Final Exam Notes
Final Exam Notes PSYC 331
Cal State Fullerton
Popular in Psychology of Personality
Popular in Psychlogy
This 40 page Study Guide was uploaded by Marisol Murillo on Saturday May 14, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC 331 at California State University - Fullerton taught by Timothy Tran in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 59 views. For similar materials see Psychology of Personality in Psychlogy at California State University - Fullerton.
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Date Created: 05/14/16
Chapter 1: What is Personality? Personality - Everyday Meaning o Typically characterizes specific personalities o Typically characterizes specific people - Formal Meaning o Abstract conduct o Broadly applicable Why do we use personality? - Conveys a sense of consistency or continuity across time and situations - Suggests internal origins of thoughts, feelings and behaviors - Two sources of influence - Person (personality psychology emphasizes the role of person variables on behavior) à behavior ß situation - Helps in predicting and understanding behavior - Captures a sense of personal distinctiveness *Personality: “dynamic organization, inside the person, of psychophysical systems that create the person’s characteristic patterns of behavior, thoughts and feelings.” –Gordon Allport* Features of “Personality” definition - Personality o Has an organized structure o Involves active processes o Has psychological and physical components o Helps determine how people relate to the world o Demonstrates patterns and consistencies o Manifests itself across a range of thoughts, feelings and behavior Fundamental Areas of Personality Psychology - Individual differences: represent differences in people o Example: aggressiveness, sociability, optimism - Intrapersonal Functioning: represent stable process that underlie thoughts, feelings and behaviors o Example: goal or motivational process Theory in Personality - Purpose of a theory o Explain what is known § Ex: Social Leaning theory à helps explain differences in aggressiveness - Predict new information or events o Biological theories of personality: might predict similarities in behaviors of parents and children Interplay Between Theory and Research - Theory guides research - Research tests theory à verifies and suggest changes What Characterizes a Good Theory? - Explains what is known - Predicts what will happen (testable) - Is based on multiple sources of information - Is frugal in assumptions (parsimonyàsimple) - Has personal and intuitive appeal - Interesting - Provocative Perspectives on personality - Individual theories of personality o Attempts to describe human nature o Have different orienting assumptions o May be grouped by metatheoretical perspective o May have overlapping connections o May be limited to scope (intentionally) Additional Considerations in the Study of Personality - Assessment: o Accurate characterization of individuals o Important to conduct research o Connection to real world applications (hiring, clinical assessment) - Behavior Change: o Specific predictions personality psychology makes about the way dysfunction may occur o Ways in which therapy and intervention may be helpful Chapter 2: Methods in the Study of Personality Gathering Information About Personality - Informal sources of Information o Observations of self: introspection, self-reflection, self-attention § Dangers: bias, lack of self-awareness o Observations of others § Dangers: Possibility of misinterpretation - Formal Methods o Case study: investigate one individual in detail (used in rare situations for people with rare qualities for example) § Advantages: in depth knowledge, information pertains to normal life, context of discovery and verification § Disadvantages: very limited generalizability o Experience sampling (diary studies): Conducted across extended periods of time § Use self-reports: • Multiple observations at prompts • People do not have to remember far back in time § Possible to search for patterns within a given a person across situations Generalizability - Ability to apply a conclusion to a broad range of people o Best when: § Data are from many people § Data are from different types of people (age, gender, race, culture) Establishing Relationships Among Variables - Variable: dimension along which people differ - Levels o Examples: low vs high self-esteem, sex o Must have at least two values Correlational Methods - Relationship in which the values of two variables go together in a meaningful way o No causation ONLY relationship o Features of a correlation: direction and strength Ways to Characterize a Correlation - Graphical o Knowledge of score on one dimension leads to prediction of other dimension - Quantitative o Correlation coefficient (r) § -1 (strongest negative)— +1 (strongest positive) o Positive correlation: When high values of one variable are associated with high values of another variable o Negative correlation: when high values of one variable are associated with low values of another variable Significance - Index of believability or meaningfulness of relationship - Statistical significance suggests a relationship is unlikely to be the result of chance - Clinical or practical significance indicates that the observed relationship has meaningful, real world consequences Advantages of Correlation Methods - Often quick and efficient - Often the only method available o For practical reasons (can’t assign personality) o For ethical reasons (can’t get strong levels of some variables à anxiety) - Provides a quantitative index Limitation of Correlation - Can’t infer causation o Directionality problem o Third variable problem Experimental Method - Used to make inferences about causality o How it works: § By creating a situation in which the researcher can control and manipulative differences in a variable(s) • Then can observe the effects of these differences Characteristics of an Experiment - Manipulation of variables - Random assignment to conditions - Exertion of experimental control - Measurement of effects of manipulation Elements of Experiment - Independent variable o The variable that researcher manipulates § Conceptual definition (emotional support, love) § Operational definition (parental verbal praise) - The cause in the cause and effect