Final Exam Study Guide
Final Exam Study Guide PSYCH UA-25
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This 13 page Study Guide was uploaded by Brianna René on Saturday May 14, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSYCH UA-25 at New York University taught by Clay Curtis in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see Cognitive Neuroscience in Psychlogy at New York University.
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Date Created: 05/14/16
4. Final Exam Review 1.Golgi created the Golgi stain that allowed neurons to be visible under the microscope. Ramon y Cajal came up with the Neuron Doctrine which stated that neurons in the brain were not continuous, there were tiny gaps in them (synapses). Ramon y Cajal deduced this by noticing a time lag between a stimulus and the manifestation of the response. If neurons were continuous the response would be much faster. 2. Action potentials are electrical signals that travel along the axons of nerve cells. In order to generate an action potential, a threshold of voltage must be met. Action potentials happen in an “allornothing” fashion. ● The resting potential of a neuron is 70 mV. When an action potential goes through a neuron, sodium channels open and allow sodium into the cell (more positive). Then after a while, potassium channels open, letting potassium flow out of the cell and the cell hyperpolarizes and falls below the equilibrium energy. Both ion channels close, and then the sodiumpotassium pump restores the resting potential. 3. Neurons communicate with each other through neurotransmitters. When an action potential reaches the axon terminals The electrical signal reaches the end of the axon and it causes vesicles of neurotransmitters to be released into the synapse via exocytosis. The NT’s then bind to the receptors on the postsynaptic dendrite and cause them to change shape (ligand gated channel) and either influence or prohibit that neuron to fire. ● The signal travels along the axon via Saltatory conduction. The myelinated parts of the axon allow signal to jump from node to node, and the myelin itself is a lipid layer so it increases the speed at which the signal travels ● Spatial Summation is when two neurons that are next to each other fire and they summate. ● Temporal Summation is when neurons fire at the same time and their signals summate. 4.Parietal lobe is responsible for integrating sensory information and manipulating objectsFrontal lobe is responsible for conscious thought and social behavior. (OFC) Temporal lobe is responsible for olfaction and souccipital lobeis mostly concerned with vision.The Occipital lobe is located in the rear of the brain, the frontal lobe is at the front, temporal lobes are on the sides, and the parietal lobe is on top. ● The central sulcus divides the frontal and parietal lobes. It also divides the somatosensory cortex from the motor cortex. ● The sylvian fissure divides the frontal lobe from the temporal lobe. 5. Topographic organization in the brain means that there are functions mapped out in the neurons of our brain. The ordered projection of a sensory surface onto the structures of the brain. ● Tonotopic Maps. Cells are tuned to respond to certain frequencies in the Basilar Membrane ● Somatotopic Maps: Map of the amount of brainpower that goes towards the coordination of bodily functions. in primary somatosensory areas. Primary somatosensory cortex (S1) contains somatotopic representation of the body. Secondary somatosensory cortex (S2) contains more complex representations. ● Retinotopic Maps: aps in V1 of firing patterns of neurons in the retina. 6.Localization of functisays that separate functions are carried out in separate areas of the brain, whereas thAggregate Field theorsays that different areas in the brain work together to function as a whole. ● Areas that have special functions are places lPA (Parahippocampal Place Area) that is most active when someone views a scene, andFA Fusiform Face Area) which is most active when someone is viewing a face. ● The process ofMemory on the other hand seems to arise from interaction between multiple brain regions. For example the Hippocampus (MTL) is important in binding features of the memory together in the cortex. But after a long time, memories become consolidated in that they get stored in the cortex and they no longer need the hippocampus to retrieve them. ○ Evidence for consolidationatients with temporally graded anterograde amnesia don't have trouble remembering very old childhood memories (Because they have been consolidated). But they do have trouble remembering more recent events. ● Selective Attentio calls for more than one brain area. 7. Lesion studie allow us to test fonecessitof brain regions. We see how functioning is affected without those regi TMS is also a means of doing that because the area treated with TMS is temporarily disrupted. 