(immunocytes)-adaptive immunity ● T-cell, B-cells, Natural Killer cells (mostly involved with killing tumor cells) Innate Immunity (always happens, doesn’t depend on invader) First line of innate immunity is Physical Barriers - skin, mucous, linings of digestive/respiratory/etc tracts Second is Inflammation - response to injury & pathogen infection Part is those various phagocytes Their role is to recognize as non-self and start to break down release chemicals that activate things like basophils/mast cells Basophils/Mast Cells - release histamines (vasodilation/vessel permeability) Histamines call other immune cells and cause vasodilation causing vessel permeability Allows other immune cells to come in and pathogens go out Third aspect is activation of complement (part of plasma of blood) < very primitive produce inflammation and keep inflammatory response going Also, they form membrane attack complexes to attack membrane Complements is a series of protein within plasma of blood, when they are activated they group together to form complexes Complexes attack to pathogens Then drill a hole in those pathogens causing to cytosol to leak out and cell to lyse and die Link between innate and adaptive... Antibodies (immunoglobins) - proteins produced by B-cells (type of lymphocyte) ● Target particular antigens (on surface of pathogens) ● After target then Mark pathogens for destruction ● Then cause pathogens to clump together (antigens clump together) ● Thereby disabling them ● Formed by alternate splicing - they are coded genetically ● One gene -> many proteins ● Introns don’t code for protein ● By mixing and matching exons allow for one gene to many proteins ● !! pay attention to structure (all is protein with quartenary structure) ● 2 light chains ● 2 heavy chains ● Both have 2 parts ● Part at top is variable, making it available to attach to antigens ● Variable part allow to make a bunch of different antibodies Adaptive Immune Response **key it has memory!!! Allowing it to become like an innate response All can recognize, memory cells, pathogens> memory cells and do adaptive immune response 2 parts to adaptive immune response: -cytotoxic: mediated by T cells, direct attack pathogens and infected cells - two types of t cells: helper (activated by macrophages turn on cytotoxic t-cells and b- cells) and cytotoxic -humoral: is the response via antibodies made by B-cells - antibodies agglutinate or mark for destroy ● Cytotoxic - direct attack of pathogens + infected cells ● T-cells ● Helper (turn on cytotoxic t-cells and b-cells) ● Cytotoxic (killer) ● Humoral - antibodies ● B-cells make antibodies ● Memory B-cells puts bits of antibodies on surface to form antibodies once recognizes antigens again ● helper/cytotic T-cells and B-cells are all memory cells ● Cell recognizes it’s been infected a puts a little antigen to kill ● If memory t cells Recognize pathogens and start immune response without macrophage ● Directly to memory cells Pathway:Macrophage->helper T-cells -> cytotoxic T-cells/B-cells Lymphatic System (one way system vs circulatory system which is multidirectional) ● Alternate circulatory system ● Dead end vessels and picks up interstitial fluid (via simple osmosis) this forms lymph, by simple pressure get pushed into subclavian arteries and gets pushed into circulatory system again ● Number of different functions: o Transports Lymphocytes< main focus for today o Recovers interstitial fluid (fluid between cells) and returns it to circulatory system o Helps absorbs fats in the intestine<hard to get fats directly in blood LOTSA ORGANS Thymus - lymphatic tissue in it, but also endocrine release immune system hormones Bone Marrow - WBC/RBC formed here Lymph nodes/spleen – filter lymph & warning system - Lymph sweep up pathogens - lymphocytes in lymph nodes watch for pathogens and then start reproducing and fight infection - Some would leave with lymph - Lymph would leave the room RESPIRATORY SYSTEM (connected w cardiovascular system) Closed circulatory system: main places move in heart and lungs 2 main functions: ● Obtaining O2 ● And rid CO2 Also ● Regulate homeostasis of PH ● Cuz regulates CO2> high CO2 means high H+ low pH ● Speech production (larynx) ● Lungs in direct contact with outside world ● Has macrophages to defend against foreign bodies, NON SPECIFIC IMMUNITY Be able to trace CO2/O2 ● external respiration: movement of oxygen ● Easy to do, continuous, aided by skeletal muscles (can’t tire these muscles) ● As opposed to internal respiration: refers to cellular respiration, use oxygen to make ATP ● Ventilation: exchange with the environment ● Pulmonary and systemic circulation ● Goes to lungs then to blood thru diffusion ▪ Quick and efficient ● Very large quantities travel thru blood quick and efficiently through circulation (bulk transport) ▪ Diffusion back into cells and does internal respiration (cellular respiration) Air composition ● 78.1% Nitrogen but inert, enters and leaves untouched ● 1% other ● 20.9% O2 ● Gases depend on pressure therefore quantify by PRESSURE, similar to concentration of liquids ● Weight AND bombardment of the molecules ● All the gases collectively: atmospheric pressure ● Force varies, because bombardment of molecules depends on altitude ● As go up, pressure decreases ● Sea level: 760 mmHg (millimeters of mercury), higher in mountains ● Humidity and weather also effects (so would be lighter) ● Partial pressure of o2 = 20.9% of 760 = ~160 mmHg Respiratory System ● Main entrance: nasal cavity (nose) some thru oral cavity (mouth) ● Goes to back of throat to Pharynx to Larynx (Adam’s apple) ● Then to windpipe (trachea) ● Then thru bronchi, which splits ● More branching, more SA then more exchange/diffusion ● First 2 branches: primary bronchi ● Then secondary to tertiary, to thousands to millions! ● Then to bronchioles to alveoli (air sacs of lungs, where all activity occur) ● Blood comes in blood rich, exits blood poor ● Notice tremendous increase of branching ● Conducting zone: O2 just passes by ● Respiratory zone: window to the body, how O2 makes it to the blood ● Alveoli: look at alveolar perfusion slide ● Capillaries: surround the alveoli, window of exchange< enters by diffusion ● Blood comes in thru pulmonary trunk and exits thru pulmonary veins ● Alveolus is bundle of cells called type 1 alveolar cell ● type 1 alveolar cell: form wall of alveoli & more numerous than type 2 ● Alveoli type 2 secretes surfactant, prevents collapsing ● Third type of celmacrophages (immune) ● Capillaries made of thin endothelial cells Lungs ● Very soft tissue, flexible, gooey ● Surrounded by rib cage, bones (hard tissue) ● Chest cavity also increases when you breathe, without any effort ● Lungs working with bones in synchrony! ● Due to the membrane pleural sac: thin membrane surrounds the lungs that connects the lungs to chest cavity: this is why breathing is very simple ▪ Lungs and bones to work together ● Pressure between lungs and pleural sac: transmural pressure: simply means diff in pressure ● Three types of pressure to look at with breathing: ● Atmospheric pressure (Patm): pressure in atmosphere ● Alveolar pressure (Palv) : pressure in each individual alveolus ● Intrapleural pressure (Pip): pressure in the pleural sac! <just know this ● Puncture into pleural sac= cavity inflate and lungs deflate, function independently ● When you breathe in lungs expand (inspiration= volume increase in size), when volume decrease in size = expiration ● During the respiratory cycle, always a change in the volume of your lungs ● Boyle’s law: relationship between pressure and volume ● Inversely proportional ● Inspiration: volume increase in size ● lungs volume up, pressure down so air comes in ● Easy to breathe because of this pressure change (Transmural pressure) ● If poke thru pleural sac, becomes hard to breathe because cavity and lungs lose connection Main muscle for respiration: Diaphragm: have one diaphragm many intercostal ● many muscles between rib cages (intercostal muscles) ● pushed in through EXTERNAL intercostal muscles expiration is usually passive expiration: elastic recoil of lungs active expiration requires muscles, usually abs and chest muscles contraction of internal intercoastals contraction of abdominal muscles cause diaphragm to be pushed up lungs: compliance: easiness of changing the volume with respect to a change in pressure How do gases cross the lung/blood media?: through thin alveoli and capillaries through diffusion Both are lined with simple squamous epithelium How are gases trans to blood? ● Once in blood oxygen is transported in two ways o 1.Dissolved in the plasma and erythrocytes ▪ ~2/1.5% dissolved in blood in plasma o 2.