relationship - Dependent variable o The variable the researcher measures § Conceptual definition (academic performance § Operational definition (math achievement scores) Advantages of Experimental Method - Can exercise a high degree of control o Allows ability to rule out third variable explanations o Allows regulation of temporal sequence of events - Can infer causality Disadvantages - Often artificial situation - Usually limited to short durations - Manipulations must remain weak - Some variables can’t be manipulated - Sometimes difficult to determine what it is about the manipulation that was responsible for the effect - Can’t control all variables (confounds) Comparing Types of Study - Correlational: examines variation due to naturally occurring characteristics in groups that exist naturally - Experimental: examines variation due to variation from a manipulated characteristic in groups that were assigned at random Multifactor Studies - Objective: to examine the combined effect (interaction) of two or more variables on an outcome variable - Types: o All manipulated variables o All correlational variables (naturally occurring characteristics) o Mixed variables (experimental personality) Graphs - Main effects: o Make general statement about each individual variable (class size, sociability) and the dependent measure (anxiety) - Interactions o Qualify the effect of one variable on the dependent measure by taking the other variable into account Chapter 3: Issues in Personality Assessment Sources of Information - Ratings by others o Direct report by observer o Peer ratings - Self-reports o Scales à assess a single aspect of personality o Inventories à measure several distinct aspects of personality Implicit Assessment - Indirect means of determining what a person looks like - Example: Implicit Association Test (IAT) o People make categorical decisions rapidly o Response times can reveal how closely linked different concepts are in a person’s mind Types of Information - Objective: measure of concrete reality that involves no interpretation o Example: counts of the time a person touches another in an interpersonal interaction - Subjective: measure that involves interpretation o Example: evaluation of facial expressions for signs of hostility Reliability - Consistency of repeatability of measurement - High reliability= greater consistency= lower randomness (error) - Low reliability= less consistency= more error Types of Reliability - Internal reliability: reflects consistency within a set of items intended to measure the same construct - Test-retest reliability: reflects consistency of a measure across time Validity - Accuracy of measurementà does it measure what it’s supposed to measure? - Types of validity o Construct*, criterion, convergent, discriminant, face (*most important) Construct Validity - Indicates a match between operational and conceptual definitions - Most important type of validity - Other types of validity help establish construct validity Criterion (Predictive) Validity - Most important indicator of construct validity - Examines how well a measure correlates with a standard of comparison (criterion) o Example: Does an aggression scale correlate with observer ratings of shoving on a playground? - Examines how well a measure predicts an appropriate outcome o Example: Does self-esteem scale predict who will volunteer answers in class? Convergent Validity - Indicates appropriate correlation with assessment devices presumed to measure the same construct o Highly correlated - Indicates appropriate correlation with assessment devices presumed to measure conceptually similar constructs o Correlated, but not too high, not too low Divergent (Discriminant) Validity - Indicates that scale does NOT correlate with other assessment devices presumed to measure conceptually dissimilar constructs o Example: correlations with sociability scale Face Validity - Indicates that the item or scale measures what you think it is supposed to measure o Example: § Construct • Depression à Do you often feel sad or blue? • Optimism à Do you generally expect good things to happen? Culture and Validity - Important questions o Does construct exist in all cultures? (cultural universality) o Are items interpreted the same in each culture? Challenges to Validity - Memory bias - Motivational bias o Response sets à readiness to answer in a particular way § Yeah saying (acquiescence=yes) § Nay saying § Social desirability Two Approaches to the Development of Assessment Devices - Rational (theoretical) approach o Starts with conceptualization o Select items to fit conceptualization o Test validity and reliability - Empirical (Data-Based) Approach o Empirically (data) driven from many items o Use statistical methods to select items based on ability of items to differentiate criterion Example of Empirical Approach - Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory o Started with many self- descriptive statements o Administered to “normal” and groups with psychiatric diagnoses o Items selected for a scale were ones that differentiated a particular psychiatric group from all others When are different methods used? - Rational approach o Usually in connection with theory building - Empirical o Usually used in connection with practical needs § Example: vocational interests Chapter 4: The Trait Perspective Themes of Dispositional Approach - Continuity in thoughts, feelings, behaviors - Focus on individual differences, rather than intrapersonal processes Types vs. Traits - Types o Discontinuous categories (e.g. extraverts vs. introverts) o Represent qualitative differences in people o Labeling convenience o Often biologically or genetically based - Traits o Continuous dimensions (e.g. sociability, aggressiveness) o Represent quantitative differences in people o Individual differences reflect differences in amount of a trait Views of Traits - Nomothetic o From the Greek meaning “law” o Sees traits as universal o Comparison among individuals is possible o Individually reflected in unique combinations of traits o Trait perspective - Idiographic o Sees traits as idiosyncratic (not universal) o Not all traits are shared o Traits may differ in connotation and importance among people o Comparisons may not be possible What traits matter? - Key issues: o How many basic traits are there? o Which