8. EEG (Electroencephalogram) Measures electrical activity in the brain. Has EXCELLENT temporal resolution but not very good spatial resolution. MEG (Magnetoencephalogram) Measures the tiny magnetic field given off by neurons, but in order to do this, the earth’s own magnetic field must be blocked out. This requires a SQUID (Superconducting Quantum Interference Device). This has good temporal resolution and aiight spatial resolution but its VERY expensive and can only measure neurons parallel to sulci. PET(Positron Emission Tomography) measures changes in blood flow. A radioactive tracer is injected to the blood and it decays into positrons which bump into electrons and produce photons. The photons are what the machine picks up. Has excellent spatial resolution but really poor temporal. MRI shows STRUCTURE. Picks up the energy given off when spinning hydrogen atoms realign themselves with the magnetic field of the machine. HIGH resolution imaging technique. fMRI shows FUNCTION. the BOLD (Blood Oxygen Level Dependence). Pretty much it measures the time it takes blood to flow to regions where there is a lot of cortical activity and thus a need for more oxygen. Single Cell Recordings pretty much consist of sticking an electrode into a neuron and measuring its activity. This method has EXCELLENT temporal res and EXCELLENT spatial res but it is often not done on humans because it is extremely invasive. Electrocorticogram takes activity of neurons directly from the cortex. There is less signal interference without the pesky skull and hair in the way, and it has good temporal resolution, but not so good spatial resolution. Angiography injecting dye into the bloodstream to see any potential blockages. Diffusion Tensor Imaging measures the density and motion of water in axons. It reveals the directionality and connectivity of white matter. 9.A Single dissociation would be when one group can do one thing and not the other, while the other group can/can’t do both. A double dissociation would be when both groups can do something the other can or cannot. Single Dissociation: mpairments on one type of task. x. People with x type of injury are bad at task a Double Dissociation: Impairments on different types of taskex.People with x condition are bad at task a but ok with task b. People with y condition are bad at task b but good at task a. ● Double dissociation provides stronger evidence for separate neural systems because if the systems weren’t separate you would have both groups be impaired at the same things. BUt some injured groups are capable of performing tasks that others aren't based on where the damage is in their brain. 10. BOLD (Blood Oxygen Level Dependence). Pretty much it measures the time it takes blood to flow to regions where there is a lot of cortical activity and thus a need for more oxygen. 11. The somatosensory cortex is plastic because when you lose one form of sensory input, the somatotopic map adjusts to make up for the lack of input. ● Phantom limb sensation. It occurs when the signal gets rerouted to the area of the brain that represents the limb. ● People who were blindfolded for 72 hours started to show activation in occipital regions when reading braille. 12. The receptive field of a visual neuron refers to the region that an object must be in for neurons to register it, and fire. The stimulus must be in a particular region of space As you go up the visual hierarchy, the receptive fields for neurons get larger. ● lends to specialization of function. 13. We have so many visual areas because vision is such a big part of our perceptual experience. Multiple areas that do their own thing is way more efficient than a serial hierarchy. We would not be processing vision as quickly if these areas were not separate. Also damage to any part of the visual system would seriously cripple our ability to visually perceive. ● Ex. lesion to MT caused a woman to not be able to perceive motion in real time, and thus lost the ability to imagine motion. Her world is similar to experiencing life as a sequence of still images, frame by frame. Why is the retinal organization inverted? Because the retinas need a lot of energy to reset the opsin discs (from trans back to cis). While it is true that some light is lost by having to pass through the other cell bodies, this might not be such a bad thing as it protects our cells from photooxidative damage. ● Cephalopods have front facing retinas but this may be more advantageous to them bc they live underwater where there is not as much absolute light as on land. This also suggests that cephalopod retinal systems and vertebrate retinal systems evolved separately. 14. A scotoma is a partial alteration in the visual field. The most common scotoma we all have is the blind spot in our eye. The place where the optic nerve exits the retina has no photoreceptors so there is a blind spot. When objects move into our blind spot we tend to say that it ‘disappears.’ ● There is no direct conscious awareness of a scotoma, it's just a region with less visual information than everywhere else. ● Scotomata result from lesions or damage to the primary visual cortex (V1) 15.The Tong article was aboubinocular riva which is when perception alternates between images presented separately to each eye. ain question as: “is binocular rivalry resolved by the time the information reaches the FFA and the PPA? ● in th rivalry conditi, subjects were shown separate images in each eye. The images were actually superimposed on one another but they wore glasses with red and green filters that allowed them to see only one image in eaelective attentiseemed to modulate ● in thenonrivalry conditio they were just shown one image at a time. ● The rivalrous and nonrivalrous conditions resulted in the same magnitude of activity in the FFA and PPA which suggests that activity in those areas reflects what is perceived, not what is being picked up directly from the retina. So Binocular rivalry must be resolved by the time the information reaches those areas. 