~98% bound to hemoglobin (electronegative attraction) ▪ Heme, iron is metal is positive, oxygen is negative Oxygen Transport Oxygen crosses from alveoli to plasma From plasma to erythrocytes where it binds to Hb Oxygen is then transported to cells where it is unloaded in the same way Unloading oxygen: delivering oxygen to the cells ● Dynamic process, moves depending on needs, based on metabolism ▪ Higher metabolism, more oxygen unloading ● What affect Hemoglobin and oxygen binding? ● BPG/glyceric acid(glycolysis byproduct) ▪ Increase, glycolysis level is high cuz need more atp ▪ So need more oxygen therefore more unloading ▪ if increase causes hemoglobin to unload more oxygen ● Temperature ▪ Higher temp, more it triggers ● Acidity ▪ Higher acidity, generates more lactic acids, more it triggers How is Carbon dioxide transported? Dissolved in plasma and cytosol: ~10% Attach to hemoglobin: ~30% Bicarbonate: ~60%: a buffer for pH o To have larger conversion into bicarbonate need enzyme: carbonic anhydrase When comes to respiratory system: brain CONTROLS the breathing ● Respiratory centers (inspiratory neurons) in medulla oblongata(brain stem)>spinal cord>phrenic nerve>skeletal muscles ● Inspiration is initiated by stimulating the respiratory muscles o Diaphragm and external intercostals ● The stimulation is initiated in the medullary centers and the pons For homeostatic mechanism: need receptor (located in multiple places, chemoreceptors regulate o2 and co2) Chemoreceptors: tracks homeostatic level of oxygen/ carbon dioxide ▪ Peripheral (outside brain) ● Carotid bodies(arteries that supply brain) ● Aortic bodies: 2 located on aorta ▪ Central: medulla oblongata Control center: ▪ respiratory systems in medulla oblongata send signals via neurons to increase or decrease stimulation to skeletal muscles Effectors: (diaphragm, intercostal muscles) CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM ● 3 components: heart, vessels, blood ● CO2 toxic material need to clear! ● Closed system that consists of (b/c blood always contained, orthopods don’t) <mammallian ● Heart: pumps blood ● blood vessels: blood pathway ● blood: carries nutrients and picks up waste ● Circulations of the heart ● systemic circulation: circuitry between heart and rest of the body ● pulmonary circulation: circuitry between heart and the lungs ● High oxygen & low CO2 blood coming into cells(oxygen rich) ● Low oxygen & high CO2 blood out of cells(oxygen poor) ● Exchange in lungs Heart is a cardiac muscle ● Sequence is different in cardiac muscle(involuntary) than in skeletal muscles ● Pump, receives and send blood Structure ● 4 cavities: 2 atria, 2 ventricles!! ● Atria receive the blood from body ● Ventricles recieve the blood from atria ● Ventricles are muscular pumping chambers that send blood out ● Separate chambers to keep types of blood (oxygen levels, etc) separate ● When relaxed, blood comes in, when contraction, blood out ● Unidirectional always from atrium to ventricles!! ● Valves ensure unidirectionality and prevent backflow into atria ● Tricuspid valve = between right A&V ● Bicuspid valve = between left A&V ● Pulmonary semilunar valve on right take it to the lungs = between RV & pulmonary trunk ● Aortic semilunar valve on left take it through body = between LV & aorta ● Blood Vessels ● Vein take blood to heart ● Artery take blood away from heart ● Vessels connected to right atrium (take in deoxygenated blood from body) ● Superior vena cava: deox blood coming from above diaphragm to RV ● Inferior vena cava: deox blood below diaphragm to RV ● Pulmonary trunk: deox blood from RV send to lungs ● Vessels connected to left atrium (take in oxygenated blood from lungs) ● 4 pulmonary veins: oxygenated blood from lungs into left atrium ● Aorta: oxygenated blood from LV out to body Pathway 1. Superior vena cava (deoxygenated blood from above diaphragm) and inferior vena cava (below diaphragm) pull in blood from body into right atrium 2. Blood travels thru tricuspid valve to right ventricle 3. Then through pulmonary semilunar valve to Pulmonary trunk to lungs 4. Returns back through pulmonary veins into left atrium 5. goes thru bicuspid valve to left ventricle 6. goes through aortic semilunar valve to aorta Contraction and Relaxation ● heart’s a muscle, period of contraction and relaxation ● Ventricles are the main pumping chambers ● Looked at more in physiology ● When ventricles are relaxed = ventricular diastole ● Blood is coming to the ventricles ● Tricuspid and bicuspid are open ● Aortic and pulmonary valves are closed ● When heart given signal to contract = ventricular systole ● Pushing of blood swings the aortic and pulmonary valves open ● Semilunar valves are closed ● Heartbeat sound is the closing of the valves ● Heart not given commands from brain, still involuntary ● Brain only regulates heart activities ● Contract due to action potentials that start from PACEMAKER CELLS ● Most of heart is made of cardiac muscle cells but pacemaker cells is 1% of cells in heart ● Scattered in specific locations ● SA node(right atrium) ● AV node(interatrial septum) ● bundle of His(interventricular septum) ● bundle branches ● purkinje fibers(ventricular walls) ● AP travel in this order, heading down the heart ● Order ensures slight