History 1200 Final Study Guide
History 1200 Final Study Guide 1200
Popular in Survey of American History Since 1865
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HIST 1100 - 01
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
HIST 1100 - 01
verified elite notetaker
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The Great Depression I: Challenging the American Way of Life March 14, 2016 I. The Crash of Consumption II. The Corporate Welfare State III. Ironies of the Depression Terms Samuel Insull John Maynard Keynes Herbert Hoover “Blue Eagle” Franklin D. Roosevelt “The Folk” New Deal: Aaron Copeland CCC WPA Thomas Hart Benton PWA NRA Woody Guthris TVA SEC Herbert Hoover was elected in 1928 I. The Crash of Consumption In 1929 the United States reached its consumption, the market simply fell to pieces and what you had was a crash of the American economy The economy did not recover and settled through the most of the 1930s The new modern world of consumer abundance came crashing down around everyone’s feet Why did the American economy fall apart? There were fundamental business ideas of the base of the American economy. Beneath the surface there was a volatility of the structure of the economy and it was not as prosperous as it seemed on the surface. Bankruptcy there were more businesses going under than ever before In 1926 there were 22,000 business failures in 1927 there were 23,000 bankruptcies of businesses In 1926-1929 you see employment beginning to fall in the auto industry and in the construction industry Samuel Insull was the head of an electrical empire (one of these big holding companies). His company provided electricity for 39 states. It was built on very shaky foundation A lot of companies were buying the stock and were making the company seem more prosperous than it actually was. In 1929 all these smaller companies began to fall and then the economy as a whole began to unravel. There was a very uneven distribution of wealth. In the 1920s there was a very EXTREME uneven distribution of wealth. What you see is that people in top half of the economy were doing very well, versus the bottom half of the economy. The top 2% of the economy increased their buying power by 75% and 10% of the population owned 50% of the wealth There was a tremendous demand for US goods after the war because the rest of the worlds economies were struggling and the French and The UK were using Germanys money to pay them for the goods. The Germans were borrowing from big American banks, and then paying the French and the UK and then they were buying goods from the US, so essentially the America was lending money to themselves. In 1929 the worlds largest economy crashed and it began to unravel the economy. Wall street businesses were going under by the dozens and hundreds of thousands of people were losing their jobs. There was an atmosphere of failure and threat. The United States had always been a very optimistic nation. II. The Corporate Welfare State The President was Herbert Hoover when the economy crashed. He was considered the golden boy of the Republican Party. Was born in Iowa and was a Midwesterner. He was an orphan who went to Stanford and studied engineering. He became a technocrat in the Woodrow Wilson party. He helped to try and get food to people in the war torn areas of the European world torn countries. He becomes president in 1928 he pushes forward an agenda for corporation and government cooperation. The crash only deepened with his presidency. He begins to lose credibility with the American population. More and more people lose their jobs and their homes. You see more and more huts just to do what they can to put a roof over their heads. They were sarcastically called “hoovervilles”. It showed loss in confidence of Herbert Hoover, and his presidency. People expected that the government would look after their well- being. He wasn’t meeting the peoples idea of what the government would look after them. The Republican Party renominated Hoover. They simply did not have any other options. The Democratic party nominated the Governener of New York, Roosevelt. He was a very shroud politician. In 1932 most Americans were so sick of Hoover was just do nothing stupid and he would be elected. He ran a very quite campaign and he swept the election. The hundred days of FDR’s administration was the New Deal. There was a tsunami of legislation with a great number of programs and initiatives. They wanted to restore consumer power among American Citizens. Banks were closing down and now they had to try and reopen them. They pass the Emergency relief-banking bill. It helped reopened the banks by saying that the Federal Government stands behind the banks. This was all absolute nonsense. They want to restore tax revenue. They end prohibition and slap a tax on alcohol. They wanted to provide relief to American citizens to people who were suffering. The agriculture