FINAL EXAM REVIEW
FINAL EXAM REVIEW Bio 2010
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This 13 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kelsie Carter on Wednesday May 11, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Bio 2010 at University of Colorado Colorado Springs taught by Sabine Allenspach in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 48 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy and Physiology in Biology at University of Colorado Colorado Springs.
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Date Created: 05/11/16
Final Exam Review Chapter 12: Neural Tissue 1. Chemical Gradient: also called concentration gradient, drive the movement of potassium ions and sodium ions through the leak channels 2. Electrical Gradient: results from more negative charged ion on the cytosol side of the plasma membrane, result in potential difference 3. Net Potential: 4. Gated Channels: A. chemically: open in presence of specific chemicals (e.g. ACh) at a binding site, usually by neurotransmitters, responsible for synaptic potentials, the incoming signals to the neuron B. mechanically: respond to membrane distortion, C. voltage-gated: respond to changes in membrane potential, have activation gates (open) and inactivation gates (close). Characteristics of excitable membrane, responsible for generation and propagation of the action potential, the outgoing signal from the neuron 5. Graded Potentials: any stimulus that opens a gated channel produces a graded potential or local potential A. Depolarization: a. a shift in potential toward 0 mV i. movement of Na through channel ii. produces local current iii. depolarizes nearby plasma membrane (graded potential) iv. change in potential is proportional to stimulus B. Hyperpolarization: a. opposite effect of opening a sodium channel b. positive ions move out, not into cell C. both Depolarization and Hyperpolarization share 4 basic characteristics a. the membrane potential is most changed at the site of stimulation. And the effect decreases with distance b. the effect spreads passively, due to local currents c. the graded change in membrane potential may involve either depolarization or hyperpolarization d. the stronger the stimulus, the greater the change in the membrane potential and the larger the area affected 6. Effects of Graded Potential: A. at cell dendrites or cell bodies a. trigger specific cell functions B. at motor end C. Subthreshold: refers to a stimulus that is too small in magnitude to produce an action potential D. Suprathreshold: refers to stimulus that is large enough in magnitude to produce an action potential in excitable cells 7. Action Potential: propagated changes in membrane potential, affect an entire excitable membrane, link graded potentials at cell body with motor end plate actions A. Depolarization: a shift in potential toward 0 mV i. movement of Na through channel ii. produces local current iii. depolarizes nearby plasma membrane (graded potential) iv. change in potential is proportional to stimulus B. Repolarization: the movement of the membrane potential away from a positive value toward the resting potential C. Hyperpolarization: the movement of the membrane potential away from the normal resting potential and farther from 0 mV, opposite effect of opening a sodium channel, positive ions move and not into the cell 8. Refractory Periods: from beginning of action potential, to return to resting state, during which membrane will not respond normally to additional stimuli A. All-or-none Principle: a given stimulus either triggers a typical action potential or none at all, applies to all excitable membranes B. Absolute Refractory Period: the membrane cannot respond to further stimulation from the moment the voltage-gated sodium channels open at threshold until sodium channel inactivation ends, because all the voltage- gated sodium channels either are open or inactivated, usually lasts 0.4-1.0 msec C. Relative Refractory Period: begins when the sodium channels regain their normal resting condition. And continues until the membrane potential stabilizes at resting levels 9. Generation of an Action Potential: A. depolarization to threshold B. activation of Na channels i. rapid depolarization Na ions rush into cytoplasm ii. inner membrane changes from negative to positive C. inactivation of Na channels, activation of K channels i. at +30 mV- inactivation gates close (Na channel inactivation) ii. K channels open- repolarization begins D. return to normal permeability i. K channels begin o close to (-70 mV) ii. K channels finish closing a. membrane is hyperpolarized to -90 mV b. membrane potential returns to resting level c. action potential is over 10. Cholinergic Synapse: any synapse that releases ACh at- a. all neuromuscular functions with skeletal muscle fibers b. many synapses in CNS c. all neuron-to-neuron synapses in PNS d. all neuromuscular and neuroglandular junctions of ANS parasympathetic division A. steps: i. action potential arrives, depolarizes synaptic terminal