Psyc354 Final Study Guide
Psyc354 Final Study Guide PSYC 354
Popular in Cross-Cultural Psychology
Popular in Psychlogy
BCOR 102 - A
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This 49 page Study Guide was uploaded by Natania Lipp on Friday May 13, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC 354 at University of Maryland - College Park taught by Susan Lee in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 140 views. For similar materials see Cross-Cultural Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Maryland - College Park.
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Date Created: 05/13/16
Chapter 1: Introduction to Culture and Psychology Groups that have cultures: nationality, language, ethnicity, gender, disability, sexual orientation ● Race: a group of people distinguished by certain similar genetically transmitted physical characteristics ○ Combo of heritable traits, morphological behavioral and physiological characteristics ○ Genetics promote certain phenotypes (Africans have dark skin b/c they are closer to the sun) ● Ethnicity: derived from the Greek word “ethos” meaning people of nation or tribe ○ Usually indicates cultural heritage ○ People who have original language, traditions, and ancestors in common ○ People speak same language or have same traditions are often brought together Traditions become natural even if we don’t like them (wearing white at a wedding) ● Nationalit: a group of people who share common geographical origin, history, and language ○ Unified politically and recognized by other countries ○ Under 1 flag; makes country recognizable ● Sex: biological differences between men and women ○ Anatomical differences, mainly reproductive systems ○ There are “sex roles” describing patterns and behavior differences in men and women Ex: commercials depict women cleaning or cooking ● Gender: behaviors or patterns of activity that a culture or society deems appropriate ○ Separate from definition of “sex” because of transgender ● Religious affiliati: individual’s acceptance of knowledge, beliefs, and practices related to a particular faith ○ 95% of Americans believe in Gd ○ ¼ Americans change their religious affiliation ○ 78% US population is Christian (JudeoChristian) ○ Small percentage is Buddhist/Muslim ● Sexual orientation: the kinds of sexual relationships that people form ○ People form different sexual relationships with others (opposite sex, same sex etc.) Contents of culture: ● Objective elements all have great impact on culture ○ Architecture, clothes, food, art, eating utensils Asian cultures use chop sticks because they are collectivistic and people can all take from the same plate without sharing germs ○ Media, music, Facebook, Twitter, etc. Media dictates social norms ● Subjective elements: values, beliefs, norms, attitudes, worldviews Cultural factors Culture: trains you to act specific ways ● We can judge socioeconomic status nd social status (i.e. frat boy, hipster) by people’s clothing ● Eye contact is important in the US; in Eastern cultures, children looking at adults in the eye is disrespectful ● Manners in US, keep your elbows off the table ● Cultural rule there can be consequences for not obeying the “rules” a culture has ● Learning in US, we automatically scan visual stimuli from left to right, because it’s how we read. In other countries, it could be common to scan/read uptodown or righttoleft ● Resources natural and unnatural ○ Natural resources: everyone needs water, food, gas, airable land (land you cultivate) ○ Unnatural resources: Money value that is attributed by culture Affluence: amount of money available to a person impacts culture Having a lot of money buffers harsher climates; means people don’t have to cooperate as much to survive ● Levels of human basic needs: ○ Physiological: food, water, safety needed in order to concentrate on other things ● Climate effects groups near the equator have different lifestyle than those that live in arctic zones ○ Harsh climates greater risk of food shortage and food spoilage, stricter diets, health problems ○ Big deviations in temperature (desert cold at night, hot at day) cause humans to use more energy to maintain balance ● Population density: ratio of the number of people that live in a specific area to the size of the area ○ # people in relation to amount of land ● Group living: shapes many features of culture ○ Humans (and animals) have always lived and traveled in groups ○ More efficient ○ Dividing labor is functional and adaptive for all members ○ Causes survival rates to increases ○ Humans want companionship Psychological toolkits Human cultures coevolve with cognitive capacities Culture a measure for cognitive abilities and aptitudes Language both spoken and written, symbolize physical/metaphysical world Can imagine story you read in a book; picture yourself on a beach Reason we don’t have concrete memories until we develop language Communication shares intention Reading facial expressions is a universal ability essential for survival Function of culture = provides the guidelines/roadmaps on what to do, how to think, what to feel Culture = a unique information system, shaped by a group, transmitted across generations Cultures all have values that they promote Not uniquely human animals are social and have networks and hierarchies; invent tools and communicate Humans vs. animals Humans have complexity of language, differentiation, and