16.The Ventral (occipitotemporal) stream begins in the occipital lobe and terminates in the temporal lobe. It processWHAT” information. The ventral stream is said to be specialized for object recognition and perception of thing.orsa(occipitoparietal) stream begins in the occipital lobe and ends in the parietal lobe. It WHERE”s information. The dorsal stream is said to be specialized for the spatial perception of where objects are. ● Double dissociationin monkeys with ventral stream interruption vs dorsal stream interruption. Ventral monkeys had trouble learning shapes, but could point out where objects were in relation to one another. Dorsal monkeys had the opposite. (Pohl ) 17. Hierarchical codin proposes that there are highly specialized neurons that fire for specific things Grandmother cells tie into this because these are supposed cells that only activate for one thing, for example they would activate only to your grandmothersEnsemble coding suggests that neurons fire in patterns that code for certain things. Ensemble coding is more biologically plausible because then we would need a LOT of cells to code specifically for everything we encounter. 18.The Fusiform gyrus is shown to activate for faces, but it is argued in the Gauthier article that the FFA might be a place of expertise. In a prior experiment it had been determined that the FFA was recruited in recognizing previously unfamiliar objects (Greebles). With the test of bird and car experts, there was FFA activity in both when recognizing what they were experts at, but with birds vs cars, there was more activity for birds.So the results show that the FFA’s specialization is for expertise AND Level of categorization. ● However in the binocular rivalry experiment, the FFA activated for faces alone, not houses or scenes. 19. Visual Agnosiais when a person has difficulty recognizing/naming objects. ● Apperceptive Agnosia: People have trouble recognizing objects from unusual viewpoints. They also have trouble recognizing things from line drawings. In general they cannot form whole percepts of things, like they just can’t see the full picture. (right hemisphere damage to occipitotemporal or occipitoparietal regions) ● Associative Agnosia: People have trouble linking knowledge to objects they see. It’s an issue with assigning meaning. (left temporal damage) ● Integrative Agnosia People cannot put parts together to form a whole. They also have trouble distinguishing between overlapping objects. ● Prosopagnosia: People cannot recognize faces. These types of agnosias tell us that objects recognition occurs in two stages. First the object is compared to other objects that are similar to it, and then second the object is identified. Typically objects that are similar to each other are susceptible to being impaired as well. 20. Endogenous Attention is goal oriented, voluntary attention meanxogenous Attentionis more stimulus driven. An example of Endogenous Attentionwould be trying to look for where you put your keys so you can go to taco bell. An exampleExogenous Attentionwould be looking in the direction of a loud noise. ● ∙ Reflexive cueingstates that when the interval between a stimulus is short, the response is fast, but when it’s long, the response is slower. ● Inhibition of retu states that it is harder for us to go back to something we have already looked at. 21. Balint’s Syndrome is when people cannot shift their attention between multiple objects at once. Caused by BILATERAL damage to Occipital and Parietal areas. Balint’s Syndrome is characterized by: ∙ Simultanagnosia Cannot shift attention between multiple objects ● ∙ Ocular ApraxiaCannot control their gaze voluntarily. Have trouble initiating a shift in eye movement. ● Optic Ataxia cannot move their hand towards something they are looking at. Neglect Syndrome is when someone does not register that a part of their visual field is there. Unilateral Spatial Neglecsually happens when there is a lesion to the RIGHT hemisphere, and the left visual field is neglected. ● Patients with Unilateral Spatial Neglect have problems copying drawings and performing thLine Bisection Test.Patients with neglect may mark the line where they see it as half, and that is usually towards the side of the brain with the lesion (Because they can’t see the contralateral visual field). This sobjects in space are neglected as well. Balint’s syndrome is different from negecause patients with Balint’s can still see whole objects, but they have trouble focusing their attention on multiple things. EXTINCTION distinguishes Spatial Neglect from Blindness. 22. Spatial Attentioinfluences the processing of visual stimuli. The more attention we pay to something, the greater neural response you’ll get. Desimone & Duncan’s Biased Competition Model says that multiple stimuli fall within the receptive field of a visual neuron and there Is competition, but attention can resolve the competition. Attention related modulation is more robust in extrastriate areas because the receptive fields of the neurons are larger. 