delay between atria and ventricles ● Purkinje fibers trigger contraction of muscles of ventricles from bottom up ● “Bottom to top contraction” within the ventricles only ● Go over pacemaker cells text slide (pg9 notes) ● Cardiac muscle fibers have lots of gap junctions to ensure a synchrony of events in different cells ● Muscle cells connected by intercalated discs which are in the gap junctions thru which action potential can travel ● Desmosomes and gap junctions on plasma membrane of muscle cells Assessing Electrical Activities ● assessment methods /can be either invasive or non-invasive ● ECG/EKG ● Most favored cuz non invasive ● Put electrodes on wrist and one on ankles ● But now they put a lot on chest area ● Very simple, archaic way of testing ● Tests if the heart contracting right ● Should be first atria, then ventricles, then the rest ● EKGS get a trace, electrocardiogram, which is a diagram that is continuous cuz heart always beating ● Electrocardiogram parts ● Small deflection = P-wave: ● Electrical activity during Atrial depolarization ● Atria contracted ● Large deflection = QRS-wave/QRS-complex: ● PR wave: electrical activity of sa node is being traveled av node ● Electrical activity during Ventricular depolarization, ventricles contracting ● Huge because ventricles have much larger muscle mass than atrium ● Small but bigger than first deflection =T-wave: ● Electrical activity during Ventricular repolarization ● when ventricles are relaxing ● Slight delay between P and R wave = PR interval(<1 second) ● Here determine if there’s any skipping ● Slight delay between ST = ST interval ● Show how long ventricles are depolarize ● Also TP interval ● Important because this is when ventricles filling up with blood ● Measuring the action potential of heart from skin surface ● Means the amplitudes are very faint ● Only one mV change throughout (much smaller than action potential change from resting (-70mv) to peak (+30mv) which is ~100 mv change ● NOT CONSIDERED AN ACTION POTENTIAL bc it’s an “extracellular recording” ● Meaning it records from outside cell ● BE ABLE TO FOLLOW WHATS GOING ON IN THE HEART DURING THESE PHASES (LIKE IF ATRIUM OR VENTRICLES ARE CONTRACTING AND WHERE) Blood Vessels ● Form closed circuits carry blood ARTERIES>ARTERIOLES>CAPILLARIES>VENULES>VEINS ● Two types of blood vessels ● Arteries: ● take away from heart ● elastic, strong ● branch into arterioles ● HIGH PRESSURE ● pressure is force per unit area ● Force is friction of blood as passing through blood vessel ● Means blood has no problem passing, even against gravity upwards or with gravity ● Veins: take back to heart ● Carry back to heart ● Thinner walls ● Smaller venules go coalesce to veins ● LOW PRESSURE ● Now if going against gravity, it’s difficult cuz pressure is lower than in arteries ● So now necessitates anatomical differences ● Valves ensure without backflow ● Substantial difference between pressure between two vessels ● Both arteries and veins have 3 main layers ● Inside they have the lumen (cavity) ● In veins lumen is bigger ● Three layers are ● tunica intima (direct contact with blood, inner wall of blood vessel) ● made of simple squamous epithelium (endothelium) ● very smooth surface, less friction! ● Controls the contraction of smooth ● Determines the constriction ● tunica media (connection w/ organs) ● contains a lot of smooth muscles ● control diameter of blood vessels ● vasoconstriction ● vasodilation ● rest (tone) ● contraction determined by TUNICA INTIMA ● in arteries media is a lot thicker ● tunica externa ● connective tissue with elastic and collagen fibers ● elastic layer ● more elastic in arteries than in veins ● smallest blood vessels are capillaries (site for exchange with cells) ● made of endothelial only, so no layers like in veins and arteries ● numerous, slowest movement compared to veins/arteries ● exchange can happen through capillaries or through tiny openings in capillaries called clefts ● inside called lumen, outside called interstitial fluid ● microcirculations within capillaries ● artioles>capillaries>venules ● blood come in the capillaries oxygen rich, go out oxygen poor ● driving force of exchange is.. ● simple diffusion (high concentration to low concentration) ● O2 glucose high in vein low in cell ● So oxygen and glucose flow into cell ● CO2 high in cell low in veins ● So carbon dioxide flows into veins ● But veins have low pressure and therefor hold majority blood which depends on “skeletal muscle pump” to drive ● movement of skeletal muscles ● Heart is contractile muscle, vessels are more elastic BLOOD ● 2 comp
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