institutionalization Society vs. Culture Society = a system of interrelationships among people Culture = meanings and information that are associated with social networks; broader; gives “family” its own meaning Culture, race, personality, and pop culture Race = more of a social construct than biological essential Personality = a unique constellation of traits, abilities, qualities, and characteristics Culture can be stable over many individuals; personality is individual Pop culture doesn’t share a wide range of psychological attributes always changing Race a group of people distinguished by certain similar genetically transmitted physical characteristic Ethnicity derived from the Greek word “ethos” meaning people a nation or tribe Nationality group of people who share common geographical origin, history, and language Sex refers to biological differences between men and women Anatomical differences, mainly in reproductive systems There are also sex roles, which describe patterns and behavior differences in men and women. Sex vs. gender gender refers to behaviors of patterns of activity that a culture or society seems appropriate; sex refers to biological differences between men and women Religious affiliation individual’s acceptance of knowledge, beliefs, and practices related to a particular faith Sexual orientation the kinds of sexual relationships that people form The contents of culture Objective elements Subjective elements Norms Attitudes Worldviews Subject elements Includes values and beliefs Norms generally accepted standards of behavior for a cultural group Attitudes evaluations occurring in ongoing thoughts Worldviews belief systems about the world Cultural factors Manners Cultural rules Learning Resources Level of human basic needs Climate effects Population density 2 main goals of 1. Understand behavior when it happens, explain why it happens, and predict psychology behavior before it happens. 2. Taking the body of knowledge obtained in no. 1 and applying it to intervene in people’s lives to make their lives better. What do WEIRDOS stand Western educated, industrialized, rich, and democratic cultures for? The ultimate question of Is what we know about human behavior true for all people, regardless of gender, cultural psychology race, ethnicity, culture, class, or lifestyle? Crosscultural research Primary research method to test the cultural parameters of psychological knowledge A matter of scientific philosophy the logic underlying the methods used to conduct research and generate knowledge in psychology Tests limitations in our knowlegde by examining whether theories are universal (true for all people of all cultures) or culturespecific (true for some people of some cultures) Culture’s 3 sources of 1. Ecology: the relationships of organisms to one another and their physical origin surroundings. 2. Resources: money, food, water 3. People: group living, basic humans needs and motives, universal psychological toolkit Universal psychological A set of basic psychological skills and abilities that people can use to meet their toolkit needs. a) Shared intentionality a unique human quality that separates them from animals is the ability to use language to communicate this. b) Ability to continually build upon improvements (ratchet effect) c) Cognitive skills, including memory, personality traits, and emotions Factors of ecology a) Climate especially deviation from temperature climate influences cultures; harsher climates create more risks, humans can regulate body temp more easily in more moderate temperatures; affects clothing, housing, working arrangements b) Population density c) Arable land number of people in relation to the amount of land that can produce food Groups that have cultures Nationality, language, ethnicity, gender, disability, sexual orientation Culture vs. race Race is more of a social construction than a biological essential; culture is a biological essential. Culture vs. personality Culture is a macro, social, grouplevel construct; personality is the individual difference that exists among individuals within groups Culture vs. pop culture “Popular culture” refers to trends in music, art, and other expressions that become popular among a group of people Society vs. culture A society is a system of interrelationships among people, referring to the fact that relationships among individual exist, and in human societies people and groups have interrelationships with multiple other people and groups. Culture refers to the meanings and information that are associated with social networks. Objective elements of Elements that are physical, like clothes, food, art, eating utensils, architecture culture Subjective elements of The elements that do not survive as physical artifacts, and include psychological culture processes like attitudes, values, beliefs, and behaviors. Hofstede’s 5 value 1. Individualism vs. collectivism tendency for which people will encourage dimensions looking out for one another in exchange for loyalty. 2. Power distance degree to which cultures encourage members to accept power as distributed. 