part of the economy. The Government were beginning to extend credit to farmers so they could continue to produce. You saw a large number of agencies Civilian Conservation Corps, which was a program that hires young men and they go to national parks and build things. You saw the PWA, which helped build bridges and public works. They had an economic philosophy of John Maynard Keyenes He was and Englishman who was very influential in economic circles. What you needed to have was a government policy on deficit spending. It was okay for the government to spend more money than it had. He argued that when the economy was down that the government had to spend more to stimulate the economy. The Tennessee Valley Authority was to build dam s to help build hydro electrics power to help send electricity to poor households The Works progress administration, which was a huge government program to build government buildings and hire people and essentially stimulate the economy. They had to use the federal government to stimulate the economy. The National Recovery administration was the biggest one and it was used to stimulate the economy at a federal level and it adopted he blue eagle and it basically was the federal government directly intervening into the economy The SEC the (security exchange commission) was used to regulate stock market and you had direct government intervention greys and it was to prevent Samuel Insull like problems. IV. The Ironies of the Great Depression a. In the 1930s you had some small movements but you didn’t have any large movements b. Culturally speaking Americans reacted to the depression by blaming themselves rather than blaming the system. i. Most Americans saw the depression as a private failure and not a public one c. Americans in the 1930s people tended to turn to the past instead of embracing the current life i. Americans engage in a nostalgia when they were trying to deal with the pain ii. They looked back to the agrarian past. iii. You see a large effaces on the Folk. 1. “The American Folk”- Hard working folk in American have survived everything in America, through their hard work. Aaron Copeland was a famous classical artist and he draws on other types of music and turns it into classical music Thomas Hart Benton was from Missouri and he got a large following in the 1930s because of his great murals of ordinary Americans. Woody Guthery who was a musician who sang this land is your land. Once again draws on the The Great Depression II: Demagogues, Radicals, and the New Deal March 16,2016 I. Demagogues II. Radical Dissent III. The Second New Deal Terms Dr. Francis Townsend Partisan Review Father Charles Coughlin Popular Front Huey Long WPA Mike Gold Social Security Act New Masses Wagner Act( NLRA) I. Demagogues a. Roosevelt was elected four times and was very popular in a way that transcended politics i. He managed to instill a sense of confidence in the American people. He was assuring people that things were going to get better ii. Through sheer volume of activity (programs and initiaves), he creates the impression that progress was being made effectively iii. Despite the impression of progress there was a fact that by 1936 was coming to light that the New Deal did not seem to be working all that well. 1. Unemployment in 1935 and 1936 was still between 25%-30% 2. Farm income was still 50% of what it had been in 1929 3. In 1936 there were food shortages in the great plains. 4. In 1936 business failure was still endemic in the American economy. 5. In 1936 the American economy broadly been about half of what it had been n 1929 in the sense of productivity. 6. Criticism was beginning to be thrown at FDR In the 1930s the upper middle class and the upper lower class unhappy. They are upset because before the depression they were doing very well, but once the depression hit they were the people that were going under or were afraid of going under. Dr. Francis Townsend was a guy in his late 60s who begins to make heated speeches about the plight of older people who are suffering from the economic problems and he begins to argue that everyone over the age of 60 should get $200 every month to help them survive. Nobody knew where that money was going to come from It would transfer about half the national wealth into 10% of the people Father Charles Coughlin was a radio priest from Detroit in the 1930s. He was originally a big fan of the new deal, but he eventually starts to criticize it Coughlin is in full flight with come pretty crazy stuff He blames the depression on a conspiracy of Wall Street; he thinks that they stole all the money to push the population into poverty This Wall Street conspiracy was really an anti- Jewish movement. Forms The National Union for Social Justice Huey Long was from Louisiana was very flamboyant and he rises up in state politics he had national aspirations He was a compensation lawyer to start and then moved onto