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Psych: Week 15 Section 4 Final Review notes

by: Regan McGillick

Psych: Week 15 Section 4 Final Review notes Psychology 100 (

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Regan McGillick

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About this Document

Theses notes cover in class discussions for sections 13 and 14. Chapter 16 will not be covered in class.
Lori Bica
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This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Regan McGillick on Thursday May 12, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Psychology 100 ( at University of Wisconsin - Eau Claire taught by Lori Bica in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see INTRO TO PSYCHOLOGY in Psychlogy at University of Wisconsin - Eau Claire.

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Date Created: 05/12/16
Section 4 Psychology 100 Chapter 13 Social Perceptions and Attitudes. -Social Psychology: the subfield of psych that deals most explicitly with how people view one another and influenced by one another -person perception: the process by which people perceive and understand one another and themselves -attitudes: the evaluation beliefs that people have about their social world and the entities within it. I. Forming Impressions of other people: Person Perception a. humans naturally interested in personalities, help us predict behaviors, accuracy suffer from biases II. Making Attributions from Observation: a claim about the cause of someone’s behavior, difficulty in judging someone’s personality on the basis of his or her action lies in assessing the degree to which the action truly represents something unique and lasting A. The Logic of Attributing behavior to the Person or Situation: a. Harold Kelly’s logical model: i. Does this person regularly behave this was in this situation? 1. Example: Do I ignore people who sit on city streets, asking for money? a. If YES: question 2 b. If NO: no personality/situational attribution ii. Do many other people regularly behave this way in this situation? 1. Example: Do others also ignore people on the streets who ask for money? iii. Does the person behave this way in many other situations? a. If YES: personality attribution-general b. If NO: personality attribution-specific situations B. Three Errors in Attribution: 1.Person Bias: people ignore situations as a cause to attribute other people. Heavily emphasize personality, occurs mainly during social pressure. i. Personality = overemphasized ii. Situation = ignored iii. Ex: A student is sleeping during class. The professor will initially think that the student is just lazy (personality bias) 2.Situational Bias: for oneself we tend to focus on the situation i. Personality = ignored ii. Situation = overemphasized iii. Ex. With the same student who fell asleep in class, the professor may initially think that the student is lazy (personality bias), but maybe that student was up all night studying; there fore didn’t get any sleep (situational bias) (is there ever a middle ground between putting some emphasis on both the situation and personality??)  Yes this is the “Logic” a. Fundamental Attribution Error” Definition: People overestimate the importance of dispositional factors. People underestimate the role of situational factors b. Cross Culture Findings: more common in individualistic cultures. (western) Less common in explaining your own behaviors. c. Cultural Dependent: i. U.S. > high personal basis=more of an independent community ii. India < low personality basis – they focus more on the belief in someone’s destiny, that it is set in stone…. 3. Actor-Observer Discrepancy: underemphasize personality 1. Definition: own behavior -> underemphasize personality, overemphasize the situation 2. Example: “the bad driver”  Justification always goes to the situation, but when we observe another person, we judge the personality. III. Insert Reading Guide 1 IV. Stereotypes: ideas about what members of different groups are like, may influence the way we interact with members of these groups. a. Example: belief that women are nurturing, or that police officers like donuts A. Explicit: aware, conscious, life events-deliberatly thin think about and report 1. Public-more begin and people will talk about it- talking/thinking about it. a. Example: like gossip, 2. Private- level of seriousness but won’t be talking about private stereotypes- not talking about it out loud because it is wrong a. example: like gossip maybe…but you don’t share it… C. Implicit: less conscious about making those stereotypes-more automatic -Example: even if you believe that both men and women are good at math, it is possible that you associate math with men. a. IAT measurers the strength of associations between concepts and evaluations or stereotypes. -Example: Implicit preference for straight people relative to gay people if they are categorized words when Gay People and Bad share a response to relative to when Gay people and Good shares a response. D. Prejudice: An undeserved attitude towards a group of people a. Example: Mr. Darcy has much prejudice views towards what is an accomplished woman. E. Discrimination: acting on you Prejudices –Example: kids who ignore and harass another kid because of their race V. Insert Reading Guide 2. How does the Implicit Association Test work into all of this?? -See RG #2, -Research design: -RG see #3 1. Nonverbal Behavior – eye contact, # of times blinked 2. Verbal Behavior – Subjects: conversation quality - Partners in the conversation 3. Test of Implicit Prejudice - Findings: those who scored higher on the implicit prejudicial test -verbal measured friendliness -nonverbal measured problems: didn’t show as much friendliness (but when parried with a black partner the signs (nonverbal or verbal) showed true friendliness V.Perceptions and Attitudes: I. Explicit Attitudes: conscious thinking-by self report; logical reasoning; in Pre frontal Cortex -Example: you are at a café and meet someone new. That new person is wearing an Alabama jersey, you immediately like them. There you are consciously making that choice of have a positive attitude towards them. II. Implicit Attitudes: making associations through priming; Sub-Cortex, Limbic System -Example: In a café with friends, a woman walks by you that you do not know. Then you feel down and seem upset but are unsure as to why. It is possible that the unknown person looks like Brie Peters and that had unsettled you. III. Classical Conditioning: within explicit and implicit attitudes, its easy to condition positive or negative attitudes- these conditioning stimuli can be totally unaware to the subject. a. In advertisement: don’t include what they are selling. i. Just using classical conditioning to form attitudes -> Implicit=implying feelings (is this image positive or negative for you) V. Rules of Heuristics: (what to consider when viewing