3. Uncertainty avoidance degree to which people feel threatened by the unknown, and have developed beliefs, institutions, or rituals to avoid them 4. Masculinity vs. femininity characterised by pole of success, money, and things compared to caring for others and quality of life 5. Long vs. short term orientation degree to which cultures encourage delayed gratification of material, social, and emotional needs among member Schwartz’s 7 values Embeddedness degree to which cultures will emphasize the maintenance of the status quo, propriety, and restraint of actions that might disrupt solidarity or traditional order Hierarchy degree to which cultures emphasize the legitimacy of it Mastery degree to which they emphasize getting ahead by changing or mastering the natural and social environment Intellectual autonomy degree to which they emphasize promoting individual ideas; fosters curiosity, broadmindedness, and creativity Affective autonomy emphazise promotion and protection of people’s individual pursuits of positive experiences Egalitarianism emphasize transcending selfish interests in favor of voluntary promotion of welfare of others, focusing on equality, social justice, freedom, responsibility, and honesty Harmony emphasize fitting in the with the environment; unity with nature, protecting the environment Belief A proposition that is regarded as true Dynamic externality outward oriented, simplistic grappling out with external forces; more collectivistic, hierarchical, conservative, high unemployment, less freedom, fewer human rights; aspire for security, longer life, material resources Societal cynicism cognitive apprehension or pessimism of the world confronting people; they are surrounded by inevitable negative outcomes; people are suppressed by powerful others and subjected to the depredations of willful selfish individuals, groups, and institutions. Attitudes evaluations about objects occurring in ongoing thoughts about the objects, or stored in memory Cultural worldviews Culturally specific belief systems about the world; containing attitudes, beliefs, opinions, and values about the world. People have worldviews because of evolved, complex cognition; so having a worldview is a universal psychological process. Specific content varies in every culture. Culture A unique meaning and information system, shared by a group and transmitted across generations, that allows the group to meet basic needs of survival, pursue happiness and wellbeing, and derive meaning from life Deviation from The degree to which the average temperature of a given region will differ from what temperature climate is considered to be the easiest temperature to live in Enculturation The process of learning about and being indoctrinated into a culture. Emics Aspects of life that appear to be consistent across different cultures; universal or pancultural truths or principles. Ratchet effect The concept that humans continually improve on improvements, that they do not go backward or revert to a previous state. Progress is always occurring because improvements move themselves upward, like a ratchet. Religion An organized system of beliefs that tie together many attitudes, values, beliefs, worldviews, and norms. They provide people guidelines for living. Sacred values Values that are considered to be nonnegotiable, and outweigh other values, like economic ones. They are different from normal values because they incorporate moral beliefs that drive action in a way different from drive to success. Selfconcept The sum of one’s idea of one’s self, including physical, mental, historical, and relational aspects, and capacities to learn and perform. It’s central to personality and changes over time partially conscious and partially unconscious depending on the situation. Social axioms General beliefs and premises about oneself, the social and physical environment, and the spiritual world, people use them to guide their behavior in daily living. Tightness vs looseness A dimension of cultural variability that refers to the variability within a culture of its members to norms. Tight cultures have less variability and more homogeneous with respect to norms; loose cultures have more variability and are more heterogeneous. Value A transsituational goal that serves as a guiding principle in the life of a person or group. They motivate and justify behavior and serve as standards for judging people, actions, and events Chapter 2: CrossCultural Research Methods Types of CrossCultural research ● Method validation studies ○ Validity how accurately does your tool measure what it is supposed to measure Internal validity: what you measure within the study External validity: sample that you pull from ○ Reliability how consistent the measurement is ● Validation studies: ○ Test equivalence of psychological measures ○ Important to conduct before starting crosscultural comparisons ● Indigenous cultural studies: rich descriptions of complex theoretical models of culture ○ Accepted behavior depends largely on context ○ Predict and explain cultural differences ● Cross cultural comparisons ○ The goal: to compare psychological variables of interest between cultures ○ Comparisons = backbones of crosscultural psych ● Exploratory vs. Hypothesis testing ○ Exploratory: examine the existence of crosscultural similarities and differences Strengths: broad scope for identifying similarities/diffs Weakness: can’t access the cause for differences ○ Hypothesis: examine why cultural differences may exist Strengths: can lead to more substantial contributions to theory development ● Contextual factors: ○ Characteristic of participants or their cultures ○ Involves any variable that can explain observed crosscultural differences ○ Enhances validity and helps rule out influence of biases and