ones are they? o How do we define and organize the many ways we describe personality? § Lexical approach à adjectives Factor Analysis - Statistical technique for decomposing large numbers of intercorrelations into basic underlying dimensions o Patters of commonality (covariance) between descriptors indicate underlying traits o Results of factor analysis can shed light on the structure of personality o Caveat: what you get out of a factor analysis depends on what you put into it (flawed) Steps in a Factor Analysis - Collect measurements on many variables o Self-reports o Observations - Collect data from many people - Compute correlations between all pairs of variables - Extract factors - Label factors based on factor loadings How to decide the Nature of Personality? - Empirical Approach o Demonstrated by Raymond Catell § Lexical approach o Language has evolved to describe the basic qualities of human nature o Factor analyzed 171 trait names o Resulted in 16 primary factors of personality - Theoretical Approach o Demonstrated by Hans Eysenck o Conceptually identified 3 types or “supertraits” § Introversionàextraversion § Emotionalityàstability § Psychoticism (least studied) o Many individual difference variables can be explained in the cross between extraversion and emotionality o Types can be further broken down into component traits § Supertraità trait level (ex: extraversion) à habitual response level (ex: habits—making fun of people)à Specific response level (ex: making fun of specific people) - Another Theoretical Approach o Interpersonal circle § Assumes that core traits derive from those that concern interpersonal functioning § Two core traits • Dominance (dominantàsubmissive) • Love (cold heartedàwarm, agreeable) § Like Eysenck’s view individual differences arise from combinations of the two dimensions The Big Five - Growing evolution of evidence suggests there are five basic superordinate traits - Disagreement about the exact nature of the five traits o Why? § Factor analysis is used to identify factors • Labeling of factors is subjective • Results depend heavily on the items you start with Extraversion - Other labels: Social adaptability, assertiveness, energy - Relevant life domain: power - Reflected through behavioral and affective channels - Common adjectives: outspoken, gregarious, energetic (low sideà timid) - Qualities: high extrovertà involve other people, interact better with opposite sex, more desire for wealth and status Agreeableness - Concern with maintaining relationships - Other labels: Conformity, friendly, compliance, likeability - Relevant life domain: love - Don’t desire conflict, concerned with keeping relationships o More nurturing o Will seek out/provide emotional support - Tendency to inhibit negative affect o Less fightsà hold back - Reflected through behavioral, affective and cognitive channels - Less likely to have negativity in marital relationships - Common adjectives: friendly, kind, considerate, good natured (low endà cold, spiteful) Conscientiousness - Other labels: responsibility, will to achieve - Relevant life domain: work - Planning, persistence, purposeful - Goal oriented - Common adjectives: cautious, serious, hard working (low endà careless, frivolous) - Less likely to have unsafe sex Emotionality (Neuroticism) - Other labels: emotional control, emotional lability - Relevant life domain: affect (emotions) - Reflected through affective channels - Common adjectives: nervous, excitable, anxious, high strung (low endà calm, composed) - High neuroticism= low academics - Distance from negative interactions Intellect (Openness to Experience) - Other labels: culture, inquiring intellect, openness to experience - Relevant life domain: intellect - Reflected mostly through cognitive channels with some affect and behavior input - Common adjectives: imaginative, polished, creative, knowledgeable (low endà simple, unreflective) - More open to interracial relationships - Increase in sexual satisfaction - Least consensus about meaning Additional Considerations of Big Five - Are all traits included? o What about evaluative words? § Good, bad, excellent, evil - What is the best level of specificity? o Higher order factors (socialization and personal growth) o Lower order facts are more predictive of many socially significant behavior Are behaviors really trait like? - Some say no o Behavior across context tends to vary o Low association between trait self-reports and behavior o Walter Mischel’s personality coefficient (r=.30 low correlation) à no clear relationship between traits and behavior § Why low correlations? • Faulty trait self-reports of personality • Faulty measurement of behavior as solution Responses to Low Associations - Situationism o Assumption: § Situations really drive behavior § Differences in personality are irrelevant o Data doesn’t support this position - Interactionism o Assumption: § Differences in personality and situations interact to cause behavior o Suggests an “analysis of variance” view of behavior § Example: Effect of personality on behavior “depends on” strong versus weak situations • Strong situationà more likely to impact our behavior Personality’s Influence on Situations - Personality influences the situations people choose to enter (church, scuba diving, work, marriage partners) - People evoke different responses from others - Resultà personality can influence situations such that the situation is actually different - Walter Mischel o Only used one trait which led to low correlation o The more traits you add to data, the more the correlation/relationship increases o Multitude of traits that impact our behavior Assessments - MMPI II à provides personality assessment o Created a personality profile - Trait based assessments include surveys Behavioral Problems - Typically, behaviors that are on the extreme end (too high or too low) become a problem o Example: extroverts touching other without permission à outside societal norms - Diathesis stress model à predisposition to experience behavioral problems in stressful situations o Behavioral change can only be used for preventative measures à not really change Chapter 5: The Motive Perspective Basic Elements - Needs: o Manifestation of an internal state o Direct behavior o Reflect an unsatisfactory state of being o Derived from biological sources (primary) o Derived from psychological sources (secondary) o Need strength influences intensity of related behavior o Directive in nature § Positive needs (approach) § Negative needs (avoidance) • Trying to achieve out of fear of failure - Motives o Influenced by underlying needs o Represent cognitive structures o Have affective overtones o Are more proximal to behavior than needs o Provide a venue through which motives operate o Pertain to goals and desires o Ultimately reflected in actions Basic Concepts - Press o Influence motives o Characterizes an external event or condition o Act as trigger for motivational stress - Example: o Need (water) Motivational state Behavior (drink) Press (cold lemonade) (thirst) - Commercials influencing your behavior Murray’s System of Needs - Emphasizes universal needs - Focuses on secondary (psychological) needs - Recognizes differing dispositional need levels among individuals - Points out that: o Single behaviors can satisfy multiple needs o Needs can facilitate each other o Needs can conflict Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) - Underlying assumptions o Manifest needs à needs reflected in overt behavior o Latent needs à needs not reflected in behavior - Assesses latent needs - Presents an ambiguous picture (character’s thoughts, feelings and relationships) - Latent needs are projected into the story’s content - Dispositional tendencies emerge over multiple pictures Need for Achievement - Desire to do well, to feel pleasure in overcoming obstacles - TAT images: obtaining goals, overcoming adversity, performing well - High need for achievement o Associated with choice of moderately difficult task (diagnostic) à need feedback o Predicts higher performance in some domains (academics, careers) o May be reflected culturally to influence economic growth o May result in behavior that is similar to that motivated by desire to avoid failure Need for Power - Desire to have an impact on others, to have prestige, to feel strong - TAT images: vigorous action, concern about status, position or self-image - High need for power o Associated with patterns of friendship choice o Predicts behavior in interpersonal interactions o Manifests in less concessions in negotiations o May be manifested differently depending on sense of responsibility § High responsibilityà conscientious pursuit of power § Low responsibility à profligate, impulsive pursuit of power Need for Affiliation - Desire to spend time with others - TAT images: concern about acceptance by others, attempts to establish and maintain relationships - High need for affiliation: o Associated with more agreeableness and concern over being liked o Predicts time engaged in social activities o Experiences most relationship satisfactions if matched with another who is high in need for affiliation o May reflect more specific needs: § Social comparison § Emotional Support § Positive stimulation § Attention from others Need for Intimacy - Desire to feel warm, close and communicative exchanges with another person - TAT images: disclosing communication, sharing thoughts and feelings - More passive than need for affiliation - High need for intimacy: o Associated with more one-on-one interactions and self-disclosing interactions o Predicts amount of listening behavior o Associated with greater marriage and job satisfaction Patters of Needs - Inhibited Power Motivation (IPM) - Low need for affiliationà want to influence people - High need for powerà doesn’t worry about being disliked - Associated with non-technical managerial success - IPM imagery in politician’s speeches preceding wars (specifically British Wars) What Determines Behavior? - Behavior reflects: o A system of multiple needs o The changing balance of the relative intensity of needs at any given time o The fundamental influence of three superordinate needs: § Needs for power § Need for affiliation § Need for intimacy § Need for achievement Incentive Value - The degree to which a given behavior can satisfy a need - Determines how a motive express itself in behavior - Example: Need for affiliation à Go to a party Join a sorority Call a friend - Accounts for behavioral diversity - Relates to (conscious) choices of action within a domain Issues in Assessment - TAT: o Questionable reliability o Time consuming o Reflect implicit motives o Tied to desire for broad, primitive, affective experiences o Predict frequency of motive-relevant feelings - Self-Reports o Reflect self- attributed motives o Ties to desire for specific action goals o Predicts frequency of motive relevant events Motive and the Five Factor Model - TAT derived motives show less overlap with Five Factor Model than do self-attributed motives - Integrative Approach (Winter) o Motives are fundamental desires o Traits represent the channels through which motives are expressed Behavior Change - Key elements for change of problematic behavior o Identify underlying motive for problematic behavior o Identify alternative methods of satisfying motive - Key elements of increasing achievement motivation o Instruction to frequently use achievement imagery o Generalize imagery to all situations o Target specific, concrete actions Chapter 6: Genetics, Evolution and Personality Basic Approach of Biological Perspective - Personality is genetically determined o Human behavioral tendencies arise from evolutionary processes - Human behavior is the product of a complex biological organism - Underlying genetics and biology influence processes in personality Behavioral Genetics - Key methodologies o Twin studies: § Monozygotic pairs à Genetically identical à correlation (M2) § Dizygotic pairs à not identical à correlation (D2) - Adoption studies: o How adopted children resemble: § Biological parents à genetically related à correlation (BP) § Adopted parents à not related à correlation (AP) § Suggest a genetic component à Biological parents resemble more than adopted parents Temperaments - Inherited personality traits present at birth o Genetically based o Pervasive à affect how and what people do o Fundamental temperaments § Activity level à overall output of behavior • Vigor vs. tempo § Sociability à preference of being with others § Emotionality à ease of being emotionally aroused o More recent views of temperament § Approach and avoidance § Effortful control Inheritance of