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Final Exam Notes

by: Marisol Murillo

Final Exam Notes PSYC 331

Marisol Murillo
Cal State Fullerton
GPA 3.6

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Ch 1-13 notes for final exam
Psychology of Personality
Timothy Tran
Study Guide
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This 40 page Study Guide was uploaded by Marisol Murillo on Saturday May 14, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC 331 at California State University - Fullerton taught by Timothy Tran in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 59 views. For similar materials see Psychology of Personality in Psychlogy at California State University - Fullerton.


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Date Created: 05/14/16
Chapter 1: What is Personality? Personality - Everyday Meaning o Typically characterizes specific personalities o Typically characterizes specific people - Formal Meaning o Abstract conduct o Broadly applicable Why do we use personality? - Conveys a sense of consistency or continuity across time and situations - Suggests internal origins of thoughts, feelings and behaviors - Two sources of influence - Person (personality psychology emphasizes the role of person variables on behavior) à behavior ß situation - Helps in predicting and understanding behavior - Captures a sense of personal distinctiveness *Personality: “dynamic organization, inside the person, of psychophysical systems that create the person’s characteristic patterns of behavior, thoughts and feelings.” –Gordon Allport* Features of “Personality” definition - Personality o Has an organized structure o Involves active processes o Has psychological and physical components o Helps determine how people relate to the world o Demonstrates patterns and consistencies o Manifests itself across a range of thoughts, feelings and behavior Fundamental Areas of Personality Psychology - Individual differences: represent differences in people o Example: aggressiveness, sociability, optimism - Intrapersonal Functioning: represent stable process that underlie thoughts, feelings and behaviors o Example: goal or motivational process Theory in Personality - Purpose of a theory o Explain what is known § Ex: Social Leaning theory à helps explain differences in aggressiveness - Predict new information or events o Biological theories of personality: might predict similarities in behaviors of parents and children Interplay Between Theory and Research - Theory guides research - Research tests theory à verifies and suggest changes What Characterizes a Good Theory? - Explains what is known - Predicts what will happen (testable) - Is based on multiple sources of information - Is frugal in assumptions (parsimonyàsimple) - Has personal and intuitive appeal - Interesting - Provocative Perspectives on personality - Individual theories of personality o Attempts to describe human nature o Have different orienting assumptions o May be grouped by metatheoretical perspective o May have overlapping connections o May be limited to scope (intentionally) Additional Considerations in the Study of Personality - Assessment: o Accurate characterization of individuals o Important to conduct research o Connection to real world applications (hiring, clinical assessment) - Behavior Change: o Specific predictions personality psychology makes about the way dysfunction may occur o Ways in which therapy and intervention may be helpful Chapter 2: Methods in the Study of Personality Gathering Information About Personality - Informal sources of Information o Observations of self: introspection, self-reflection, self-attention § Dangers: bias, lack of self-awareness o Observations of others § Dangers: Possibility of misinterpretation - Formal Methods o Case study: investigate one individual in detail (used in rare situations for people with rare qualities for example) § Advantages: in depth knowledge, information pertains to normal life, context of discovery and verification § Disadvantages: very limited generalizability o Experience sampling (diary studies): Conducted across extended periods of time § Use self-reports: • Multiple observations at prompts • People do not have to remember far back in time § Possible to search for patterns within a given a person across situations Generalizability - Ability to apply a conclusion to a broad range of people o Best when: § Data are from many people § Data are from different types of people (age, gender, race, culture) Establishing Relationships Among Variables - Variable: dimension along which people differ - Levels o Examples: low vs high self-esteem, sex o Must have at least two values Correlational Methods - Relationship in which the values of two variables go together in a meaningful way o No causation ONLY relationship o Features of a correlation: direction and strength Ways to Characterize a Correlation - Graphical o Knowledge of score on one dimension leads to prediction of other dimension - Quantitative o Correlation coefficient (r) § -1 (strongest negative)— +1 (strongest positive) o Positive correlation: When high values of one variable are associated with high values of another variable o Negative correlation: when high values of one variable are associated with low values of another variable Significance - Index of believability or meaningfulness of relationship - Statistical significance suggests a relationship is unlikely to be the result of chance - Clinical or practical significance indicates that the observed relationship has