inequivalence ● Structure vs. Level oriented studies ○ Structure: comparisons of constructs, structures, or relationships with other constructs Relationships among variables, and try to find similarities and differences ○ Leveloriented: focus on relationships among variables Quantitative research: measurement of certain aspects of human activity ● Variable chosen are studies empirically, primarily through observation ● Measures of central tendency most common data ○ Mode: most frequently occurring score ○ Median: the most middle number ○ Mean: the mathematical central point ● 4 types of quantitative measurement scales ○ Nominal: each score does not indicate an amount ○ Ordinal: scores indicate some amount with an equal unit of measurement separating each score ○ Interval: scores indicate some amount with an equal unit of measurement separating each score ○ Ratio: reflects the true amount of the present variable and the zero truly means zero ● Correlation: relationship between 2 variables ○ Can have a positive or negative relationship ○ Value: the larger the absolute value the stronger the relationship Qualitative research ● Psychobiographical research: in depth analysis of particular individuals ● Sample selection: ○ availability/convenience sampling: researcher chooses a culture by chance because of researchers’ professional personal contacts ○ Systematic sampling: ethnic samples are collected according to theory or theoretical assumptions ○ Random sample: large sample of countries or groups are randomly chosen Validity the degree to which a finding, measurement, or statistic is accurate, or represents what it is supposed to Reliability the degree to which a finding, measurement, or statistic is consistent Method validation studies validity mainly asks how accurately does your tool measure what it is supposed to measure Internal validity what your measure within the study External validity the sample that you pull from for the study Crosscultural validation a study that examines whether a measure of psychological construct that was studies originally generated in a single culture is applicable, meaningful, and thus equivalent in another culture. Indigenous cultural studies studies that use rich, complex, and indepth descriptions of cultures and cultural differences to predict and test for differences in a psychological variable Hypothesistesting studies studies designed to test why cultural differences exist. They go beyond simple quasiexperimental designs by either including context variables or by using experiments Exploratory studies studies designed to examine the existence of crosscultural similarities or differences. These are generally simple, quasiexperimental designs comparing two or more cultures on a psychological variable Exploratory vs. Hypothesis exploratory examine the existence of crosscultural similarities/differences testing (strength more broad; weakness can’t assess the cause of discovered differences); hypothesis examines why cultural differences may exist (strength can lead to more substantial contributions to theory development) Contextual factors any variable that can explain, partly or fully, observed crosscultural differences; may involve characteristics of participants or their cultures Structural equivalence the degree to which a measure used in a crosscultural study produces the same factor analysis results in the different countries being compared Leveloriented studies studies that examine cultural differences in mean levels of variables Structural vs. level oriented Structure compares constructs, structures, or relationships with other constructs studies (ex: age, race, gender); leveloriented focuses on relationships among variables (ex: depression, mood) Ecological (cultural) level a study in which countries or cultures, not individuals, are the unit of analysis studies Linkage studies studies that attempt to measure an aspect of culture theoretically hypothesized to produce cultural differences and then empirically link that measured aspect of culture with the dependent variable of interest Unpackaging studies studies that unpackage the contents of global, unspecific concept of culture into specific, measurable psychological constructs and examine their contribution to cultural differences Individuallevel measures of asses psychological dimensions related to meaningful dimensions of cultural culture variability and that are completed by individuals. Often used to ensure that samples in different cultures actually harbor the cultural characteristics thought to differentiate them. often used as context variables. Equivalence a state or condition of similarity in conceptual meaning and empirical method between cultures that allow comparisons to be meaningful; a lack of bias Bias differences that do not have exactly the same meaning within and across cultures; a lack of equivalence Sampling bias degree to which different samples in different cultures are equivalent to each other Linguistic bias equivalence between protocols used in crosscultural comparison studies. The two procedures used to establish linguistic equivalence are back translation and the committee approach Back translation Taking the research protocol in one language, translating it to the other language, and having someone else translate it back to the original. Decenter the culturalspecific concepts of a language getting lost in translation Committee approach several bilingual