Traits - Evidence of heritability for a broad range of traits - Evidence for genetic component for all of the “big five” personality traits Other Effects of Genetics - Genetics work through personality to effect: o Risk for divorce o Experiencing a serious life event o Levels of social support o People’s attitudes on various topics - Are these effects of personality and genetics distinct? Molecular Genetics - Much of human genome does not vary from person to person o Longer alleles § DRD4 allele à Dopamine (pleasures/happiness) § DRD2 allele à fun seeking o Shorter Alleles § Serotonin (linked to aggressiveness) - Differences arise at locations where patters of DNA proteins vary - Research has identified a gene location that relates to: o Novelty seeking (high dopamine levelsà DRD4) o Reward pursuit o Impulse vs. constraint Environmental Influences - Environmental effects may be underestimated o Judged as that which is not explained by genetics o Some environmental and genetics effects may have shared influence on an outcome (intelligence) o If shared variance is attributed to genetics, the environmental effect is underestimated o Environmental influences on personality operate primarily at the individual level o Sources of non- shared environmental influences § Peers, friend, social networks § Parental preference § Complementary, but diverging, roles within families Sociobiology - Study of the biological basis of human social behavior - Social behaviors exist because they confer adaptive advantage - Ex: altruism o May confer a biological disadvantage at an individual level o May help others in the same gene pool survival and reproduce (inclusive fitness) o Predicts altruism to members of kinship groups o May form the evolutionary basis for cooperation Genetic Similarity Theory - An extension of the concept of altruism - We are more attached to strangers who genetically resemble is (assorted mating) o Evidence: § Sexually involved couples shared more genetic markers than randomly selected couples § Couples with children shared more genetic markers than those without § Male friend pairs share more markers than ransom pairs o How detected? § Similar facial, physical features § Odor § Culture similarities Mate Selection and Competition - Females o Greater investment in offspring o Generate fewer offspring o Choosier in male selection o Wait for best male o Males= success objects o Attract males with: § Fertility § Youth § Fitness § Beauty - Males o Less investment in offspring o Can generate more offspring o o Less discriminating o Maximize sexual opportunities o Females=sex objects o Attract females with: § Wealth § Power § Status Jealousy - Concerns according to evolutionary theory - Females à family support - Males à Paternity - Jealousy results from: o Females à Emotional bonds o Males à Sexual Infidelity Other gender differences - Females: o Maximize attractiveness o Strategy used more if husband has high income - Males: o Spend money o Give in to wishes o Strategies used more if wife is young or attractive Young Male Syndrome - May have evolutionary roots - Manifest by posturing, risk behavior, or violence in response to sexual selection pressure - Elicited by specific situations o Single, unemployed, low status à poor mating potential - Evidence o Males more likely to commit murder o Men in prime mating age commit more murders o Most killings over status Assessment - Little focus from behavioral genetics - Assessment from genes unlikely o Behavior probably involves many genes o Ethical implications Behavior Genetics and Disorders - Schizophrenia o Rate of concordance in twins § M2 à 50% § D2 à 9% - Bipolar o Twin research suggests genetic contribution o Possible links to specific chromosomes - Alcohol Abuse o Possible link to gene for dopamine - Antisocial Behavior o Higher concordance rates M2 twins on childhood behavior problems and adult crimes Another View of Behavior Problems - Premise: Two Evolutionary Processes Influence Behavior o Biological Evolution à slow o Cultural Evolution à much faster - Problems arise when the behavioral tendency from biological evolution conflicts with current cultural environment Chapter 7: Biological Processes and Personality Extraversion - Hans Eysenck: level of extraversion/introversion reflects differences in cerebral cortex activation - Introverts o Higher basal cortical activation o More alert when nothing happening o Withdraw to avoid overstimulation o Fewer mistakes on tasks requiring vigilance o Require more depressant drugs to reach given index of alertness - Extroverts o Lower basal cortical activation o Less alert when nothing happening o Seek Stimulation to elevate arousal o More bored by repetitive tasks o Require more stimulants to reach given level of arousal Neuroticism - High neuroticism reflects someone who is easily aroused from emotion centers in the brain o Emotional arousal exaggerates behavioral responses of introverts and extroverts Behavioral Approach System (BAS) - Regulates movement toward desired states or objects (incentive) - Responsible for positive emotions (left prefrontal cortex) - Relates to conditioning involving positive outcomes, but not negative outcomes - People with different levels of BAS sensitivity demonstrate differences in behavioral and emotional responses to incentives - Maybe related to dopamine activity Behavioral Inhibition System (BIS) - Regulates movement away from undesired states or objects - Associated with anxiety (right prefrontal cortex) - Relates to conditioning involving negative outcomes, but not positive outcomes - People with different levels of BIS sensitivity demonstrate differences in behavioral and emotional responses to punishment - May be related to serotonin and/or GABA activity Approach and Inhibition and Traits - BIS related neuroticism/emotionality o Anxiety at core of emotionality o High BIS sensitive people respond to anxiety manipulations - BAS related to extraversion o High BAS sensitive people respond to positive manipulations Areas of Disagreement - Social qualities of extraversion? o Useful to think of social incentives as an important class of rewards to which extraverts are drawn are drawn in order to experience positive affect § Role of impulsivity • Is it linked to extraversion? • Is it a separate trait? • Impulsivity with positive