FINAL STUDY GUIDE!
FINAL STUDY GUIDE! Psych 315
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Tamara Girodie on Thursday May 12, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Psych 315 at Towson University taught by Christopher Magalis in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see Motivation in Psychlogy at Towson University.
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Date Created: 05/12/16
Final Exam Study Guide The vast majority of the exam will be on Associative Learning, or conditioning. This study guide will focus mostly on that but I will also touch upon emotion, mostly jealousy. Associative Learning This can all motivate behavior!!! Classical Conditioning: There are three main types of associative learning: classical conditioning, operant conditioning, and observational learning. The most famous of the three may be classical conditioning, as I’m sure many of you are familiar with Pavlov’s dog experiment, in which he would ring a bell every time he fed the lab dogs, causing them to salivate. Overtime, however, the dogs learnedassociat the tone of the bell with the food, so that even without the food being present, they would still salivate to the bell tone. In the process of classical conditioning, there are always three things present: the unconditioned stimulus, the neutral stimulus, and the unconditioned response. In Pavlov’s scenario, tunconditioned stimulis the food, as nothing needed to be conditioned in order to achieve the desired response of salivatnconditioned respons Theneutral stimulu is the bell tone, as the tone itself does nothing to the dog but capture its attention for a short while. Once these three stimuli have been presented enough times, the bell tone (neutral stimulus) becomes tconditioned stimul as now the dog has been conditioned to respond to this seemingly insignificant tone with sonditioned respons. To help you remember this, just thunonditioned stimulusanconditioned response remaiunchanged throughout the process. The dog naturally salivated to the food, and will continue to even after the termination of thconditioned stimulus and coditioned response coexisting. They cannot exist without one another, and without having successfully performed and repeated the classical conditioning. And then the neutral stimulus does nothing, it’s just neutral. Note: When the association is not practiced over time, then the conditional stimulus will produce a weaker and weaker conditional response, a process xtincti . For extra practice, try to identify each factor of the classical conditioning in the example of spraying Professor Magalis in the face with a water bottle every time I spoke the word “board”. The answers can be found in my week 10 notes. Operant Conditioning: The keywords for this section are reinforcement and punishment, as they are both consequences which can affect future behavior. Let’s take the example Professor Magalis provided from his own life, as it is a very clear (albeit weird) example for instruction purposes: potty training. In this particular scenario, his potty is called the discriminative stimulus, which is simply stimulus which can elicit a response. The proper toilet traitarget havior, or the behavio is known as operan(you can remember this by thinking of how we would be oprating to get this behavior over and over again,perating like a machine). The operant can lead to (in this case) praiseositive reinfor Another option to encourage behavior couldegative reinfo or taking away something bad. Now, many students tend to get confused on the difference between positive and negative reinforcement, and positive and negative punishment, which can result in many easy points being lost on exams. To remember which are which, think of the operations that go with the words ‘positive’ and ‘nositive always adds something, and negative always removes something Factor inreinforcement (gooandpunishment (ba and you have an easy way of remembering the terms. For example, positive punishment may seem like an oxymoron, but let’s decompose the terms. Positive means to add, and punishment is bad. So you are adding something bad (say, a spray of water to the face) which reduces the frequency of the behavior. To help you distinguish between classical and operant conditioning, I tend to think of classical conditioning as the unconscious conditioning. The Pavlovian dogs were going to salivate, no matter whether the bell was ringing or not, as long as the food were present. Operant conditioning is more involved, with the recipient actively seeking reward or avoiding punishment. Observational Learning Observational Learning is the third type of associative learning, and it is exactly what it sounds like: learning through obseicarious learnthrougodeling. What differs from the other two types of conditioning are the social aspect and the selfreinforcing aspect. Oftentimes the behavior is being performed on or with the recipient, but rather with a third party. The recipient simply sees it being doneo someone else and then repeats it. The modeling process has three main parts: attention, retention, and reproduction. Attention: the individual must notice someone doing the behavior, and what the consequences of that behavior are Retention : the individual must remember this event, or will be highly unlikely to intentionally repeat it in the future Reproduction : the individual must be able to repeat the correct pattern of behaviors leading to the correct responses Learned Motivation First, we will review why we even bother with learned motivation. And the answer to that is because learned emotion affects everywhere! Emotional reactions such as fear responses can lead us to panic at the thought of the dentist’s office, with the drills buzzing and the smell of minty toothpaste. The conditioned stimuli in drug use such as needles and dealers and even certain places can trigger users and lead to a relapse, which can be important in therapy and rehab. Even advertising uses learned motivation, putting positively associated people, places, or things in their advertisements to get consumers to associate their product with positive feelings! Operant conditioning can also play a role in motivating behavior, as it can help us distinguish between hedonic value (liking something) and motivational value (wanting something). An incentive can help you want to do a certain behavior (motivation), which you can then maintain through liking it rather than wanting it. All of this is accomplished through the mesolimbic system in the body, with the nucleus accumbens releasing dopamine into the VTA, or ventral tegmental area. Emotion Emotions are motivators which can be experienced in different ways: feeling (subjective), behaviors (facial expressions, body language, etc.), and physiological changes in the body. Ross Buck, our Professor’s favorite psychologist, defines emotion as a readout of an emotional state. For the exam, make sure to know: Emotion I is a physiological response to primes For example: heart racing, fast breathing Emotion II is shown through spontaneous expressive behaviors For example: smiling, flipping someone off Emotion III is subjective experience, or feeling For example: “I feel…” happy, sad, disgusted Disgust Disgust (or an aversion to something) is a special emotion because it is so universal! However readout is different for each person and situation. For example, in some parts of the world eating bugs is gross, but in others it is a delicacy! (On a side note I highly recommend you all try snails, they are delicious!) A common hypothesis explaining disgust is known as DiseaseAvoidance, aptly named because it concludes that disgust is an adaptive mechanism used to avoid germs, as most things we find disgusting provoke this reaction out of a “fear” or “worry” about germs. It is important to note that disgust can also be used through conditioning! Now for the nitty gritty: Psychologists have theorized that the emotion of disgust resides in the insular cortex of our brain, as is shown on various brain scans. This differs from the other emotions as they light up parts of the entire brain, rather than one specific area. The limbic system also plays a role in disgust. It is important to note that for exam purposes, Professor Magalis sees the hypothalamus as part of the readout of the limbic system, not a part of the system itself! As we can expect, the amygdala is also involved in disgust as it is connected to the hypothalamus. This is the most specific and concentrated point in our brain which activates when experiencing disgust. Remember, disgust can be triggered not just by smell, but by taste as well! The single most important thing to remember is this: MOTIVATION IS THE ACTIVATION AND DIRECTION OF BEHAVIOR INHERENT IN BEHAVIORAL CONTROL SYSTEMS. You cannot say that there is one unitary thing which motivates you, nor can you peg down the definition of the concept of motivation. It has to remain an open subject. It can be activated and directed, but it doesn't have to be!
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