informant collectively translate a research protocol into a target language Procedural bias the degree to which procedures used to collect data in different cultures are equivalent to each other Measurement bias degree to which measures used to collect data in different cultures are equally valid and reliable Operationalization they ways in which researchers conceptually define a variable and measure it Psychometric equivalence degree to which different measures used in a crosscultural comparison study are statistically equivalent in the cultures being compared whether the measures are equally valid and reliable in all cultures studied Structural equivalence degree to which a measure used in a crosscultural study produces the same factor analysis results in the different countries being compared Internal reliability degree to which different items in a questionnaire are related to each other, and give consistent responses. Response bias a systematic tendency to respond in a certain way to items or scales Socially desirable responding the tendency to give answers that make oneself look good some cultures might have a greater desire to make themselves look good than others. It has two main factors: selfdeceptive enhancement, and impression management Selfdeceptive enhancement seeing oneself in a positive light Impression management concern for one’s impression on others Acquiescence bias tendency to agree rather than disagree with items on questionnaires Extreme response bias tendency to use the ends of a scale regardless of item content Reference group effect based on the notion that people make implicit social comparisons with others when making ratings on scales, rather than relying on direct inferences about a private, personal value system people implicitly compare themselves to others in their group. 4 ways to handle 1. Preclude comparison don’t make a comparison in the first place nonequivalent data because it will be meaningless. 2. Reduce the nonequivalence in the data don’t separate equivalent and nonequivalent parts ahead of time. 3. Interpret the nonequivalence as an important piece of information concerning cultural differences 4. Ignore the nonequivalence clinging to beliefs about scale invariance across cultures despite lack of evidence Psychobiographical research In depth analysis of particular individuals usually study of outstanding people, like celebrities that represent different countries/cultures; examines diaries, speeches, letters, and memories Availability/convenience researcher chooses a culture by chance because of researchers’ professional sampling or personal contacts Systematic sampling samples collected according to a theory or theoretical assumption (ex: moms develop short term memory loss after giving birth, but they’ve discovered that they get better at multitasking which is evolutionarily more useful) Random sample large sample of countries or groups are randomly chosen Quantitative research measurements of certain aspects of human activity, with variables chosen and studies empirically, primarily through observation Measures of central tendency Mode: most frequently occurring score Median: the most middle number, with 50% of the data on one side and 50% on the other Mean: the mathematical central point of distribution (the average of the data) 4 Types of quantitative Nominal: each score does not indicate an amount (measure of social measurement scales skills) Ordinal : scores designed in rank order, but not with number values aside from that (favorite foods) Interval: scores indicate some amount with an equal unit of measurement separating each score Ratio: reflects the true amount of the present variable and the zero truly means zero of the amount (unlike interval) Correlation the relationship between two variables Positive correlation means X and Y both increase or both decrease. Negative correlation means X decreases while Y increase, or the other way around. The two parts of correlation 1. Can have a positive or negative relationship 2. Value: the larger the absolute value the stronger the relationship Chapter 3: Enculturation Representative sample ● Characteristics of the sample accurately reflect the characteristics of the population ● The smaller the sample, the larger the sampling error, because there are greater result of chance factors ● The larger the sample, the lower the sampling error ○ Sampling error = extent to which the sample is different from the population it represents ● Mean scores in a random sample good estimation of population Observation ● Naturalistic observation: recording people’s behaviors in their natural environments ○ You don’t manipulate their variables, or ask people to participate in a study just observe what’s already happening ○ Experimenter doesn’t interfere with environment ● Laboratory observation: subjects are brought in and the psychologist designs specific situation ○ Experimenter controls environment Survey Methods ● Surveys = most common technique of data collection in crosscultural psychology ○ Advantages: it can be anonymous which would make more accurate results, leads to less bias, can get answers from a lot of people with very little cost/time ○ Disadvantages: mostly open ended questions, which make it hard to measure certain variables; unclear if the respondent is answering honestly or not (ex: drug use) ● 2 types of surveys: ○ Indirect: doesn’t maintain a relationship with the