affect belongs with extraversion • Impulsivity items do not load with BAS or extraversion items in a factor analysis Sensation Seeking - Marvin Zuckerman - High sensation seekers are in search of new, varied, and exciting experiences o Drive faster o More likely to use drugs and increase alcohol use over time o More high risk sports o Riskier antisocial behavior o More sexually experienced and responsive o More dissatisfied with relationships (get bored) Monoamine Oxidase (MAO) - Related to levels of sensation seeking - Associated with social dominance, aggression and gene linked to impulsivity Function of Sensation Seeking - Regulates exposure to stimulus intensity o High intention seekers (HSS) open themselves up to stimulation o HSS do well in over stimulating conditions o Low sensation seekers (LSS) adapt better to most ordinary circumstances, but may shut down under intense conditions o Impulsive un-socialized sensation seeking (IUSS) à inability to inhibit behavior appropriate to social constraints Impulsiveness - Issue: How best to account for impulsiveness - Approach and inhibition systems o High BAS o Low BIS o Combination (high BAS and low BIS) - Serotonin o Most studies relate serotonin to negative emotion o Low serotonin function associated with anger, impulsive aggression o Serotonin levels positively related to conscientiousness o Suggestive that impulsiveness derives from a separate biological system Hormones and Personality - Testosterone: o Higher prenatal levels weeks 8-24, months 1-5 after birth and after puberty for normal males § Developmental default is female § Exposure to androgens results in male physical and neurological development § Exposure to higher levels of prenatal androgens: • Associated with higher self reported physical aggression scores in response to hypothetical situation (boys and girls) • Associated with cross-gender toy selection along girls Testosterone and Adult Personality - Focus on associations with dominance and antisocial behavior o Positive associations with: § Violation of prison rules among inmates and likelihood of having committed violent crimes § Trouble with parents, teachers, classmates when growing up (increased effects among low SES) § More dominant and confident social interactions § Not being married, getting divorced, having an affair and domestic abuse among men testosterone data loaded with impulsiveness, sensation seeking and dominance Chapter 8: The Psychoanalytic Perspective Basic Themes - Conflict between aspects of personality - Defense mechanisms to manage threat - Human experience suffused with lust, aggression, sexuality, and death - Perspective is highly metaphorical Topographical Model of the Mind - The mind is organized into levels of functioning o Common characterization: § Conscious level § Preconscious level o Freud’s contribution § Unconscious level The Conscious Level - Contains elements about which a person is currently aware - Contents can be articulated verbally - Contents can be thought about in a rational/logical manner The Preconscious Level - Represents elements in ordinary memory o Those outside current attention - Contents are easily brought to current awareness - Examples: o What you had last night o Grandmother’s first name The Unconscious Level - Elements of the mind that are actively kept from consciousness - Generally, a repository for images, feelings and ideas associated with anxiety, fear and pain - Contents cannot be brought to consciousness directly, but can only enter awareness in distorted form - Even though they are outside of awareness, the contents of the unconscious can have a dynamic influence on personality The Structural Model - Complements to Topographical Model - Describes the three components of personality functioning o ID o Ego o Superego The ID - Original part of personality; present at birth - Embodies inherited, instinctive and primitive aspects of personality - Tied to biological functions - Operates entirely in the unconscious - Functions as the engine of personality, through which all psychic energy comes - Conforms to the “pleasure principle” o Wants what it wants, no matter the place/time o Wants to be pleased Pleasure Principle - Asserts that the true purpose of life is the immediate satisfaction of all needs - Gives no consideration to risk, environment, social constraints or problems in satisfying needs - Unmet needs result in a state of aversive tension - Mechanism for discharge of tension à Primary Process Primary Process - Primary way for ID to satisfy needs - Formation of mental image of desired object, activity that would meet need - Act of forming such an image à Wish fulfillment o Examples: § Hunger à Cheeseburger/pizza § Thirst à Lemonade, cool stream - Problems: o Can’t distinguish between objective and subjective states o Doesn’t care how needs are met o Can be irrational, reckless, immoral The Ego - Evolves out of the ID because ID functions cannot deal effectively with objective reality - Operates primarily at the conscious and preconscious, but also at the unconscious - Operates according to the “Reality Principle” - No moral sense, simply wants to fulfill needs given the constraints of reality The Superego - Embodiment of parental and societal values - Arises from complex feeling resulting from relationship with parents o Love and affection à obtained by doing what parents think is right o Punishment and disapproval à obtained by avoiding what parents think is wrong - Introjection: the process of incorporating values from an external source o Mostly parents, sometimes society - Operates at all levels of consciousness o Interesting implication à feelings of guilt for no apparent reason Components of the Superego - Ego ideal o Consists of rules about good behavior and standards of excellence o Conforming behavior results in feeling of pride and worthiness - Conscience o Consists of rules about bad and prohibited behavior o Non-conforming behavior results in feelings of guilt and change Goals of Superego - Inhibit any ID impulse that would cause disapproval from parents - Force ego to act morally, rather than rationally - Guide person toward perfection in thought, word and behavior - Problem: While it exerts a civilizing effect, its perfectionism is not realistic Balancing the Forces - Must find a way to release tension (id