ii. calcium ions enter synaptic terminal, trigger exocytosis of ACh iii. ACh binds to receptors, depolarizations postsynaptic membrane iv. ACh removed by AChE AChE breaks ACh into acetate and choline 11. Difference between continuous conduction and salutatory conduction: in salutatory conduction, the nerve impulse will ump between the spaces between the nodes of Ranvier. This is faster than continuous conduction, where the nerve impulse travels down the whole unmyelinated neuron 12. Nerve Fibers A. Type A Fibers: i. myelinated, largeest diameter ii. high speed (140m/sec) (268 mph) iii. carry rapid information to/from CNS -example: position, balance, delicate touch, motor impulses B. Type B Fibers: i. myelinated, medium diameter ii. medium speed (18m/sec) (40 mph) iii. carry intermediate signals Sensory information, temperature, peripheral receptors, pain C. Type C Fibers: i. unmyelinated, small diameter ii. slow speed (1m/sec) (2mph) iii. carry slower information Involuntary muscles and glands 13. Neurotransmitters A. NE: Norepinephrine, released by androgenic synapse, excitatory and depolarizing effect, widely distributed in brain and portions of ANS B. GABA: gamma aminobutyric acid, inhibitory effect, reduces anxiety, 20% of synapses in brain release GABA, not well understood C. Dopamine: produced by substantia gland, excitatory and depolarizing effect, involved in Parkinson’s disease and cocaine use D. Glutamine: E. Serotonin: produced by pineal gland and small intestines, affects attention and emotional states (deficiency can cause severe depression, treated with SSRIs (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors)) 14. Opioids A. neuromodulators that bind to receptors and activate enzymes B. bid to same receptors as opium or morphine C. function: i. endorphins ii. enkephalins iii. endomorphins iv. dynorphins 15. IPSP’s and EPSP’s A. IPSP’s: inhibitory postsynaptic potential a. inhibition: a neuron that receives many IPSP - inhibited from producing action potential -because the stimulation needed to reach the threshold is increased B. EPSP’s: depolarization of post synaptic membrane a. summation: to trigger an action potential -one EPSP is not enough to trigger it - EPSPs and (IPSPs) combine through summation (temporal) (spatial) 16. Definitions: A. Resting Potential: in an unstimulated, resting cell, the potential difference between positive and negative ions on either side of the membrane B. Graded Potential: any stimulus that opens a gated channel produces a graded potential C. Action Potential: propagated changes in membrane potential, affect an entire excitable membrane. Link graded potentials at ell body with motor end plate actions D. Information processing: a. at the simplest level (individual neuron): i. many dendrites receive neurotransmitter messages simultaneously ii. some excitatory, some inhibitory iii. net effect on axon hillock determines if action potential is produced E. Synaptic Activity: a. presynaptic inhibition: action of an axoaxonic synapse at a synaptic terminal that decreases the neurotransmitter released by presynaptic membrane b. presynaptic facilitation: action of an axoaxonic synapse at a synaptic terminal that increases the neurotransmitter released by presynaptic membrane 17. Nernst and Goldman-Hodgkin Katz Calculations: A. Nernst: equation for equilibrium potential of an ion B. GHK: equation for resting membrane potential, 37 Celsius 18. Equilibrium Potential: the membrane potential at which there is no net movement of a particular ion across the cell membrane 19. Absolute and Relative Refractory Periods: A. Absolute Refractory Period: the membrane cannot respond to further stimulation from the moment the voltage-gated sodium channels open at threshold until sodium channel inactivation ends, because all the voltage- gated sodium channels either are open or inactivated, usually lasts 0.4-1.0 msec B. Relative Refractory Periods: begins when the sodium channels regain their normal resting condition. And continues until the membrane potential stabilizes at resting levels 20. Temporal and Spatial Summation A. Temporal Summation: multiple times, rapid repeated stimuli at one synapse B. Spatial Summation: multiple locations, many stimuli arrive at multiple synapses 21. CLINICAL NOTE: Wallarian Degeneration A. when a nerve fiver is crushed or cut, in which part of the axon separated from the neurons cell body degenerates distal to the injury B. axonal degeneration is followed by degradation of the myelin sheath and infiltration by marcophages, which serve to clear the debris from the degeneration C. regeneration occurs easier in PNS than CNS (astrocytes build scar tissue/block regrowth of axons) D. cause: cerebral infraction, trauma, hemorrhage, necrosis, and focal demyelination E. symptoms: muscle weakness, limb numbness, altered sensation, swelling of the axolemma, causes permanent loss of sensation and motor control . Chapter 13: The Spinal Cord, Spinal Nerves, and Spinal Reflexes 1. Spinal Cord Anatomy: A. about 18 inches