correspondent (survey is sent out via email and participants take it on their own) ○ Direct: maintains relationship with correspondent (interviewer asks questions over telephone; facetoface interviews) Survey Biases ● Study: men and women were asked the same questions about sexual practices. When they thought the lie detector was one they had similar responded but when they did not, men said they began sexual activity younger, engaged in it more, and had more partners than women. ○ When provided the option to lie, they made themselves fit the gender stereotype Experimental studie: in an experiment you randomly assign subjects into conditions ● By varying conditions, allows you to detect whether there is strange behavior ● Independent variable: the one that you, as the experimenter, have control of ● Dependent variable: the variable that you can measure the change in ○ Example: finding whether prozac can decrease level of depression Independent: dosage of prozac/placebo pill Dependent: level of depression and whether it is different between groups Content Analysis systematically organizes and summarizes ● Manifest:what is actually said/written (text) ● Latent: the meaning of what is said; content of communication (subtext) ● Two step process: ○ 1st level concrete: identifying code categories ○ 2nd level coding: more abstract, requires that you find out what first level categories mean Cultural Learning ● Humans engage in cultural learning ● Shared intentionality → cultural learning ○ Children understand from intentionality have social learning capabilities; learn from observing the consequences of others’ behavior ● People learnfrom others andhroughothers Enculturation and Socialization ● We want people to become competent and productive adults consistent across cultures ● However, different cultures have different meaning for “competent” and “productive” ○ Ex: productive women could mean you keep a good home, do the cooking, or take care of the kids OR it could mean you have a job/function in society outside of the home ● Socializatio: process by which we learn and internalize rules and patterns of society ○ Ex: clothing, toys, etc. for girls/boys are visually different. Girls clothes are pink; boys are blue. Girls have cute dolls and boys have big trucks. ● Enculturation: process of youngsters learning and adopting ways and manner of their culture Culture, Parenting, and Families ● One of the most important ways we learn is through our families ● Family: the most important microsystem to a child’s development ● Margaret Mead by observing parents, we are observing the essence of culture ○ Studying parents within cultural context tells us what is important to that culture ■ Ex 1: Lower SES parents usually use strict obedience parents decide things and discipline their children without speaking about it. Higher SES tend to reason with their children; negotiate. ■ Ex 2: Technology plays a huge role owning the newest technology determines SES to some extent and dictates the kind of communication that family members have with each other. ● Whiting and Whitings’ 6 culture study ○ Anthropologists collected field data in Mexico, India, Kenya, US, Okinawa, and Philippines. Examined child rearing and children’s behavior in varied cultural contexts ○ Child’s behavior and personality is intimately connected to characteristics of broader ecology kids learn to adapt to the environment ○ Women’s work roles contribute to children’s social behavior Diversity in Parenting as a Function of Economics ● Diverse economic conditions produce socialization processes that vary across cultures ● Caregiving environment reflects a set of goals ordered in importance: ○ Physical health and survival ○ Promotion of behaviors leading to selfsufficiency ○ Behaviors that promote other cultural values, i.e. prestige Parenting Goals and Beliefs ● Parenting goals provide framework and motivation for raising children ● Lead to variations in parenting behaviors across cultures ● Parental ethnotheories: parental cultural belief system ● Parents’ cultural belief system motivate and shape what they think is the “right” way to parent. Global parenting styles ● Authoritarian: expect unquestioned obedience, see child as someone who needs to be controlled ○ Expect children to do what they say without asking questions ○ Necessary with defiant, challenging kids ● Authoritative: sensitive to child’s maturity; firm, fair, reasonable and affectionate ○ Oldest children tend to have this type, then parents tend to get less strict ○ Ex: Son comes in in the middle of the night asking to sleep in her room. Permissive parent might let him. If she does, he’ll repeat this action and she’ll be reinforcing a fear that doesn’t exist. Being an authoritative parent is being sensitive but making him go back to bed. ● Permissive: warm and nurturing; allow children to regulate own lives with few guidelines ○ (“free range” parents) ● Uninvolved: do not respond appropriately to children, indifferent ○ Worst, most harmful type ○ Kids often act up to get their parents’ attention they need contact with their parents, even if it’s negative Behaviors and strategies ● Sleeping arrangements one of the most representative cultural differences in parenting behaviors ● Studies using HOME inventory describe three general areas in which cultures vary ○ Warmth and responsiveness ○ Discipline ○ Stimulation/ teaching ● Parenting beliefs and practices are