23. Treisman’s Feature Integration theoryroposes that there are two stages of processing. ● Preattentive stage happens automatically where featural primitives in a scene are processed automatically at the same time. ● Focused Attention Stage is when attention is directed to a location, and the primitives are combined to form a whole picture. Attention combines the featural primitives and leads to perception 24. Frontal Eye Fiel (FEF) Plays a role in planning and executing saccades. In monkeys, microstimulation of the FEF evokes saccadic eye movements. FEF also helps to control selective attention. We know this becausehange detection tasks. They measure the influence of selective attention on perception. if we aren't attending to something, it’s likely we will miss it. 25. Split Brain patients cannot name things that appear in the left visual field. The left visual field is controlled by the right side of the brain. So this tells us that the left hemisphere is lateralized for language. (Patients can draw what the object is though) 26. Unilateral lesion patients (with damage in respective hemispheres) Patients with left hemisphere damage are slower at identifying local targets (usually details). Patients with right hemisphere damage are slower at identifying global targets (Big picture). ● NOTICE how UL patients can still identify these things, they are just slower at it. So it means that while both hemispheres are capable of it, one is more efficient than the other. 27. The left brain is the interpretr in that it tries to rationalize. I rder in chaos, searches for relationships, makes inferences and interprets events. 28. Patient HM (Henry Molaison) had his MTL removed due to severe epilepsy. After his surgery he had severe anterograde amnesia with temporally graded retrograde amnesia. He could not form new memories, but his long term memory was in tact. His working memory and procedural memory were intact as well. ● evidence for consolidation 29. Davachi Article. MTL supports encoding subregions. ● Hippocampal and Parahippocampal activity during encoding is correlated with source recollection.. ● Perirhinal activity is correlated with item recognition, so there IS functional dissociations between subregions in the MTL. ● Human hippocampal and perirhinal structures code for distinct properties of an event. Although they are connected anatomically, they appear to modulate different learning mechanisms. 30. Memories are typically bound together by the Hippocampus upon retrieval. After enough time goes by, long term memories get stored in the cortex and no longer need the hippocampus to aid in retrieval. Evidence for consolidation is patient HM. He had temporally graded retrograde amnesia, but he remembered things like childhood memories. 31. Reactivation is when you are remembering something, and the same neurons that were active during encoding are active during retrieval. 32. Priming is when you present something similar to the stimulus, before the actual stimulus is presented, the response to the actual stimulus is heightened. Priming is related repetition suppression because when we are shown something enough times, neural activity decreases because we are used to it. 33. Baddeley & Hitch’s Working Memory Model states that working memory is a system subserved by different brain areas. ● Phonological Loop a short term store of auditory memory traces that are subject to rapid decay. ○ between. Things that sounds the same is harder to remember than words with distinct sounds. ● Visuospatial Sketchpad tores information about what we see. It is also involved with planning spatial movements. ● Central Executive(central scrutinizer) doesn't actually have storage capacity, just manages the other two things. The Baddeley and Hitch model is supportedouble dissociation between patients KF and ELO. For patient KF memory span for visually presented letters was better than auditory span. Patient ELO had a deficit for visuospatial working memory. 34. In adelayed response tas neurons in the PFC. There is a lot of activity in the PFC during the delay because the PFC is keeping the representation in mind. PFC activity drops off upon response/selection. 35.The Curtis Article proposed the roles IPS(Intraparietal Sulcus) AndEF (Frontal Eye Field) in working memory. It was a saccade task that involved a delay. The participants are shown 4 items on a screen, a delay appears and then an arrow blinks to indicate the direction that they should move their eyes in. There’s another delay, and then the saccade is prompted and the movement is made. ● The point of the first delay is that yo old all of the squares in memory (retrospectiv) ● The second delay’s purpose is that you kprospectivecode of th accadic response you are going to make ● After selectio(During the second delay period) FEF activity is high up until a response is made while IPS goes back down. This tells us that we are planning to make an action towards a certain side. FEF activity endured after response while IPS activity dropped after response. ● 1st Delay = FEF and IPS strong ● 2nd Delay= ONLY FEF strong ● FEF & IPS show strong activity correlated with response selection, not visual encoding or motor execution 36. VentralDorsal DistinctMaintenance vs. Manipulation. hLPFC is responsible for keeping representations in mind and maintaining the information. The DLPFC is responsible for manipulating the information. ● Evidence: DLPFC Activation increases with increasing difficulty of nback tasks. AnteriorPosterior DistinctiThe nterior portion of the PFC is responsible for more abstractrepresentations whereas tosterior PFC is responsible for more concrete things. LateralMedial Distinctioxternal info vs internal info (Thoughts). Lateral =external and medial = internal. 