become railroad commissioner in 1920s, and then he becomes governor in 1928, and then he ran for senate in 1932. He announces what he calls the “share our wealth program” and he claimed that “it would make every man a king” He wanted to guarantee an annual income of 2300 to every one in the untied states and he wanted to ensure houses of $5000 for everyone. HE thought that the government should seize any fortune over 5 million dollars and that it should levy %100 tax on anyone who was FDR considered him to be one of the most dangerous men in America II. Radical Dissent a. The depression represented the bankruptcy of the American system. b. Mike Gold was a socialist who kind of “flirted” with the communist party, he was from a working class background. He was the editor of the New Masses and they argue the bankruptcy fo the American System and what needed to happen was the disposed need to rise up and create a workers democracy. c. The Partisan Review was a more intellectual version of the leftist critique. It became the lead thing for elites to write about. You see an odd version of socialism d. Popular Front stated that the great danger was fascism. What needed to happen was a great alliance of everyone on the left side needed to come together for the popular front and they needed to move together to create an alliance in the United States. III. The Second New Deal a. FDR is a pretty shrewd guy; he understands the rhythm of politics. b. He was very aware of these leftist critics. c. HE begins to tweak the new deal d. Basically he takes a few steps to the left with some of his programs and starts to talk about more involvement in the economy and begins to push forward various kinds of attempts to ensure the well being of Americans e. THE WPA or the Works Progress administration was an enormous program had a budget of about $5 billion. It promoted an extodianry range of work projects. It ranged from building buildings to paintings and theatrical projects. The WPA employed 2 million people. f. Social Security Act was an initiative to aid the Townsend crowd and the plight of older American’s. IT was funded partly by tax and partly by contributions of employers. It set up a system that older people would get a pension when they could no longer work. g. The Wagner act was named after senator Wagner . It brought then national government into line to support labor organizations. Workers wanted to outlaw company unions where company officails would manipulate the people. It helped unify and support workers. FDRs 2 nd New deal was very popular and he was reelected and destroyed his opponent. Despiteh the 2 ndnew deal, late in the 1930s the great depression was bad and any progress that was made was very small and the economy was still in very bad shape, what pulled that economy up was world war 2 World War II: The International Crisis March 23, 2016 I. The Rise of Fascism II. American Neutrality III. World at War IV. The American Century Terms Benito Mussolini “America First” Committee Adolf Hitler Lend- Lease Act Munich Pact Tri-partite Pact German-Soviet Non- Aggression Pact Pearl Harbor Isolationism D-Day Internationalism Henry Luce I. The Rise of Fascism a. The Great depression was a national phenomenon but it was particularly bad in Europe. It showed the failure of capitalism and democracy in Europe. Desperate times called for desperate measures, so as a result you saw fascism as a result b. Benito Mussolini was the first big dramatic example of fascism in Italy. After get control in Italy you see him move to Africa and start influencing people they’re specifically Ethiopia. c. In Germany you see the rise of the Nazi party under the leadership of Adolf Hitler. He begins to consolidate his power when he takes over. HE basically outlaws other political parties. “Today Germany, tomorrow the world” d. In Japan and Asia you see a militaristic form of fascism e. Fascism is an authoritarian from of government. They are intensely nationalistic. They are very racially exclusive. They talk a lot about glorify a certain racial purity. The classic example is the holocaust f. Hitler begins to build up the army and air force and then by the mid 1930s the Germany military is the biggest and most powerful in the world. He then starts to talk about expanding Germany. He moves the troops into the Rhineland. g. The other European countries began to get very concerned h. The Munich conference takes place in 1938 where the French and the English get together wit Hitler and talk about this expansion. The agreement they make is basically the Hitler can take over part of Czechzevalkia and he agrees. Pretty quickly Hitler begins to take over all of Czechzvalkia. In 1939 the Germany- Soviet and Non- aggression pact is formed with and it was very surprising because Russia was communist (left) and Germany was the Nazi party ( right). In 1939 Germany invaded Poland. The pact was basically showing