meaningful, real world consequences Advantages of Correlation Methods - Often quick and efficient - Often the only method available o For practical reasons (can’t assign personality) o For ethical reasons (can’t get strong levels of some variables à anxiety) - Provides a quantitative index Limitation of Correlation - Can’t infer causation o Directionality problem o Third variable problem Experimental Method - Used to make inferences about causality o How it works: § By creating a situation in which the researcher can control and manipulative differences in a variable(s) • Then can observe the effects of these differences Characteristics of an Experiment - Manipulation of variables - Random assignment to conditions - Exertion of experimental control - Measurement of effects of manipulation Elements of Experiment - Independent variable o The variable that researcher manipulates § Conceptual definition (emotional support, love) § Operational definition (parental verbal praise) - The cause in the cause and effect relationship - Dependent variable o The variable the researcher measures § Conceptual definition (academic performance § Operational definition (math achievement scores) Advantages of Experimental Method - Can exercise a high degree of control o Allows ability to rule out third variable explanations o Allows regulation of temporal sequence of events - Can infer causality Disadvantages - Often artificial situation - Usually limited to short durations - Manipulations must remain weak - Some variables can’t be manipulated - Sometimes difficult to determine what it is about the manipulation that was responsible for the effect - Can’t control all variables (confounds) Comparing Types of Study - Correlational: examines variation due to naturally occurring characteristics in groups that exist naturally - Experimental: examines variation due to variation from a manipulated characteristic in groups that were assigned at random Multifactor Studies - Objective: to examine the combined effect (interaction) of two or more variables on an outcome variable - Types: o All manipulated variables o All correlational variables (naturally occurring characteristics) o Mixed variables (experimental personality) Graphs - Main effects: o Make general statement about each individual variable (class size, sociability) and the dependent measure (anxiety) - Interactions o Qualify the effect of one variable on the dependent measure by taking the other variable into account Chapter 3: Issues in Personality Assessment Sources of Information - Ratings by others o Direct report by observer o Peer ratings - Self-reports o Scales à assess a single aspect of personality o Inventories à measure several distinct aspects of personality Implicit Assessment - Indirect means of determining what a person looks like - Example: Implicit Association Test (IAT) o People make categorical decisions rapidly o Response times can reveal how closely linked different concepts are in a person’s mind Types of Information - Objective: measure of concrete reality that involves no interpretation o Example: counts of the time a person touches another in an interpersonal interaction - Subjective: measure that involves interpretation o Example: evaluation of facial expressions for signs of hostility Reliability - Consistency of repeatability of measurement - High reliability= greater consistency= lower randomness (error) - Low reliability= less consistency= more error Types of Reliability - Internal reliability: reflects consistency within a set of items intended to measure the same construct - Test-retest reliability: reflects consistency of a measure across time Validity - Accuracy of measurementà does it measure what it’s supposed to measure? - Types of validity o Construct*, criterion, convergent, discriminant, face (*most important) Construct Validity - Indicates a match between operational and conceptual definitions - Most important type of validity - Other types of validity help establish construct validity Criterion (Predictive) Validity - Most important indicator of construct validity - Examines how well a measure correlates with a standard of comparison (criterion) o Example: Does an aggression scale correlate with observer ratings of shoving on a playground? - Examines how well a measure predicts an appropriate outcome o Example: Does self-esteem scale predict who will volunteer answers in class? Convergent Validity - Indicates appropriate correlation with assessment devices presumed to measure the same construct o Highly correlated - Indicates appropriate correlation with assessment devices presumed to measure conceptually similar constructs o Correlated, but not too high, not too low Divergent (Discriminant) Validity - Indicates that scale does NOT correlate with other assessment devices presumed to measure conceptually dissimilar constructs o Example: correlations with sociability scale Face Validity - Indicates that the item or scale measures what you think it is supposed to measure o Example: § Construct • Depression à Do you often feel sad or blue? • Optimism à Do you generally expect good things to happen? Culture and Validity - Important questions o Does construct exist in all cultures? (cultural universality) o Are items interpreted the same in each culture? Challenges to Validity - Memory bias - Motivational bias o Response sets à readiness to answer in a particular way § Yeah saying (acquiescence=yes) § Nay saying § Social desirability Two Approaches to the Development of Assessment Devices - Rational (theoretical) approach o Starts