37.The primary motor cortex(M1 is located in front the central sulcus in the posterior part of the frontal lobe. ● M1 receives all input regarding motion and irude somatotopic map; effectors are represented by how important they are to movement and the level of control required for manipulation. (ex. fingers!). ● Lesions to M1 resultiemiplegia which is loss of motor control on one side of the body. The premotor cortex is at the top of the motor pathway hierarchy. THis region is crucial for planning an action based on goals, perceptual input and past experience. It is located anterior to M1. Premotor Cortex ● Concerned withpreparation for movemen Makes postural adjustments to facilitate the desired muscle movements, that are often triggered by external stimuli. ○ Premotor area would be active before M1 during a reaching movement ● Premotor area is important for context, preparation, and intent. ● Helps to form a program for movement that is abstract. It’s not an exact series of commands though because this program can be applied in different contexts ○ Ex. writing on a board versus writing on a table. ● A lot of our movements are programs that are constructed in response to external stimuli. The Supplementary Motor Area(SMA ) is important for executing planned actions in conjunction with M1. By itself, it mostly just plans the motor movement. Supplementary Motor Area ● Internall motivated movements such as the sequence of movements necessary for a multistage task. Actions are chained together in a sequence. ● Receives strong input from cortical sensory association areas & from basal ganglia ● Finger movements from memory evoke activity in Somatosensory cortex, Posterior Parietal, Prefrontal and M1. However IMAGINING movement only activates the SMA, not the rest of those areas. SMA is VERY INTERNALLY GUIDED. Organization of the Primary Motor Cortex ● Electric stimulation causes muscle movements (and this can be used to discern functions of certain brain parts) ● Movement map is somatotopic ● Hands and mouth are very represented in cortical areas since a lot of control is needed over them. M1 is in the POSTERIOR of the frontal lobe just above the central sulcus. 1st we candecide to move (or to speak b/c speaking is also a movement of the mouth) ● The prefrontal corte& posterior parietal corte are responsible for this ability Then the motor program we want to use has to be loaded up for execution ● The premotor and supplementary motor areas do this. Then we initia the movement. The command to move is inhibited by the basal ganglia until the motor program is ready. Once the basal ganglia approves,isinhibitiets sent tM1 nd it will execute the stored program and affect muscle contractions. ● The signal gets sent to spinal cordand then motor neurons ● Interneurons in the spine do many things ● Imagination of movement ipremotor, moving itselfM1 ● Basal Ganglia “gates” motor initiation in goaldirected behavior ● Cerebellum coordinates signals across different parts of motor programs and contributes to motor learning. 38. TheBasal Ganglia is referred to as the gatekeeper because its direct and indirect pathways modulate the excitation and inhibition of the thalamus. (Direct excites/indirect inhibits) 39. Dopamine is involved with motor function and reward. The basal ganglia pathways have certain dopamine receptors. ● Parkinson's disease is typically associated with a loss of dopaminergic cells in SubNigra. ● There are dopaminergic projections from entral Tegmental Area (VTA) to M1 that are necessary for acquiring new motor skills. Ex. Lesioned rats/sham rats/LDopa rats. 40. A population vector is the sum of a bunch of neurons firing at the same time and the direction that the most of them fire in is the vector. ● Population vectors can predict movement direction. ● They have better correlation with behavior. 41. Mirror Neurons are neurons that fire when they see something being done and also when you do the action yourself. They allow us to comprehend the actions other people are doing. ● level of expertise impacts activation in mirror neurons. ex. dancers’ mirror neurons firing when viewing choreography. ● Allow us to learn by observation/imitation 42. OFC (Orbitofrontal Cortex)Patients don't care about social cost. In the Iowa Gambling Task they always picked the “bad” decks that made them lose more money. they did not show any anticipatory SCR before choosing the bad decks either. They did not understand the motive of the task until they were told, and they kept picking the bad deck until they were told it was the bad deck. **nconscious processes guide behavior before knowledge. without anticipatory SCR’s our behaviors would not give us advantageous outcomes. We would act like OFC patients.** 43. The Amygdala is important for perceiving fearful facial expressions. We know this because there was patient SP who had UrbachWiethe disease which caused bilateral amygdala damage. She was impaired at recognizing and drawing fearful expressions. ● Fearful faces can be identified by the increase in the size of the sclera. 