that Stalin would let Hitler invaded Poland. The English and French felt it was their duty to get involved and support Poland . i. Germany then launched an attack on France and the other low countries. France eventually surrendered. The only people left fighting against Hitler were the English II. American Neutrality a. The “American First” Committee is basically a committee that pushed toe keep American out of the war. Charles Lindbergh was the leader of this. b. FDR was not and isolationist and neither was a majority of his committee. He moves very quietly as an internationalist. c. The Lend lease act was a very good example of internationalism. It provided by an act of congress to provide the lending and leasing of military equipment and supplies for the English. The arsenal of democracy d. In the late 1930s and the early 1940s Japn has expended into manchurchira. The tri-partite Pact was the mutual defense between Germany, Japan and Italy. e. Pearl harbor December 7 1941.Japanses bomber planes bomb the American fleet. 2500 people were killed. Part of the American fleet was out and survived . The next morning FDR “the date that will live in infamy. “ He then goes to congress to ask for a declaration of war and it is overwhelming approved. III. World at War a. There beings to high need for supplies. By 1945the US had produced 86,000 tanks, 6,500 naval ships, 15 million guns for the war. There is a tremendous expansion of bureaucracy. In 1941 there were 1 million civilians working by 1945 there were 4 million. 15 million were in the armed services by the end of the war. There were 30 million waiting for the draft. b. In 1941 Hitler decided to tear up the non-aggression act with Russia (stupid). Hitler invades Russia. It eventually fails and they waste resources and time. c. D-day. The Americans and English push into France and head towards Germany. They surrounded Berlin and then they destroyed the capital. Hitler kills himself and the Germans surrender. d. The navy goes through trying to take over the idlans in the pacific. e. In the late summer of 1945 America uses the atomic bomb. IV. The American Century a. Henry Luce was a publisher for time magazine. He published the article the American Century b. 300,000 killed, 700,000 wounded. The Soviet Union lost 21 million people to death during the war. 6 million Jews were killed in concentration camps during the war. The atomic bomb itself showed that we were in new and dangerous territory with weapons. April 4 ??? The Cold War: The Paranoid Style at Home and Abroad April 6, 2016 I. The Nuclear Age II. Ideology of Confrontation III. Permanent War Psychology IV. Anti-Communism Terms Yalta Conference Dwight D. Eisenhower Iron Curtain John Foster Dulles Truman Doctrine CIA Berlin Blockade Pentagon Containment Korean Conflict Marshall Plan HUAC NATO Alger Hiss Brinksmanship The Rosenbergs Joseph McCarthy I. The Nuclear Age a. The two most powerful nations in the world were the United States and the Soviet Union, which were Allies. b. The Yalta conference took place in early spring of 1945. The allies got together to talk about the war. The Soviet Union agreed to enter to pacific war to fight the Japanese. The Sphere of influence was when there would be governments there not hostile to the soviet Union to make sure that the Soviet Union was not invaded. Europe would have free elections. i. Free elections never took place. c. The iron curtain speech talked about the developing situation with the Soviet Union. “ From the Baltic to the Adriatic and iron curtain d. The Truman administration embraced and anti- soviet expansion strategy. The Truman Doctrine told the world that wherever soviet aggression appeared the US would be there to stop it. e. The Berlin Blockade made it so that Germany was divided in half. East Germany was under the influence of the Soviet Union and West Germany was under the influence of the US. The problem was Berlin. f. In 1949 The Soviet Union exploded a nuclear bomb and announced to the world that they were testing bombs. Between 1945-1949 the US was the only country that had Nuclear weapons. II. Ideology of Confrontation a. “ The American way of life needs to be protect at all costs” b. “Tough minded realism” we failed to stand up to Hitler when we should of. What we had to do now was stand up to the Soviet Union and take control of the situation. It was code for strength. c. Containment the simple idea was that wherever communism threatened to expand the US had to move militarily or economically to contain that expansion. i. The Marshall Plan was named after George Marshall who was the advisor to FDR and Truman. Is when the United States pours economic assistance into European economies that are in need of assistance ii. NATO-the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. It was a vast military alliance. An attack on one is an attack on all. Basically a big anti- soviet defense