with conceptualization o Select items to fit conceptualization o Test validity and reliability - Empirical (Data-Based) Approach o Empirically (data) driven from many items o Use statistical methods to select items based on ability of items to differentiate criterion Example of Empirical Approach - Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory o Started with many self- descriptive statements o Administered to “normal” and groups with psychiatric diagnoses o Items selected for a scale were ones that differentiated a particular psychiatric group from all others When are different methods used? - Rational approach o Usually in connection with theory building - Empirical o Usually used in connection with practical needs § Example: vocational interests Chapter 4: The Trait Perspective Themes of Dispositional Approach - Continuity in thoughts, feelings, behaviors - Focus on individual differences, rather than intrapersonal processes Types vs. Traits - Types o Discontinuous categories (e.g. extraverts vs. introverts) o Represent qualitative differences in people o Labeling convenience o Often biologically or genetically based - Traits o Continuous dimensions (e.g. sociability, aggressiveness) o Represent quantitative differences in people o Individual differences reflect differences in amount of a trait Views of Traits - Nomothetic o From the Greek meaning “law” o Sees traits as universal o Comparison among individuals is possible o Individually reflected in unique combinations of traits o Trait perspective - Idiographic o Sees traits as idiosyncratic (not universal) o Not all traits are shared o Traits may differ in connotation and importance among people o Comparisons may not be possible What traits matter? - Key issues: o How many basic traits are there? o Which ones are they? o How do we define and organize the many ways we describe personality? § Lexical approach à adjectives Factor Analysis - Statistical technique for decomposing large numbers of intercorrelations into basic underlying dimensions o Patters of commonality (covariance) between descriptors indicate underlying traits o Results of factor analysis can shed light on the structure of personality o Caveat: what you get out of a factor analysis depends on what you put into it (flawed) Steps in a Factor Analysis - Collect measurements on many variables o Self-reports o Observations - Collect data from many people - Compute correlations between all pairs of variables - Extract factors - Label factors based on factor loadings How to decide the Nature of Personality? - Empirical Approach o Demonstrated by Raymond Catell § Lexical approach o Language has evolved to describe the basic qualities of human nature o Factor analyzed 171 trait names o Resulted in 16 primary factors of personality - Theoretical Approach o Demonstrated by Hans Eysenck o Conceptually identified 3 types or “supertraits” § Introversionàextraversion § Emotionalityàstability § Psychoticism (least studied) o Many individual difference variables can be explained in the cross between extraversion and emotionality o Types can be further broken down into component traits § Supertraità trait level (ex: extraversion) à habitual response level (ex: habits—making fun of people)à Specific response level (ex: making fun of specific people) - Another Theoretical Approach o Interpersonal circle § Assumes that core traits derive from those that concern interpersonal functioning § Two core traits • Dominance (dominantàsubmissive) • Love (cold heartedàwarm, agreeable) § Like Eysenck’s view individual differences arise from combinations of the two dimensions The Big Five - Growing evolution of evidence suggests there are five basic superordinate traits - Disagreement about the exact nature of the five traits o Why? § Factor analysis is used to identify factors • Labeling of factors is subjective • Results depend heavily on the items you start with Extraversion - Other labels: Social adaptability, assertiveness, energy - Relevant life domain: power - Reflected through behavioral and affective channels - Common adjectives: outspoken, gregarious, energetic (low sideà timid) - Qualities: high extrovertà involve other people, interact better with opposite sex, more desire for wealth and status Agreeableness - Concern with maintaining relationships - Other labels: Conformity, friendly, compliance, likeability - Relevant life domain: love - Don’t desire conflict, concerned with keeping relationships o More nurturing o Will seek out/provide emotional support - Tendency to inhibit negative affect o Less fightsà hold back - Reflected through behavioral, affective and cognitive channels - Less likely to have negativity in marital relationships - Common adjectives: friendly, kind, considerate, good natured (low endà cold, spiteful) Conscientiousness - Other labels: responsibility, will to achieve - Relevant life domain: work - Planning, persistence, purposeful - Goal oriented - Common adjectives: cautious, serious, hard working (low endà careless, frivolous) - Less likely to have unsafe sex Emotionality (Neuroticism) - Other labels: emotional control, emotional lability - Relevant life domain: affect (emotions) - Reflected through affective channels - Common adjectives: nervous, excitable, anxious, high strung (low endà calm, composed) - High neuroticism= low academics - Distance from negative interactions Intellect (Openness to Experience) - Other labels: culture, inquiring intellect, openness to experience - Relevant life domain: intellect - Reflected mostly through cognitive