long B. ½ inch wide C. ends between vertebrae L1 and L2 D. Bilateral Symmetry: posterior median sulcus and anterior median fissure E. Conus Medullaris: thin, conical spinal cord below lumbar enlargement F. Filum Terminale: thin thread of fibrous tissue at end of conus medullaris, attaches to the coccygeal ligament G. Cauda Equina: nerve roots extending below conus medullaris 2. Anatomy and Physiology of: A. Dorsal Root: contains dorsal root ganglia and sensory neurons B. Ventral Root: contains axons of motor neurons C. Spinal Nerves: on each side of the spine, dorsal and ventral root join 3. Spinal Meninges: A. Epidural Space: contains loose CT and adipose tissue, between spinal dura and walls of vertebral canal, used as an injection site B. Dura Mater: outer most layer, tough, fibrous i. cranially: fuses with periosteum at the occipital lobe, is continuous with the cranial dura ii. caudally: tapers to dense cord of collagen fibers, joins caudally with the filum terminale in coccygeal ligament iii. epidural space C. Arachnoid Mater: middle layer i. arachnoid membrane: made of simple squamous ET, very delicate D. Subarachnoid Space: between the arachnoid mater and pia mater, filled with CSF, contains collagen elastic fibers called arachnoid trabeculae E. Pia Mater: inner most layer, mash of collagen and elastic fibers, bound to underlying tissue 4. Gray Matter: A. gray horns: i. posterior gray horns: contain somatic and visceral sensory nuclei ii. anterior gray horns: contain somatic and visceral motor nuclei iii. lateral gray horn: in thoracic and lumbar segments, contain visceral motor nuclei B. gray commissure: axons that cross from one side of the cord to the other before reaching gray matter C. sensory nuclei: dorsal, connecting t peripheral receptors D. motor nuclei: ventral, connecting to peripheral effectors 5. White Matter: A. white columns: i. posterior white columns: lie between grey horns and posterior median sulcus ii. anterior white columns: lie between anterior grey horns and anterior median fissure iii. lateral white columns: located on each side of the spinal column, between anterior and posterior columns B. white commissure: area where axons cross from one side of the spinal cord to the other C. Fasciculi: or tracts i. within columns ii. bundles of axons iii. relay same information in same direction iv. ascending tracts: carry information to the brain v. descending tracts: carry motor commands up and down the spinal cord 6. Layers of the Spinal Nerves: A. epineurium: most outer layer, dense network of collagen fibers B. perineurium: middle, divides nerves into fascicles C. endoneurium: inner layer, surrounds individual axons 7. Cervical Plexus: C1-C5 A. includes ventral rami spinal nerves C1-C5 B. innovates neck, thoracic cavity and diaphragm C. Phrenic Nerve 8. Brachial Plexus: C5-C8 and T1 A. includes ventral rami and nerves C5-T1 B. innervates pectoral girdle and upper limbs C. nerves that form brachial plexus originate from: a. superior, middle, and inferior trunks b. larger bundles of axons from several spinal nerves c. lateral, medial, posterior cords d. smaller branches that originate at trunks D. includes axiallary nerve, radial nerve, median nerve, musculocutaneous nerve, and ulnar nerve 9. Lumbar Plexus: T12-L4 A. ventral rami of spinal nerves T12-L4 B. femoral nerve 10. Sacral Plexus: L4-S4 A. ventral rami of spinal nerves L4-S4 B. includes the Sciatic Nerve, which splits into the Common Fibular nerve and Tibial nerve 11. Neuronal Pools/ Circuits A. Divergence: spreads simultaneously to many neurons or neuronal pools in CNS i. amplifying: one cell (pyramidal cell in motor cell) excites 10,000 fibers B. Convergence: bring input from many sources to one neuron i. optical input of proprioception from movement C. Serial Processing: move information in a single line i. reflex: rapid automatic response to a stimuli, with the same response every time D. Parallel Processing: move information along several paths simultaneously i. higher cognitive function E. Reverberation: positive feedback loop, continuously function until it is inhibited i. control of breathing, sleep-wake cycle 12. Reflexes A. Stretch Reflex: monosynaptic reflexes, have least delay between sensory input and motor output (patellar reflex) B. Tendon Reflex: prevents skeletal muscles from developing too much tension or tendon ripping or tearing, sensory receptors unlike muscle spindles or proprioceptors C. Withdrawl Reflex: move body parts away from stimulus (pain or pressure), strength and extent of response (depend on intensity and location of stimulus) i. example: flexor reflex: pull hand from a hot plate D. Crossed Extensor Reflex: contralateral reflex arch, occur on opposite side of stimuli E. Golgi Tendon Organ: in tendons F. Muscle Spindle: i. receptors in stretch reflexes ii. bundles of small, specialized intrafusal muscle fibers -innervated by sensory and motor neurons iii. surrounded by extrafusal muscle fibers -maintain tone and contract muscle - detect changes in length of muscle