alliance. iii. Brinksmanship “ if the united states is scared to go to the brink of war with the Soviet Union we are lost” III. Permanent War Psychology a. The cold war interesting because it was this confrontation between these tow enormously powerful countries, but it never actually involved fighting. Instead it was war of nerves and threats, and limited engagements b. The CIA had been around since the 20s. It was used to bring down hostile leftist governments. c. The Pentagon was a centralized military command center. d. Permanent war economy e. Korean Conflict, Korea was divided in half South half was more democratic and enforced by the US, and North Korea was more communist. North Korea invades South Korea in an attempt to rule all of Korea in a Communist regime. IV. Anti- Communism a. Communist infiltration into the US was very concerning. b. HUAC- c. Alger Hiss was a member of the communist party d. The Rosenberg’s were soviet nuclear spies and are brought to trial, are convicted and executed for treason. e. Joseph McCarthy was a large communist hunter. Accused everyone that they were communists and basically made a career out of it. Suburban Sprawl: Society and Sethibility in the 1950s April 13 , 2016 I. A People of the Plenty II. American Families III. TV Culture IV. Dissenting Voices Terms Asphyxiation “Leave it to Beaver” GI Bill Westerns ITT “I Love Lucy” AFL-CIO Dwight MacDonald Suburban Ideal Elvis Presley Baby Boom Beat Generation Benjamin Spock, Baby and Child Care James Dean I. A People of the Plenty a. Asphyxiation- being unable to breathe because of the powerful weight of having to conform. Conformity as suffocation b. In 1950s you saw a rise in the availability of living, and you saw a rise stereotypes. (Houses in the suburbs, flashy new cars, it was a symbol of abundance, etc.) c. Behind these stereotypes there was a reality. When you really look at thinks you see a surreal life. d. GI Bill was a far-reaching piece of legislation; it was passed at then end of WWII. When the war ended there was going to be millions of veterans coming home. It was an attempt to deal with some of the problems that could happen when trying to integrate them back into the work force. The GI Bill was an economic safety net. It set up unemployment compensation, helped with medical care, it also provided subsidies to provide for servicemen, it also guaranteed mortgages for servicemen. e. The Interstate Highway Pact provided government funds for a nationwide system of four way highways. It was a tremendous boom to the automobile industry. It promoted the trucking industry. They were also provided a tremendous boost for travel f. The consolidation of big business, the mergers of smaller companies into bigger corporate conglomerates. i. ITT- International Telephone and Telegraph- The proceeded to buy companies that had nothing to do with communications. They bought a continental bakery, a number of suburban real estate companies, several hotel chains, and they bought up insurance companies. ii. AFL-CIO: These two companies decided that the only way keep up with the changing times was to merge. They were a large powerful company and they was able to get pretty good deals for working class people because of how big and powerful they were. II. American Families a. The Suburban Ideal: After the war you see the development of suburbs. Working class and middle class were becoming more attracted to moving away from the city. It becomes the place for the enjoyment of consumer items. i. There was this idea of socialization. ii. People had barbecues and yards. b. Privatizim was a big deal when it came to suburban life. The suburban life represented an escape from society. You enjoy the life you have in a private setting. c. Baby Boom refers to the striking growth and families and the size of families. The number of kids in the families. “an explosion of families”. Children of abundance. d. There was an emphasis on women having kids and taking care of them etc., Benjamin Spock, Baby and Child Care (one of the best selling books in American History) copies almost literally flew off the shelf. There were millions of new mothers, so this book was vital in the helping of how to raise children. “Mothers needed to put their children first and themselves second. Mothers should get away of the notation that kids need to be punished, they should be using positive reinforcement.” e. For men the role was the team player. They were to go to work at one of these good companies and make a good salary to support their family. f. These values could be seen similar to Victorian age, but Mothers were supposed to encourage personality III. TV Culture a. Television was a way to look at what was going on in American life. In 1946 there were 8,000 TVs in households. In 1950 there were 4 million TVs in households. b. You could stay at home a experience TV privately with your family. You get to have