channels with some affect and behavior input - Common adjectives: imaginative, polished, creative, knowledgeable (low endà simple, unreflective) - More open to interracial relationships - Increase in sexual satisfaction - Least consensus about meaning Additional Considerations of Big Five - Are all traits included? o What about evaluative words? § Good, bad, excellent, evil - What is the best level of specificity? o Higher order factors (socialization and personal growth) o Lower order facts are more predictive of many socially significant behavior Are behaviors really trait like? - Some say no o Behavior across context tends to vary o Low association between trait self-reports and behavior o Walter Mischel’s personality coefficient (r=.30 low correlation) à no clear relationship between traits and behavior § Why low correlations? • Faulty trait self-reports of personality • Faulty measurement of behavior as solution Responses to Low Associations - Situationism o Assumption: § Situations really drive behavior § Differences in personality are irrelevant o Data doesn’t support this position - Interactionism o Assumption: § Differences in personality and situations interact to cause behavior o Suggests an “analysis of variance” view of behavior § Example: Effect of personality on behavior “depends on” strong versus weak situations • Strong situationà more likely to impact our behavior Personality’s Influence on Situations - Personality influences the situations people choose to enter (church, scuba diving, work, marriage partners) - People evoke different responses from others - Resultà personality can influence situations such that the situation is actually different - Walter Mischel o Only used one trait which led to low correlation o The more traits you add to data, the more the correlation/relationship increases o Multitude of traits that impact our behavior Assessments - MMPI II à provides personality assessment o Created a personality profile - Trait based assessments include surveys Behavioral Problems - Typically, behaviors that are on the extreme end (too high or too low) become a problem o Example: extroverts touching other without permission à outside societal norms - Diathesis stress model à predisposition to experience behavioral problems in stressful situations o Behavioral change can only be used for preventative measures à not really change Chapter 5: The Motive Perspective Basic Elements - Needs: o Manifestation of an internal state o Direct behavior o Reflect an unsatisfactory state of being o Derived from biological sources (primary) o Derived from psychological sources (secondary) o Need strength influences intensity of related behavior o Directive in nature § Positive needs (approach) § Negative needs (avoidance) • Trying to achieve out of fear of failure - Motives o Influenced by underlying needs o Represent cognitive structures o Have affective overtones o Are more proximal to behavior than needs o Provide a venue through which motives operate o Pertain to goals and desires o Ultimately reflected in actions Basic Concepts - Press o Influence motives o Characterizes an external event or condition o Act as trigger for motivational stress - Example: o Need (water) Motivational state Behavior (drink) Press (cold lemonade) (thirst) - Commercials influencing your behavior Murray’s System of Needs - Emphasizes universal needs - Focuses on secondary (psychological) needs - Recognizes differing dispositional need levels among individuals - Points out that: o Single behaviors can satisfy multiple needs o Needs can facilitate each other o Needs can conflict Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) - Underlying assumptions o Manifest needs à needs reflected in overt behavior o Latent needs à needs not reflected in behavior - Assesses latent needs - Presents an ambiguous picture (character’s thoughts, feelings and relationships) - Latent needs are projected into the story’s content - Dispositional tendencies emerge over multiple pictures Need for Achievement - Desire to do well, to feel pleasure in overcoming obstacles - TAT images: obtaining goals, overcoming adversity, performing well - High need for achievement o Associated with choice of moderately difficult task (diagnostic) à need feedback o Predicts higher performance in some domains (academics, careers) o May be reflected culturally to influence economic growth o May result in behavior that is similar to that motivated by desire to avoid failure Need for Power - Desire to have an impact on others, to have prestige, to feel strong - TAT images: vigorous action, concern about status, position or self-image - High need for power o Associated with patterns of friendship choice o Predicts behavior in interpersonal interactions o Manifests in less concessions in negotiations o May be manifested differently depending on sense of responsibility § High responsibilityà conscientious pursuit of power § Low responsibility à profligate, impulsive pursuit of power Need for Affiliation - Desire to spend time with others - TAT images: concern about acceptance by others, attempts to establish and maintain relationships - High need for affiliation: o Associated with more agreeableness and concern over being liked o Predicts time engaged in social activities o Experiences most relationship satisfactions if matched with another who is high in need for affiliation o May reflect more specific needs: § Social comparison § Emotional Support § Positive stimulation § Attention from others Need for Intimacy - Desire to feel warm, close and