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UMB / Biological Sciences Program / BSCI 201 / What are the hormones responsible for the adrenal medulla?

What are the hormones responsible for the adrenal medulla?

What are the hormones responsible for the adrenal medulla?

Description

School: University of Maryland
Department: Biological Sciences Program
Course: Human Anatomy and Physiology I
Professor: Meredith bohannon
Term: Spring 2016
Tags:
Cost: 50
Name: Final Exam: Endocrine
Description: Study guide answers for everything on the endocrine system.
Uploaded: 05/12/2016
3 Pages 103 Views 2 Unlocks
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Basics of Hormones


What are the hormones responsible for the adrenal medulla?



• Proteins: water soluble, regulate gens for other protein manufacture, growth  hormone

• Amine Hormones: water soluble, products of enzymatic reactions,  epinephrine

• Steroids: lipid soluble, synthesized from cholesterol, products of enzymatic  synthesis, cortisol

• They exert their effects through hormone receptors on their effector cells.  Water soluble hormones use second messenger systems while lipid soluble  hormones use gene activation

• They are generally regulated through negative feedback

Hypothalamic Control of Pituitary

• Posterior: neurons in the hypothalamus synthesize either oxytocin or ADH;  they are transported though the hypothalamic-hypophyseal tract; they are  stored in the axon terminals in the posterior pituitary, when the neurons  from the hypothalamus fire, the action potentials cause the release of ADH and oxytocin into the blood.  


Why insulin decreases blood sugar after eating?



• Anterior: in response to stimulus, neurons in the hypothalamus secrete  releasing or inhibiting hormones into the primary capillary plexus; they  travel through portal veins and either stimulate or inhibit the release of the  hormones produced in the anterior pituitary gland; if releasing hormones are  released, the anterior pituitary will secrete hormones into the secondary  capillary plexus, where they then travel to the blood.  

• Hypothalamic Hormones: Gonadotropin releasing hormone, growth hormone  releasing and inhibiting hormone, thyrotropin releasing hormone,  corticotropin releasing hormone, and prolactin inhibiting hormone

• Anterior Hormones: growth – systemic effects; thyroid-stimulating – causes  release of T3 and T4; adrenocorticotropic – causes release of cortisol from  adrenal cortex; follicle-stimulating and luteinizing – reproductive effects,  cause release of estrogen and testosterone; prolactin – causes milk  production


What is the difference between diabetes 1 and diabetes 2?



Don't forget about the age old question of What are the 5 major air pollutants?

• Posterior Hormones: oxytocin – uterine contractions in labor, milk let-down,  possibly responsible for postpartum maternal behavior, increases pair bonding; antidiuretic – controls blood water concentration

• HPA Axis: Hypothalamus sends corticotropin releasing hormone to Pituitary,  Pituitary sends adrenocorticotropic hormone to Adrenal cortex, Adrenal  cortex releases cortisol on a negative feedback loop

• HPG Axis: Hypothalamus sends GnRH to Pituitary, Pituitary sends LH and  FSH to gonads, testes release testosterone and ovaries release estrogen and  progesterone, both on negative feedback loops

• HPT Axis: Hypothalamus sends TRH to Pituitary, Pituitary sends TSH to  Thyroid, Thyroid releases T3 and T4 on negative feedback loops

Growth Hormone

• Increased cartilage formation and skeletal growth; increased proteins  synthesis, and cell growth and proliferation; increased fat breakdown and  release; increased blood glucose and other anti-insulin effects We also discuss several other topics like What are the nine characteristics of living things?

• The anterior pituitary releases growth hormone. One of its indirect effect is  the production of insulin0like growth factors. These work on a negative  feedback loop by inhibiting GH synthesis and release, inhibiting GHRH  release, and stimulating GHIH release.  

Thyroid System

• Both T3 and T4 start with tyrosine from thyroglobulin. The tyrosine then  attaches to either 1 or 2 iodine atoms. These molecules then bind together to  form T3 (3 iodine) or T4 (4 iodine)

• Maintains BMR, stimulates sympathetic effects, body temp, glucose catabolism, fat mobilization, maintains heart beat, nervous system  development from fetus to child, development of skeleton, development and  function of reproductive system, motility of GI tract

• Hyperthyroidism: Grave’s disease; Hyperthyroidism: goiter, Hashimoto’s  syndrome, cretinism, congenital hyperthyroidism, “American lifestyle”  hyperthyroidism

Adrenal System

• Adrenal Cortex: corticosteroids - glucocorticoids (cortisol and coticosterone),  mineralocorticoids (aldosterone), and gonadocorticoids (androstenedione) • Adrenal Medulla: catecholamines – epinephrine and norepinephrine • Mineralocorticoids regulate mineral salts in extracellular fluid • Glucocorticoids in normal amounts will increase blood glucose and pressure  (through vasoconstriction)

• Gonadocorticoids contribute to armpit and pubic hair during puberty. They  are also the only source of sex hormones for women after they have gone  through menopause If you want to learn more check out What are alexis de tocqueville's problems with american democracy?

• Epinephrine and norepinephrine respond to acute stress

• All steroids are derived from cholesterol. CYP450scc cleaves the side chain  off of cholesterol, producing pregnenolone. The final results are cortisol,  corticosterone, aldosterone, and androsterone.  

• Cushing’s disease is caused by excess cortisol; Addison’s disease is caused by  too little cortisol.

The Pancreas

• Insulin and glucagon

• Insulin decreases blood sugar after eating by increasing cell metabolic  activity and glycogen conversion and storage. Glucagon increases blood  sugar by stimulating the break down of glycogen back into glucose so that it  can be sent back to the blood and body cells If you want to learn more check out How do you determine electron density?

• Type 1 Diabetes is an autoimmune disorder were the body attacks its own  beta cells in the pancreas and leads to lower levels of insulin which allows  glucose to remain in the blood for too long. Type 2 Diabetes is a cellular  insensitivity to insulin, in part caused by genes, and in part caused by

lifestyle. Gestational diabetes is short-lived Type 2 diabetes that occurs  during pregnancy. It is caused by pregnancy hormones, and therefore  subsides after birth.  

The Reproductive System

• Male hormones are testosterone and dehydrotestosterone and produced in  the testes. Female hormones are estradiol and progesterone and are  produces in the ovaries We also discuss several other topics like What is the holistic approach in anthropology?

• Testosterone leads to spermatogenesis and estradiol leads to the  establishment of an ovarian cycle. It also helps with breast development in  puberty, systemic vascularization during pregnancy, and masculinization of  the male brain. Don't forget about the age old question of Why do i have trouble falling asleep and waking up?

• Cycling of Testosterone: GnRH causes a rise in LH and FSH levels, which in  turn increase the levels of testosterone to rise. This is a negative feedback  system.

• Cycling of Estradiol: GnRH causes a rise in FSH and LH levels, which in turn  causes levels of estradiol to rise. The estradiol will increase in the estradiol  cells. This increase will cause the production of follicles. An even larger  increase in estradiol causes positive feedback on the GnRH, FSH and LH. The  surge of LH causes ovulation.  

• Androgen receptor deficiency results in persons that are genotypically and  hormonally male, but are phenotypically male since hormones with no  receptors are practically useless in the body. With 5 alpha reductase  deficiency, the children are phenotypically and hormonally female until  puberty because they do no have receptors for dehydrotestosterone. When  puberty hits, however, testosterone takes over and the children become  phenotypically male as well.

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