the family experience. You also see a homogenous culture. There were only three channels at the time, so everyone was watching the same shows. c. You also had a new outlet for advertising, through television. d. You saw a popularity of suburban shows i. “Leave it to Beaver” e. Western shows were also very popular, people idealized that the lonely cowboy f. I love Lucy i. You see gender and ethnic tensions. Age of Rebellion I: The Civil Rights and Women’s Movements April 18 th I. Black Equality II. Black Radicalism III. The Women’s Movement IV. Dilemmas of Dissent Terms Peace Corps Freedom Rides Nuclear Test Ban Malcolm X Jim Crow Laws “Black Power” Martin Luther King, Jr. “Long Hot Summers” Brown v Board of Education Black Panthers Montgomery Bus Boycott Betty Friedan, The Feminine Mystique March on Washington Feminism Last Lecture Wrap-Up Dissenting Voices o Despite the conformity pressures of the 1950s, toward the end of the decade were signs of dissent o Annunciate uneasiness with middle class consumerism Often on the margins of things, on the edges of respectability, people who “overdosed” on the American way of life Dwight McDonald Criticized mainstream American life Suggested that this middle class conformity was squashing everything in its path “There is slowly emerging a tepid, flaccid middle class culture that threatens to engulf everything with its spreading goose” Rock ‘n’ Roll Attack on middle class blandness of life in 1950’s America Out of black rhythm and blues from the south New musical form that was a shock to middle class respectability Elvis Presley became the poster child for the swagger and image of Rock ‘n’ Roll Beat Generation Artists, cultural figures, intellectuals who were disdainful of squares in America (middle class people) Grew their hair long, wore old clothes, beat on bongo drums, engaged in promiscuous sexuality, etc. to express their disdain o Flowed over into Hollywood o James Dean Angry young man who appeared in a lot of moves in the ‘50s Mocking middle class morality Died in an enormous car crash driving his Ferrari 180 miles through Hollywood hills Kinds of dissent in the 50s grew strongly in American society by the early ‘60s Tipoff to things beginning to change was the election of John F. Kennedy o Administration became known as Camelot o Described as “a breath of fresh air” in politics o Sacrifice as a duty of American citizens “Ask not what your country can do for you, but what you can do for your country” o Peace corps Government backed agency of young people who went to poor countries to provide aid o Talked a lot about peace from the Cold War Nuclear Test Ban Treaty Ban testing of nuclear weapons in order to lower the terror level Kennedy was assassinated by Lee Harvey Oswald o Caused Americans to huddle around their TVs as the world turned upside down o Mrs. Kennedy returned to the white house covered in her husband’s blood o Lee Harvey Oswald was gunned down in the police station Something basic had changed with Kennedy’s death created tremendous divisions in the United States and led to rebellions o Opposition of the Vietnam War o Civil Rights movement o Women’s Rights movement Black Equality WWII was the seed for this movement o Widespread military service by African Americans o Widespread employment of African American women during the industrial boom caused by the war Good income coming into the homes of black families o Ideological issues War against fascist authoritarianism was a war against racism Hitler’s argument of racial inferiority hit home with the African American community o After the War, growing discontent and angry with the tradition of Jim Crow Laws in the south System of laws created in the latter stages of Reconstruction that created an partied in the South Created second class statuses for African Americans Under the Jim Crow laws, there were tons of legal things put into place to keep and discourage black people from voting Literacy tests: African American people were given this test prior to voting, test was ridiculously hard Early Civil Rights Movement had two goals o Equal civil rights under the law o Integration of black people into American life Martin Luther King, Jr. o Emerges as the great leader and spokesman of the civil rights movement o Young black minister educated in the North (IV league) o Returns to South and becomes very involved in civil rights movement o Lends the Civil Rights movement a very religious flavor o Tactic: disciple of nonviolence; inspired by Gandhi; articulates this peaceful message civil disobedience (black people refuse to follow segregation laws); peaceful protests; etc. Supreme Court Decision 1954 Brown v. Board of Education o Challenge to Jim Crow laws and doctrine of “separate but equal” o Court unanimously declared that “separate but equal” was unconstitutional Important because it became the president for hundreds of legal cases to challenge race relations