advertisement) a. If there are a lot of members and big words = reader thinks that this advertisement must be well documented. i. EX: reading a book that intends to sway the readers as to why they should go off the grid…idk—just something that looks smart and intimidating b. If the message is phrased in terms of values that I like = then I will probably believe the messages that are sent form the advertisement i. Ex: Because the novel, Abeng, has a quote that is beautifully written about heaven and creation, I then immediately liked the book-despite that I never finished it. c. Famous/successful people are more likely to be viewed as knowledgeable = then I am more likely to believe that they are correct. i. EX: If Selena Gomez is able to have shine hair from Pantene then it will work for me hair. d. If most people believe in the message than it is probably true i. EX: the propaganda that informs people of climate change- people believe it because they are aware that the environments have changed in the past, there is not enough recycling and we as humans use a lot of resources. Logical Illogical (using short cuts, errors) Attitudes ->think about ->classical conditioning knowledge ->heuristics ->attitudes->behaviors Attributions Kelly’s model ->person bias, ->situation bias ->actor-observer discrepancy Cognitive Dissonance ->can be adaptive to ->insufficient our thoughts justification effect (compromise) VI. Cognitive Dissonance: Having inconsistent thoughts, beliefs, or attitudes, especially as relating to behavioral decisions and attitude change (attitude->behavior relationship) a. If you believe in a law and abiding by it, but end up breaking that law b. I believe in freeing those who work in the terrible conditions of sweatshops, but in order to buy clothing not made in a sweat shop requires a lot of money and has limited options. I want to help the cause, but it hard to do so. i. Behavioral-must tell ourselves that we have made the right choice to make ourselves feel better -> Insufficient Justification c. Ex: my hopeful attitude of the transition of college even though it has given me negative feelings about the majority of my transition. But now I am glad for those struggles because it has strengthened me as person. d. Insufficient Justification – illogical and unhelpful i. When people behave in ways that run counter to their attitudes and then faced with dissonant cognitions. Can’t undo their deed but can relieve dissonance by modifying their attitudes. 1. EX: I know that people get skin cancer by UV radiation and sun exposure, but “what are the chances that I would get skin cancer by going out tanning this afternoon” 2. Ex: this can be apparent in groups like army recruitment: positive in the beginning upon joining -> hazing that is at basic training (humiliation) ->but attitude of being in the army may still be positive because you justify that the hard work of basic is only necessary. Chapter 14 Social Influences on Behaviors I. Social Pressures: set of psychological forces exerted on a person by others or by the person’s beliefs about others. a. Social Facilitations= performing better when being viewed by an audience i. EX: during dance practice, I do not try as hard-not much motivation. During a dance performance, I give my very best because of the audience. b. Social interference= when there is a decline in performance when someone is being observed -> “choking under pressure” c. Why does having an audience present worsen or improve our performance? = Anxiety = Social interference II. Anxiety: a. increases when subjects are made to feel unconfident about their abilities i. “choking under pressure” – associated with the working memory- controls the conscious attention and holds attentions= tasks that demand a lot from the working memory. –if pressure is high enough you are forced to “choke” b. decreases when subjects are made to feel very confident about their abilities -anxiety limits capacity of working memory = interferes with concentration (presence of others) -> (increase drive or arousal (PnS)) -> either: A. improve performance of dominant responses or B. worsen performance of non-dominant responses i. -anxiety limits capacity of working memory = interferes with concentration c. Stereotype Threat: threat that test takers experience when they are reminded of the stereotypical belief that the group of which they belong to is to expected to do well on test. i. reminds the test taker that they will not perform well – like its blocking the door to the working memories-it takes up capacity that your working memories need in order for you to complete your task at hand. ii. also it increases when your motivation is to fight that stereotype iii. How to Overcome Those Stereotypes: 1. help improve, support people’s skills and knowledge 2. self affirming thoughts = positivity increases 3. reflect back on your success from high school Self-Fulfilling prophecy: many times there are stereotypes about student that teachers have and unconsciously fall prey to. Teacher Expectations: many times there are the stereotypes that teachers may fall prey to- that being that students of any other race will not preform as well as white students. ->both teachers and students fall prey to these stereotypes. D. Example: that student of other races will not preform as well as white students. E. Ism – prejudice+discrimination+power a. Institutional racis: created by organizational level, universities, federal- Systematic oppression – student just feel like a number b. Individual racism: can create stereotypes Vi. Insert reading Guide 1 of Ch 14 III. Effects of Others on you Opinions: a. Why do we conform to others examples??? i. Information and Pragmatics: informational influence 1. Ex: if you know people cross bridge A, but not bridge B then something must be wrong with bridge B- you assume ii.Promote group cohesion and acceptance: 1. Ex: we all cross bridge A because we are the “bridge A” group of people and we are proud about it…. a. -> Social influence = desire of acceptance -> normative influence 2. Ex: you are on you drive home form work, then in traffic a whole stretch of cars in front of you put their break lights on. You can’t see why and don’t know why but you can assume that someone is justified in their action of breaking. Therefore you do as well because you can assume that those people know more information than you do. VII. Insert reading Guide 2 of Ch 14 1. Soloman Asch’s experiment –testing conformity: a. It was an obvious task of matching the Standard Line and the other lines form comparison b. 75% conformity. Phase 1: informational influences – give answer verbally to group 75% Phase 2: give their answer via private, written statement of conformity lowered significantly - normative influences Phase 3: nonconformist – it was enough to have on person as a nonconformist to create nonconformity – decreases conformity


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