congruent with developmental goals dictated by culture ○ Ex: at age 7, parents stop touching their sons and fathers and sons wrestle and play sports instead of being affectionate ● Discipline = to teach; teaching kids by showing them the pattern of actions and consequences Domain specific approach to parenting ● Criticism of global parenting: ignores differences due to the particular child, situation, and context ● Domainspecific: ○ Focuses on parenting behaviors rather than general styles ○ Emphasizes complexity of socialization process ○ Domains include: protection, control, reciprocity, guided learning, and group participation ○ Parenting practices must be appropriate for domain in which child is functioning Siblings ● Play an important role in socialization of children ● Can fulfill many roles: tutors, buddies, playmates, caretakers ● Skills important to culture are learned from sibs: perspectivetaking, social understanding, conflict negotiation ● Repeated and prolonged interaction means older siblings can be influential role models to younger siblings Knowledge in CrossCultural Psychology ● Knowledge = information that has a purpose or use ● 4 types: ○ Scientific: Accumulation of scientific research of a wide range of psychological phenomena Derived from systematic observation, measurement, and evaluation of the psychological phenomena Observations are generalized in the form of scientific concepts and theories Observations tested by empirical observations, verifications and experimentation We propose new knowledge in form of theories Theories are then tested by experiments ○ Popular/folk Everyday psychology that are formulated by people Collections of popular beliefs (folk theories) Popular beliefs are shared assumptions about certain aspects of human psychological phenomena Scientific knowledge in competition with popular beliefs ○ Ideological/valuebased knowledge Stems from cohesive stable perceptions about the world Nature of good and evil; right/wrong behavior Purpose of human life Very dogmatic that you are not to challenge or question principles Different from popular beliefs because it is grounded A set of unwavering principles which don’t necessarily require empirical scrutiny Religion is social institution that offers one of the most prominent kinds of valuebased knowledge ○ Legal Laws/prescriptions established by authorities Rules and principles that can be used by authorities and people pass judgement about psychological aspects of human behavior Provides grounds for important decisions like life or death, marriage, sanity, etc. Legal rules established boundaries for acceptable human behavior Ex: physical violence against children when is it legal? When is it considered child abuse? Authoritarian parents expect unquestioned obedience; see child as someone who needs to be controlled Permissive parents warm and nurturing; allow children to regulate own lives with few guidelines Authoritative parents sensitive to child’s maturity; firm, fair, reasonable and affectionate Uninvolved parents do not respond appropriately to children, indifferent (the worst type of parenting) Configurative culture a culture in which change occurs rapidly. Both adults and peers socialize young people. Young people may have to turn to one another for advice and information. Enculturation the process by which individuals learn and adopt the ways and manners of their specific culture Parental ethnotheories parental cultural belief systems Postfigurative culture a culture in which change is slow and socialization occurs primarily by elders Prefigurative culture a culture that is changing so rapidly that young people may be hte ones teaching adults cultural knowledge Socialization the process by which we learn and internalize the rules and patterns of behavior that are affected by culture. Over a long time, involves learning and mastering societal and cultural norms, attitudes, values, and belief systems. Socialization agents the people, institutions, and organizations that exist to help ensure that socialization occurs Surveys the most common technique of data collection in crosscultural psychology; a self report process Advantages and Advantages: it can by anonymous which would make more accurate results, lead to disadvantages of surveys less bias, you can get answers from a lot of people with very little cost/time. Disadvantages: mostly open and questions, which make it hard to measure certain variables, unclear if the respondent is answering honestly or not. 2 types of survey Indirect: does not maintain relationships with correspondent Direct: maintains a relationships with corresponded by keeping some kind of contact afterwards Chapter 4: Culture and Developmental Processes ● Process of socialization starts from first day of life ● Characteristics we are born with determine how our caregivers react and interact with us, initiating lifelong process of socialization ● Children of diff cultures are born with different biological predispositions to learn certain cultural practices Temperament : biologically based style of interacting with world that exists from birth ● Easy temperament: adaptable, mild ● Difficult: intense, irregular ● Slow to warm up: needs time to transition Goodness of fit between temperament and culture ● How well a child’s temperament matches the expectations and values of the parent ○ Mismatch: more negative child outcomes are expected ○ Good match: better outcomes