Boycott in Montgomery, Alabama Black people had to sit in the back of the bus Rosa Parks (1955) gets on the bus and sits in the front; she is arrested; starts the Montgomery bus boycott o Black people refuse to ride the bus After a year, the bus company backed down and ended bus segregation “Freedom Rides” Young black and white civil rights advocates charter buses and ride through the south protesting segregation Extreme white southerners reacted badly to these o Busses were bombed, set on fire, shot at, etc. Brought Civil Rights into the limelight of media March on Washington Enormous gathering of civil rights advocates Need for integration and equal rights Famous “I have a dream” speech delivered by MLK o Civil Rights Act of 1964 Lyndon Johnson pushes through congress Outlaws discrimination based on race Promise to withhold federal money from any group, institution, or state government that practiced discrimination Black Radicalism Black people had grown impatient with the slow pace of change by the mid ‘60s Malcolm X o Young intellectual originally affiliated with black Muslims o Critic of King and his nonviolence tactics o Writes famous essay on the March on Washington titled “The Farce on Washington” calling it a circus propagated by Hollywood and distorted by the media o By mid 1960’s, there are more and more black activists “Black pride” = not integrating with whites, but rather separating themselves from them “Black power” = opposite of peaceful, nonviolent tactics Stokley Carmickael o “The only way to stop the White man from whuppin us to take over” Long hot summers o Explosions o Watts area of Los Angeles Outburst of rioting; 34 people killed, hundreds injured; 100 million dollars in damage; dozens of young blacks (in front of media cameras) chanted “burn baby burn” o Detroit Riots Black Panthers o Self proclaimed revolutionaries o “Justice comes out of the barrel of a gun” o gain notoriety for proclaiming a message of black separatism and violence Race relations were very tense The Women’s Movement Movement for equal rights based on gender o American women were the greatest victims of asphyxiation in the 1950s with new roles for women in the home Economic o By 1960, close to 50% of women are working o Issues arise about equal pay and equal opportunity o Divorce By late 1960’s, divorce rate approaching 40% o Birth Control Pill Widespread use by 1960’s For the first time, American women felt less pressured to marry because the likelihood of getting pregnant was significantly reduced Betty Friedan, The Feminine Mystique o Open cannon shot for women’s rights o “Imprisoned in the home and cut off from the wider world” Creates new ideas such as feminism Age of Rebellion II: Vietnam and the Counterculture April 25 , 2016 I. Roots II. Divisions III. Protests IV. 1968 Terms Counterinsurgency Woodstock Lyndon B. Johnson Yippies Domino Theory Tet Offensive Defoliation Eugene McCarthy Mekong Delta Campaign Robert F. Kennedy Viet Cong George Wallace SDS 1968 Democratic Convention You saw a lot of very angry political outbreaks, and you saw lots of outbreaks in violence. “See America…while it lasts” The war became a catalyst for all things of authority, (political and racial matters) it set the world on fire. I. The Roots of Vietnam a. The American Policy of Containment- to contain communism. b. Vietnam was a colony of France, but after the WWII there was tension and the country was split in half. North Vietnam was a satellite of the Soviet Union and it had a communist government. South Vietnam was not and it was aligned with the United States. c. The United States assumed a role as their support, military support and economic support as apart the of containment policy. d. In 1960 with the election of Kennedy was a big advocate for counterinsurgency. They wanted to lower nuclear confrontation. They did not want to use nuclear weaponry. They argue that in the Cold War you don’t have situations where Russians would use nuclear weapons. e. Kennedy was a firm anti-communist. He wanted to beat insurgency with counterinsurgency. Kennedy kept up all the aid for the war just in a different way. f. Americans were to be trained in Guerilla warfare and flexible military tactics. He also wanted to support the development for new technology. g. Lyndon B. Johnson becomes the president after Kennedy. In 1964 Johnson was running for reelection against Barry Goldwater. Goldwater was a fierce anti-communist and a warmonger. Johnsons promotes himself as someone who wants peace. He wins. h. In 1965 Johnson decides he wants to send combat troops to Vietnam. The commitment of American combat troops grew bigger and bigger and there is eventually 500,000 combat troops in Vietnam. i. The domino theory meant that South Vietnam was the first domino and if they go down to communism it will be a domino effect in south Asia. Therefor what they argue is that they need to make sure that the