demand) immediately, in a way that is socially acceptable (superego demand) and realistic (external environment) - Ability to function effectively, despite these conflicting forcesà ego strength o Little ego strength à torn among conflicting pressure o Too much ego strength à Very rational and efficient but boring/ distance ****Balance is key**** Two Classes of Drives - Life or sexual instincts (Eros) o Deal with: § Survival § Reproduction § Pleasure - Death instincts (Thanatos) o “Goal of all life is death” o Today’s biology assumes a death instinct in human physiology o Active gene- directed suicide process (apoptosis) Catharsis - Release of tension in such an experience o Engaging in aggression should reduce tension because the aggressive urge in no loner bottled up Anxiety - Aversive inner motivation state - Freud saw it as a warning signal to the ego - Types of Anxiety o Reality anxiety: fear of something real in the world o Neurotic anxiety: fear of punishment resulting from ID impulses getting out of control o Moral anxiety: fear of violating moral/ethical codes arising from the superego Responses to Anxiety - Increase rational problem-oriented coping o Conscious activity to deal with threat o Works best with reality anxiety - Activate defense mechanisms o Tactics developed by ego to deal with anxiety o Can operate unconsciously o All distort, transform or falsify reality in some way Repression - Act of forcing something out of consciousness - Important in restraining ID impulses - Applies to painful or upsetting info, memories, and behavior - Can have partial repression o Some info is “leaked out” Denial - Refusal to believe an event took place or condition exists - Generally, deal with threats that originate outside the dynamics of the mind - Effective at keeping anxiety at bay, but requires constant psychic energy - Because of the energy cost of repression and denial, other strategies have developed to free up energy Projection - Ascription of unacceptable impulses, desires, or qualities to someone else - Serves to express the IDs desire, thus releasing energy required to suppress it - Makes the expression of an impulse in such a way that is not recognized by the ego or superego Rationalization - Making excuses for unacceptable behavior - After a failure, rationalization maintains self-esteem - Common response to success and failure experiences (Fundamental attribution error) Intellectualization - Thinking in a cold analytical or detached way about things that normally evoke distress - Allows disassociation of thought from feelings - Suggest that the intellect part of an idea can exist in the conscious mind, while the emotional quality remains the same Displacement (most adaptive/less neurotic) - Shifting an impulse from one target to another - New target is less threatening, thus anxiety is reduced Sublimation (most adaptive/less neurotic) - Transforms the impulse into a more socially acceptable form - The expressed impulse is more acceptable, anxiety is reduced - Considered the most mature defense mechanism Psychosexual Development - Oral, anal, phallic latency, genital - Adult personality is influenced by how crises are resolved at each age Oral Stage (birth-18months) - Crisis à Being weaned from mother - Mouth is source of tension reduction - Two phases: o Oral incorporative à dependency, gullibility, jealousy o Oral sadistic à verbal aggressiveness - Oral personalities o Preoccupied with food and drink o When stressed, reduced tension through oral activities (smoking, nail biting) o When angry, engage in verbal aggression Anal Stage (18 months-3years) - Anus is the source of pleasure from stimulation that results from defecation - Crisis à toilet training - Two orientation of toilet training: o Praise for successful elimination at desired time and place § Basis for adult productivity/creativity o Punishment for failure § Anal expulsiveà child acts with rebellion (messy, cruel, destructive, hostility) § Anal retentiveà child reacts by withholding (rigid, obsessive, stingy, orderliness) Phallic Stage (3-5 years) - Genitals become source of pleasure - Crisis à attraction toward opposite sex parent o Boys § Attracted to mother, wants to replace father (Oedipus complex) § Fears retaliation on part of father (castration anxiety) § Repress feelings toward mother, begins to identify with father § Identification with father gives rise to superego o Girls § Attracted to father abandons love for mother (Electra complex) § Wants father because he possesses a penis (penis envy) § Repress feelings towards father, begins to identify with mother § Identification with mother gives rise to superego Latency Period (6 years-teens) - Period of relative calm, no new developmental conflicts - Attention is focused on other pursuits (intellectual or social) Genital Stage - Late adolescence and adulthood - Libidinal energy still organized around the genitals - Focus on mutual sexual gratification - Develop the ability to share in warm and caring relationships and have concern for other’s welfare - Demonstrate greater control over impulses - Represents an ideal, rather than an absolute endpoint of development Psychopathology of Everyday - Not random, but arises from impulses/urges in the unconscious - Error of memory, word mix ups and accidents (parapaxes à faulty achievement) o “Forgetting” = repression o Slips of tongue or pen = unsuccessful repression Dreams - “Royal road to the unconscious” –Freud - Two aspects o Manifest content à actual sensory images o Latent content à the source of the manifest content; meaning underlying the dream § Sources • Concurrent sensory stimulation (barking dog, ringing phone) à guardians of sleep • Current concerns (thoughts, feelings, concerns in life) • Unconscious ID impulses à present in all dreams Projective Assessment Techniques - Represent formal approaches to assessing unconscious processes - Projective hypothesis: provide people with ambiguous, unstructured stimuli and they will apply projection in their interpretations of what they see o Low validity, low reliability o Provide more qualitative data Rorschach Inkblot Test - Chosen for ability to evoke different responses from different psychiatric patients - 10 bilaterally symmetrical blots o 5 all black, 2 red and black, 3 pastels - Administration in predetermined order - Administration in two stages o Free response formatà indicates what is seen o Systematic questioning à reminded of previous responses and request to indicate what about the blur made that person say what they did Rorschach Scoring - Based on three factors o Location of response à part vs. whole, commonly noted detail vs rarely noted detail § Blot vs. space surrounding § Response based on whole blot indicative of conceptual thinking o Determinants of response à form, shading, color, texture or perceived movement in location of response § Response based on color indicative of emotionality § Response based on human movement indicative of imagination o Content of response à subject matter § Conveys overt meaning and symbolic meaning Problems and Behavior Change - Problems arise from overuse of defenses o Unresolved conflict resulting in fixation o Broad libidinal repression of basic needs o Repressed trauma - Goal of therapy is to free up energy by releasing need to repress through awareness and in sight o Consequences of therapy § Resistance àactively fighting against awareness of represented conflicts and impulses § Transference à Displacements onto therapists Problems and Prospects - Controversial o Prominent sexual themes o Many determinants of behavior that are outside of awareness - Difficult to test empirically o Ambiguous terms or ill defined concepts - Heavy reliance on a small number of potentially biased studies - Confusion of fact with inferences - Even so, Freud offers a significant and important contribution to the discussion of personality and human behavior Chapter 9: Psychosocial Theories Object Relation Theories - Focusing on relation with others - Primary tasks in life focus on relations with others - Many theories with some overlap: o Patterns of relating to others established in early childhood o Patterns recur throughout life Mahler’s Theory - Initial state of infant à fusion of symbiosis with mother o Differentiation between self and mother does not exist - Development represents a process of separation0individuation o This need is in conflict with the need to be taken care of o If process goes too fast à separation anxiety o At age 3, stable representation of mother develops, which is derived from experiences o Uses image as lens to view mother in future o Uses image to generalize to other people - These patterns from the core of adult patterns of relationships Self Psychology (Kohut) - Relationships create the structure for the self - Initial needs involving others (self object) are narcissistic - Responding to a child’s narcissistic needs in an empathetic accepting way establishes a sense of self - Initial sense of self is grandiose - Grandiosity eventually evolves into ambition and self-esteem - Love illustrates an adult form of mirroring- people represent self objects for each other and demonstrate mutual mirroring Attachment Theory - Attachment: basic human element of human nature involving an emotional connection to others - Infant attachment o Carries survival benefits (proximity maintenance) o Develops as mother (caretaker) responds to infants needs and provides a dependence base from which the infant can explore the world and retreat from threat o Patterns of infant attachmentà Strange situation § Secure attachment à distress at mother’s departure and happy enthusiasm at return § Insecure attachments: • Ambivalent: anger at return, upset at departure • Avoidant: Calm at departure; avoidance and rejection at return Adult Attachment Patters - Relationships of Secure People o Happier, friendly, trusting o Mental model of loveà it’s real and it stays - Relationships of Avoidant People o Less accepting of lover’s imperfections o Mental model of love à cynical, romantic love doesn’t last - Relationships of Ambivalent People o Obsessive; preoccupied, extremes of emotions, sexual attraction and jealousy, love at first sight o Mental model of loveà Falling in love is easy, but doesn’t last Alternative Conceptualization of Adult Attachment - Two dimensional Approach o Self (positive vs. negative)/others (trustworthy vs. not trustworthy) Stability and Specificity - Stability o Mixed findings that suggest overall a moderate level of stability across time o Review of literature suggests a prototype for close relationships arise in infancy and persists in the face of new experiences o Those who show patterns of change overtime may be those who are insecure, but have periods of security - Specificity o People demonstrate different patterns for relationships in different contexts (close friends, groups) Other Implications of Adult Attachment - Avoidant: o Socialize less at work; greater desire to keep busy o Seek less support to stress partners o Less responsive caregiving o Greater use of distancing coping - Ambivalent: o Unhappiness with job recognition and security o Higher levels of compulsive caregiving o Higher levels of self criticism and wishful thinking, coping - Pairing o Stable à secure-secure; avoidant men-ambivalent women o Unstable à Ambivalent-ambivalent; avoidant-avoidant (women)-ambivalent (men) Psychosocial Development (Erik Erikson) - Stages from birth to old age (lifespan development) o Each stage characterized by a central conflict around which growth potential and vulnerability are high - No single stage is more important than another - Central themes o Ego identity and its development is critically important § Develops from transactions with social reality § Changes in response to events in social environment o Competency and personal adequacy § Key motivator of behavior § Results from mastery of a stage Early Psychosocial Stages - Infancy (Trust vs. Mistrust) o Developing the ego strength of hope - Early childhood (Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt) o Feelings of control and developing the ego strength of will o Toilet training - Preschool (Initiative vs. Guilt) o Basis for a sense of power in the world and developing the ego strength purpose - School Age (Industry vs. Inferiority) o Basis for sense of value, citizenship and developing the ego strength of competence o Social roles o Gender roles - Adolescence (Identity vs. Role Confusion) o Basis for an integrated sense of private and social self and developing the ego strength of fidelity o Role
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