expected ● Dispositions and behaviors must be considered in relation to specific culture ● Same dispositions and behaviors may have different meanings in different culture Cross cultural studies in temperament ● If different temperaments at birth, children of different cultures will respond to environment differently ● Children of different cultures evoke different responses from caregivers and environment ● Consequence: fundamental differences in learning, social experiences, worldwide view, and culture of children as they grow Temperament and learning culture ● Differences in infant temperament help parents reinforce cultural practices ● Temperament serves as baseline biological predisposition ● Cultural differences evident early in life indicate personalities and behaviors valued in adults ● Child’s temperament and environmental response results in differences in learning, social experience, behaviors, personalities, worldview Dimensions of temperament: Activity level Smiling/laughter Fear Distress to limitations Soothability Duration of orienting (i.e. how long it takes to respond to their names) Source behind temperament differences ● Developmental contextualism perspective: genetics, reproductive histories, and environmental and cultural pressures over generations ● Cultural experiences of mother during pregnancy ○ Ex: cultural experiences of mother during pregnancy ■ In America everyone has a convo with a pregnant woman, guys help them with things, people touch ou ○ Complex interplay between multiple factors such as temperamental styles valued in each culture, specific environmental demands, and physiological aspects of mother Culture and attachment ● Attachment : special bond that develops between infant and caregiver ● Quality of attachment has a lifelong effect on relationships with loved ones ● Provides emotional security ○ Infants take a while to develop object permanence knowing that objects are still there even if you can’t see them (that’s why peekaboo is so fascinating) ○ Once attached, babies are distressed by separation from caregiver Love hormone is a real hormone called oxytocin the only two times you release it are 1. When you give birth 2. When you orgasm Bowlby’s Theory of Attachment ● Infants must have a preprogrammed, biological basis for becoming attached to their caregivers ● Smiling and cooling elicits physical attachment behaviors on part of caregiver ● Attachment relationship between caregiver and child is survival strategy Bowlby and Ainsworth’s Classification System of Attachment ● Tripartite classification system of attachment relationships ○ Secure : infants distressed when mother leaves but easily comforted when returns ○ Ambivalent : infant distressed when mother leaves but sends mixed signals upon return ○ Avoidant : not distressed when she leaves; avoids reuniting when she returns Crosscultural attachment studies ● Strange situation study: infants separated from mothers, then mother comes back and they see the infant’s behavior throughout ● Meaning of separation could differ across cultures ● Maternal sensitivity has not been consistently linked to secure attachment Secure babies DO cry more than other attachment styles At age 1, (1 year later) they demonstrate more compliance Infants 03 months they’re just blobs. Around 3 months, even infants start doing behaviors that make them look like they’re fully engaged with life. In China, 100 day celebration (originally bc babies used to not survive that long) because it’s around the psychological birth of the baby ● Secure attachment not universal, not ideal in all cultures ● Childhood attachment could have longterm implications ○ Affect peer relationships, ability to develop intimate adult relationships, how one parents ● Attachment between infants and caregivers universal Development How people change over time on different levels biological, physical, cognitive, emotional, social Aspects of understanding human Whether developmental pathways are universal or culture development specific What drives development (nature vs. nurture) Temperament A biologically based style of interacting with the world that exists from birth Kinds of temperament Easy temperament: average, regular, adaptable, mildly intense style of behavior that is positive and responsive. Difficult temperament: an intense, irregular, withdrawing style, generally marked by negative moods. Slowtowarmup: need time to make transitions in activity and experiences. Eventually will adapt and react positively. Goodness of fit How well a child’s temperament matches the expectations and values of the parent, environment, and culture 6 Temperament Dimensions Activity level: amount that they move/squirm Smiling and laughter: being sociable Fear: distress in novel situations, aka behavioral distributions Distress to limitations: distress when goal is blocked Soothability: how easy to calm down Duration of orienting: how long infant pays attention to object without other stimuli being introduced Developmental contextualism Genetics, reproductive histories, and environmental and cultural perspective pressures over generations. Attachment Special bond that develops between infant and caregiver Oxytocin Love hormone, released only when you give birth and when you orgasm Bowlby’s Theory of Attachment Attachment is a survival strategy. Infants must have a programmed, biological basis for
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