South Vietnamese government cannot fall. This was all apart of containment j. American involvement in the war was never well thought out, it was all just presidents going step by step. It was a disaster of American foreign policy. II. Divisions a. There was a gap between expectations and realty was large and growing. In Vietnam you had the North Vietnamese government and army invading South Vietnam. b. Viet Cong were communist rebels in South Vietnam. c. The Expectation would be and experts war. American technology was very well developed and superior to North Vietnam. Once the Americans put this to use the “experts” would win the war. i. The use of helicopters, machine guns, and advanced bombs d. The way to win the war was to defoliate. If they killed all the plant life they wouldn’t “melt” into the foliage. This lead to the creating of Agent Orange. e. The bombing of North Vietnam. These huge planes flew over big cities and over a total of 3 million tons of bombs were dropped in North Vietnam. f. They had search and destroy missions to “pacify” areas after they bombed them and make them friendlier towards the Americans. g. The Vietnam War was a Guerilla War. It became clear that the enemy would not fight in a traditional way. They would come out of the jungle to fight and then melt back into the population. In many cases the Americans had no idea who they were fighting. h. The Viet Cong built these elaborate tunnel systems and they would hide in these tunnels. They were very complicated and well built. i. In 1967 Mekong Delta Campaign was infested with Viet Cong and they were a horrible problem for the Americans. They put together 30,000 troops of the Marine Corp and the Army. When the dust cleared 6 weeks later it was clear that the campaign was failure. It was estimated that 400- 500 Viet Cong had been killed. They destroyed the delta area and 10,000 peasants had been left in poverty. The campaign was a good example of expectation and reality. j. By 1966,67,68 you saw that many Americans began to question the policy and the war. i. A lot people who were questioning it were regular middle class people. ii. There were several reasons for this growing contempt. The iii. Draft was instigated in the 1960s. You had a lot of working class and middle class kids being drafted into the army. This made many parents and relatives very nervous about the war. k. Vietnam was the first war in the United States that was brought into the living rooms. Americans saw the brutality of this war on Television and what it was doing to people. As a result Television was considered a negative thing during the war because people could see that the war was failing. l. Causalities in Vietnam were growing at a frightening rate. i. By 1968 35,000 Americans had been killed in Vietnam. ii. By the 70s 50,000 casualties. iii. “The body bag problem.” Thousands of people were being brought home in body bags from Vietnam. m. The war did not seem to be working very well. i. Progress did not seem to be coming about. ii. People began to conclude that this war would not be won, and that there was no end in sight. iii. The government and military were lying to the people about the war and the results of it. III. Protests a. Student Racialism. Students in college around the United States were huge protesters of the war. Students were criticizing racial problems and “American imperialism” b. SDS- Students for a Democratic Society c. Counterculture in the mid to 1960s which shifted the terrain away the conformity of the 50s life. It challenged “the man in the suit”. d. Woodstock the summer of 1969 500,000. e. Yippie party entered the presidential campaign as a joke and “Pigasus” was entered as a candidate for president. f. This was apart of the anti- war movement. By ’67-’68 there are massive protests against the war all over college campuses. g. People from both political parties were beginning to doubt the effectiveness of the war. IV. 1968 a. A tremendous number of things happen in 1968. b. The Tet Offensive was a huge uprising against the American military in Vietnam. c. You had student protests on campuses that closed down multiple college campuses. Columbia University was a good example of these protests. d. Robert Kennedy and Eugene McCarthy challenged Lyndon B. Johnson in the election for the democratic nomination. i. Johnson later came out and said that he would be pulling out of the race and would not be running in the election. e. In May Martin Luther King was assassinated. i. There were many riots across the country in response to the assassination of King. As a result 46 people were killed. f. In June Robert Kennedy, who seemed likely he was going to get the nomination and he was assassinated after winning the California democratic primary. g. George Wallace entered the election as a third party candidate. h. The Democratic Convention
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