FINAL EXAM REVIEW
∙ Drugs can be administered through oral, injection, inhalation, application to mucous membranes or application to skin.
∙ Excessive consumption of drugs can lead to drug dependence, tolerance or withdrawal. It can also result in multiple problems together.
∙ Types of drugs of abuse are stimulants, depressants, opioids, hallucinogens, inhalants, marijuana.
∙ Central nervous system stimulants are drugs that are able to speed up activity in the brain as well as sympathetic nervous system.
∙ Central nervous system depressants are responsible for slowing down activity in the brain and sympathetic nervous system. They have a high risk of causing dependence. ∙ Opioids are natural and synthetic derivatives of opium, they are prescribed as pain relievers, anesthetics, anti-diarrheal agents and cough suppressants.
∙ Hallucinogens result in altered perceptions and thinking in characteristic ways. They intensify and destroy visual and auditory perceptions and produce hallucinations. ∙ Inhalants are breathable chemical vapors that alter the consciousness and they produce a state that resembles drunkenness.
∙ Marijuana causes mild euphoria, sedation, lethargy, short-term memory impairments, distorted sensory perceptions, and distorted sense of time, impaired coordination and increase in heart rate.
∙ Supply reduction strategies include interdiction, pressuring supplying countries to suppress production and exportation, preventing domestic production and selling via law enforcement.
∙ Demand reduction strategies include incarceration for drug related crimes, prevention through education and starting drug treatment programs.
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∙ Harm reduction strategies includes helping addicts reduce the harm associated with drug use by needle exchange programs, medically supervised injection, drug substitute programs and decriminalization.
∙ Alcoholic beverages are categorized as depressants and are mainly constituted of ethyl alcohol. Don't forget about the age old question of What is thomas jefferson known work?
∙ BAC is blood alcohol concentration which depends on body weight, % of body fat and sex of the individual.
∙ Genetic factors, drinking behavior also play a major role.
∙ Absorption is 20% rapidly from the stomach, 75% in the upper small intestines and anything reaming is absorbed in the GI track.
∙ Carbonation and artificial sweeteners increase absorption. Food in stomach slows absorption.
∙ Highest risk groups include first year students, athletes.
∙ 0.08% is considered legally drunk Don't forget about the age old question of What is the meaning of basicity?
∙ Using alcohol with other drugs can have disastrous effects and can also prove to be fatal.
∙ Alcohol related injuries and violence include homicide, suicide, automobile crashes and hostility. Alcohol and aggression constitutes antisocial personality disorder, leads to arrest and impairs home life. Also, alcohol impairs your sexual secession making and you are more likely to engage in unsafe sex.
∙ Consuming alcohol during pregnancy can cause Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and alcohol-related neurodevelopment disorder (ARND). It can have a negative impact on baby’s brain development.
∙ Non-alcohol drinkers usually have a longer life span and usually lead a healthier life than alcoholics.
∙ Few warning signs of alcohol abuse are-drinking alone or secretively, using deliberately and repeatedly, self0medication, feeling uncomfortable without alcohol, escalating consumption, drinking regularly If you want to learn more check out What are the disciplines of anthropology?
∙ TO treat alcoholism- AA programs, employee assistance and school-based programs, inpatient hospital rehabilitation and pharmacological treatments.
∙ Unintentional injuries are those which are not purposefully inflicted, leading causes are motor vehicle crashes, poisoning, falls, chocking and drowning. Motor vehicle crashes account for 40% on unintentional injury deaths. Factors contributing to motor vehicle crashes are driver inattention, speeding, aggressive driving, fatigue and sleepiness, alcohol, environmental hazards. If you want to learn more check out How does having a sleep disorder affect your quality of life?
∙ Other safety concerns involving motor vehicles are motorcycle safety, pedestrian safety and bicycle safety.
∙ Home injuries and deaths occur primarily as a result of falls, fires, poisonings, chocking and suffocation.
∙ Extreme temperature conditions can also cause deaths.
∙ Work injuries can be due to back injuries or repetitive strain injuries. They are administers by Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) ∙ Intentional injuries are usually some form of violence, assault, homicide, hate crimes, school or workplace violence and terrorism.
∙ Factors mainly contributing to population growth are high fertility rates, lack of family planning and lower death rates.
∙ 5 major air pollutants are- carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, particulate matter and ground-evil ozone. Some of these compounds also trigger allergies and cancer.
∙ There are several ways to prevent air pollution- cut back driving, keep car tuned, home well-insulate, no smoking, etc.
∙ Purifying water in water-treatment plants includes screening, filtration, disinfection, fluoridation.
∙ We can reduce solid waste by buying products with least packaging or recyclable products, sue glass to store food, stop junk mail.
∙ Other kinds of pollution are – radiation pollution and noise pollution. Efforts should be made to reduce all of these. Don't forget about the age old question of Explain the cases switch and footbridge. what problem do these cases pose for the dda?
∙ Life enhancing measures to age proof yourself- challenge your mind, develop physical fitness, eat wisely, and maintain healthy weight, control drinking and overdependence
on medication, don’t smoke, schedule physical examinations regularly, and reduce stress.
∙ Dealing with changes of aging includes planning for social changes, planning for physical changes and psychological and mental changes.