44. The Shock Experiment Patient S.P. Bilateral Amygdala damage. She did not show an anticipatory SCR when the blue square was shown. She knew the shock would follow but she did not have a bodily response to the blue square. 45. Dopaminergic Neurons are active whenever we are given rewards outside of a task. Over time the neurons start responding more to the predictor of the reward. But if the reward fails to come, then neurons will be depressed. ● DA response increases to conditioned stimulus and decreases to unconditioned stimulus as reward probability increases. Two Classes of Dopamine Neurons (Matsumoto & Hikosaka) There are two dopamine pathways: Dorsal striatum: alience neurons ● Neurons in Substantia Nigra fire more as outcome probability increases. This signals general reinforcement and codes for salience. Ventral striatum:Reward neurons. ● Neurons in VTA respond to positive or negative stimuli (reward or aversive air puff) 46. Reward Representations are indeed flexible. Participants in the task learned pictureodor associations of vanilla and peanut butter. At first the vanilla ice cream was a reward, and there was greater activation OFC, VTA and Amygdala. Then they let them eat vanilla ice cream until they were satisfied. After they were satisfied however, they didn’t see the vanilla as a reward anymore. 47. The McClure article on taste preference in drinks. ● Stated Preference did not have any correlation to the actual taste preference. ● Behavioral taste test based on flavor alone showed a relatively balanced split between coke and pepsi. ● Activity in VMPFC predicts preferences when judgments are based on the sensory info/taste alone. But activity in DLPFC & midbrain showed the influence of top down processes (brand knowledge) ● In general there was greater activity for coke than pepsi. 48. Framing Effects are how you present the information. People tend to be risk averse when it comes to gains (we want to gain as much as possible without risk) and risk seeking when framed in terms of losses (if it's framed in terms of losing we take more risks because we think we are gonna lose anyways) ● The amygdala and OFC are linked to the framing effect since they have an emotional role in decision making 49.Ultimatum Game. When player 1 made an unfair proposal, player 2 would punish them by rejecting the offer. Neuroimaging shows activation in the insula (tied with pain and disgust) and the DLPFC (tied with top down influences on decision making) 50. Broca’s Aphasia (Anterior Aphasia) is when people have trouble producing speech. They can understand simple grammatical sentences but not complex ones. ● Dysarthria difficulty controlling speech muscles and repeating words. ● Broca’s area is located in the INFERIOR FRONTAL GYRUS. Wernicke’s Aphasia (Posterior Aphasia) is when people have trouble understanding speech. ● Wernicke’s area is located in the SUPERIOR TEMPORAL GYRUS. ● Pure Wernicke’s aphasia is achieved IF AND ONLY IF Wernicke’s area is damaged along with matter in the posterior temporal o in underlying white matter tracts. These aphasias are no longer considered useful because it suggests a classical model which is defunct. THere are other areas that need to be damaged for pure aphasia to be present. 51. Superior Temporal Sulcus (STS) is important for speech processing 52. DeLong Article Prediction vs. Integratio the brain is predicting while reading because there is a signal of prediction at the article (A or an) and semantically those articles are the same. There is a greate 400 response for unpredictable nouns. It doesn't mean we are consciously predicting words every time, the brain is just producing predictive signals. ● N400 response is greater for words with a low cloze probability and less for words with a high cloze probability\ 53. Frontal lobe patientshave trouble planning things.Frontal patients would not be able to budget time, or executing a simple series of steps to achieve the goal of a clean room. ● Goal oriented behavior requires the selection of task relevant info, something frontal patients can’t do. ● what’s also important is being able to filter out unnecessary info as well. 54. oal oriented behavior requires the selection of task relevant info PFC has dynamic filterin which means that it tries to increase the saliency of target info while filtering out irrelevant info. Inhibitory control (or filtering thru inhibition) means that irrelevant info must be filtered out. It is important when we are dealing with interference. ● lesions to PFC increased responses to irrelevant auditory stimuli in primary auditory cortex. PFC plays a role in both selection and inhibition. 55. PFC plays a role in switching between tasks and subgoals (mentally). This requires mental regrouping of a task set. Mental switches incur a cost of time. ex. name a letter or name a number. Prefrontal patients have an increased switch cost, so it takes them longer to switch from a set of letters to a set of numbers. (there isn't much of a cost in controls in comparison) 56. Anterior Cingulate Cortex (ACC) cells represent an overall measure of value. When people made incorrect responses, a signal called the rror related negativity (ERN) response happens. This is localized to the ACC. Its hypothesized that a monitoring system would detect when an error has occurred and that this information would be used to increase cognitive control.
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