and send signals to CNS - Gamma fibers 13. Monosynaptic Reflexes: a stretch reflexes, have least delay between sensory input and motor input (example: patellar reflex, completed in 20-40 msec, receptor- muscle spindle) ONE SYNAPSE 14. Polysynaptic Reflexes: multiple synapses (two to several hundred), interneurons control more than one muscle goup 15. SPINAL CORD DRAWING 16. CLINICAL NOTE: Meningitis A. is an inflammation of the meninges surrounding the brain and spinal cord B. symptoms: high fever, severe head ache, stiff neck, vomiting, confusion or difficulty concentrating, seizures, sleepiness or difficulty waking up, sensitivity to light C. causes: bacterial meningitis (Streptococcus pneumoniae, Neisseria meningitis, Listeria monocytogenes), viral meningitis, chronic meningitis, and fungal meningitis D. treatment: acute bacterial meningitis requires prompt treatment with intravenous antibiotics and cortisone medications, to ensure recovery and reduce risk of complications, such as brain swelling and seizures. Viral meningitis: bed rest, plenty of fluids, and over-the-counter pain medications to help reduce fever and relieve body aches .Chapter 14: The brain and Cranial Nerves 1. Regions of the brain in an Adult: A. Cerebrum B. Cerebellum C. Diencephalon: integrates sensory information and motor commands (includes the thalamus, epithalamus, and hypothalamus, and pineal gland) D. Midbrain: a. tectum: two pairs of sensory nuclei (corporaquadrigemina, superior colliculi and lliculi) inferior co b. tegmentum: red nucleus (many blood vessels) and substantia nigra (pigmented grey matter regulates activity within basil nuclei) c. cerebral peduncles: nerve fiber bindles on ventrolateral surfaces, contain descending nerve fibers to the cerebellum and motor command fibers(projection tracts) E. Pons F. Medulla Oblongata G. Embryonic Regions: a. telencephalon: forms the cerebrum, contains the lateral ventricle b. diencephalon: contains the third ventricle c. mesencephalon: midbrain, contains the cerebral aqueduct d. metencecphalon: becomes the cerebellum and pons, contains the fourth ventricle e. myelecephalon: becomes the medulla oblongata, contains the fourth ventricle 2. Diencephalon: integrates sensory information and omtor commands A. Thalamus: filters ascending sensory information for primary sensory cortex, relays information between basal nuclei and cerebral cortex i. Thalamic Nuclei rd ii. 3 ventricle iii. inthalamic adhesion (intermediate mass) B. Hypothalamus: i. mammillary bodies: in conjunction with licking and sucking, process olfactory information and other sensory information ii. infundibulum: stalk that connects the pituitary gland to the hypothalamus iii. tuberal area: located in between the infundibulum and mammillary bodies (help control pituitary gland functions) iv. 8 functions of the hypothalamus: a. provides subconscious control of skeletal muscle b. controls autonomic function c. coordinate activities between nervous and endocrine system d. secretes and produces hormones -Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) by supraoptic nucleus - Oxytocin (OT; OXT) by paraventricular nucleus e. produces emotion and behavioral drives -the feeding center -the thirst center f. coordinates voluntary and autonomic functions g. regulates body temperature -preoptic area of hypothalamus h. supports circadian rhythm - suprachiasmatic nucleus i. production of regulating/releasing hormones C. Pituitary Gland D. Third Ventricle: separates left thalamus from right thalamus 4. DRAWING OF THE HYOPTHALAMUS AND PITUITARY GLAND 5. CLINICAL NOTE: Stroke: A. occurs when the blood supply to part of the brain is interrupted or severely reduced, depriving the brain tissue of oxygen and nutrients. Within minutes brain cells start to die. Early action can minimize brain damage and potential complications B. symptoms: trouble speaking, paralysis or numbness of limbs, trouble seeing, sudden severe head ache, trouble walking C. Ischemic Stroke Treatment: Aspirin and intravenous injection of tissue plasminogen activator (TPA), mechanical clot removal D. HEMORRHAGIC Stroke Treatment: controlling your bleeding and reducing pressure in brain, Surgery may be performed to help reduce future risk. 6. CLINICAL NOTE: Brain Death and Vegetative State A. Brain Death: cerebral death, defined as the irreversible loss of all functions of the brain, including the brainstem. The three essential findings in brain death and coma, absence of brainstem reflexes, apnoea (suspension of breathing), and a flat electroencephalogram for a specific amount of time. When a patient is determined brain dead they and legally and clinically dead. B. Vegetative State: a chronic long-term condition. Differs from persistent vegetative state, since patients have awaken from coma, but still haven’t regained awareness. Patients can open their eyes occasionally and demonstrate sleep-wake cycles. They also completely lack cognitive function. Is also called Coma Vigil.
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