communicative exchanges with another person - TAT images: disclosing communication, sharing thoughts and feelings - More passive than need for affiliation - High need for intimacy: o Associated with more one-on-one interactions and self-disclosing interactions o Predicts amount of listening behavior o Associated with greater marriage and job satisfaction Patters of Needs - Inhibited Power Motivation (IPM) - Low need for affiliationà want to influence people - High need for powerà doesn’t worry about being disliked - Associated with non-technical managerial success - IPM imagery in politician’s speeches preceding wars (specifically British Wars) What Determines Behavior? - Behavior reflects: o A system of multiple needs o The changing balance of the relative intensity of needs at any given time o The fundamental influence of three superordinate needs: § Needs for power § Need for affiliation § Need for intimacy § Need for achievement Incentive Value - The degree to which a given behavior can satisfy a need - Determines how a motive express itself in behavior - Example: Need for affiliation à Go to a party Join a sorority Call a friend - Accounts for behavioral diversity - Relates to (conscious) choices of action within a domain Issues in Assessment - TAT: o Questionable reliability o Time consuming o Reflect implicit motives o Tied to desire for broad, primitive, affective experiences o Predict frequency of motive-relevant feelings - Self-Reports o Reflect self- attributed motives o Ties to desire for specific action goals o Predicts frequency of motive relevant events Motive and the Five Factor Model - TAT derived motives show less overlap with Five Factor Model than do self-attributed motives - Integrative Approach (Winter) o Motives are fundamental desires o Traits represent the channels through which motives are expressed Behavior Change - Key elements for change of problematic behavior o Identify underlying motive for problematic behavior o Identify alternative methods of satisfying motive - Key elements of increasing achievement motivation o Instruction to frequently use achievement imagery o Generalize imagery to all situations o Target specific, concrete actions Chapter 6: Genetics, Evolution and Personality Basic Approach of Biological Perspective - Personality is genetically determined o Human behavioral tendencies arise from evolutionary processes - Human behavior is the product of a complex biological organism - Underlying genetics and biology influence processes in personality Behavioral Genetics - Key methodologies o Twin studies: § Monozygotic pairs à Genetically identical à correlation (M2) § Dizygotic pairs à not identical à correlation (D2) - Adoption studies: o How adopted children resemble: § Biological parents à genetically related à correlation (BP) § Adopted parents à not related à correlation (AP) § Suggest a genetic component à Biological parents resemble more than adopted parents Temperaments - Inherited personality traits present at birth o Genetically based o Pervasive à affect how and what people do o Fundamental temperaments § Activity level à overall output of behavior • Vigor vs. tempo § Sociability à preference of being with others § Emotionality à ease of being emotionally aroused o More recent views of temperament § Approach and avoidance § Effortful control Inheritance of Traits - Evidence of heritability for a broad range of traits - Evidence for genetic component for all of the “big five” personality traits Other Effects of Genetics - Genetics work through personality to effect: o Risk for divorce o Experiencing a serious life event o Levels of social support o People’s attitudes on various topics - Are these effects of personality and genetics distinct? Molecular Genetics - Much of human genome does not vary from person to person o Longer alleles § DRD4 allele à Dopamine (pleasures/happiness) § DRD2 allele à fun seeking o Shorter Alleles § Serotonin (linked to aggressiveness) - Differences arise at locations where patters of DNA proteins vary - Research has identified a gene location that relates to: o Novelty seeking (high dopamine levelsà DRD4) o Reward pursuit o Impulse vs. constraint Environmental Influences - Environmental effects may be underestimated o Judged as that which is not explained by genetics o Some environmental and genetics effects may have shared influence on an outcome (intelligence) o If shared variance is attributed to genetics, the environmental effect is underestimated o Environmental influences on personality operate primarily at the individual level o Sources of non- shared environmental influences § Peers, friend, social networks § Parental preference § Complementary, but diverging, roles within families Sociobiology - Study of the biological basis of human social behavior - Social behaviors exist because they confer adaptive advantage - Ex: altruism o May confer a biological disadvantage at an individual level o May help others in the same gene pool survival and reproduce (inclusive fitness) o Predicts altruism to members of kinship groups o May form the evolutionary basis for cooperation Genetic Similarity Theory - An extension of the concept of altruism - We are more attached to strangers who genetically resemble is (assorted mating) o Evidence: § Sexually involved couples shared more genetic markers than randomly selected couples § Couples with children shared more genetic markers than those without § Male friend pairs share more markers than ransom pairs o How detected? § Similar facial, physical features § Odor § Culture similarities Mate Selection and Competition - Females o Greater investment in offspring o Generate fewer offspring o Choosier in male selection o Wait for best male o Males= success objects o Attract males with: § Fertility § Youth § Fitness § Beauty - Males o Less investment in offspring o Can generate more offspring o o Less discriminating o Maximize sexual opportunities o Females=sex objects o Attract females with: § Wealth § Power § Status Jealousy - Concerns according to evolutionary theory - Females à family support - Males à Paternity - Jealousy results from: o Females à Emotional bonds o Males à Sexual Infidelity Other gender differences - Females: o Maximize attractiveness o Strategy used more if husband has high income - Males: o Spend money o Give in to wishes o Strategies used more if wife is young or attractive Young Male Syndrome - May have evolutionary roots - Manifest by posturing, risk behavior, or violence in response to sexual selection pressure - Elicited by specific situations o Single, unemployed, low status à poor mating potential - Evidence o Males more likely to commit murder o Men in prime mating age commit more murders o Most killings over status Assessment - Little focus from behavioral genetics - Assessment from genes unlikely o Behavior probably involves many genes o Ethical implications Behavior Genetics and Disorders - Schizophrenia o Rate of concordance in twins § M2 à 50% § D2 à 9% - Bipolar o Twin research suggests genetic contribution o Possible links to specific chromosomes - Alcohol Abuse o Possible link to gene for dopamine - Antisocial Behavior o Higher concordance rates M2 twins on childhood behavior problems and adult crimes Another View of Behavior Problems - Premise: Two Evolutionary Processes Influence Behavior o Biological Evolution à slow o Cultural Evolution à much faster - Problems arise when the behavioral tendency from biological evolution conflicts with current cultural environment Chapter 7: Biological Processes and Personality Extraversion - Hans Eysenck: level of extraversion/introversion reflects differences in cerebral cortex activation - Introverts o Higher basal cortical activation o More alert when nothing happening o Withdraw to avoid overstimulation o Fewer mistakes on tasks requiring vigilance o Require more depressant drugs to reach given index of alertness - Extroverts o Lower basal cortical activation o Less alert when nothing happening o Seek Stimulation to elevate arousal o More bored by repetitive tasks o Require more stimulants to reach given level of arousal Neuroticism - High neuroticism reflects someone who is easily aroused from emotion centers in the brain o Emotional arousal exaggerates behavioral responses of introverts and extroverts Behavioral Approach System (BAS) - Regulates movement toward desired states or objects (incentive) - Responsible for positive emotions (left prefrontal cortex) - Relates to conditioning involving positive outcomes, but not negative outcomes - People with different levels of BAS sensitivity demonstrate differences in behavioral and emotional responses to incentives - Maybe related to dopamine activity Behavioral Inhibition System (BIS) - Regulates movement away from undesired states or objects - Associated with anxiety (right prefrontal cortex) - Relates to conditioning involving negative outcomes, but not positive outcomes - People with different levels of BIS sensitivity demonstrate differences in behavioral and emotional responses to punishment - May be related to serotonin and/or GABA activity Approach and Inhibition and Traits - BIS related neuroticism/emotionality o Anxiety at core of emotionality o High BIS sensitive people respond to anxiety manipulations - BAS related to extraversion o High BAS sensitive people respond to positive manipulations Areas of Disagreement - Social qualities of extraversion? o Useful to think of social incentives as an important class of rewards to which extraverts are drawn are drawn in order to experience positive affect § Role of impulsivity • Is it linked to extraversion? • Is it a separate trait? • Impulsivity with positive affect belongs with extraversion • Impulsivity items do not load with BAS or extraversion items in a factor analysis Sensation Seeking - Marvin Zuckerman - High sensation seekers are in search of new, varied, and exciting experiences o Drive faster o More likely to use drugs and increase alcohol use over time o More high risk sports o Riskier antisocial behavior o More sexually experienced and responsive o More dissatisfied with relationships (get bored) Monoamine Oxidase (MAO) - Related to levels of sensation seeking - Associated with social dominance, aggression and gene linked to impulsivity Function of Sensation Seeking - Regulates exposure to stimulus intensity o High intention seekers (HSS) open themselves up to stimulation o HSS do well in over stimulating conditions o Low sensation seekers (LSS) adapt better to most ordinary circumstances, but may shut down under intense conditions o Impulsive un-socialized sensation seeking (IUSS) à inability to inhibit behavior appropriate to social constraints Impulsiveness - Issue: How best to account for impulsiveness - Approach and inhibition systems o High BAS o Low BIS o Combination (high BAS and low BIS) - Serotonin o Most studies relate serotonin to negative emotion o Low serotonin function associated with anger, impulsive aggression o Serotonin levels positively related to conscientiousness o Suggestive that impulsiveness derives from a separate biological system Hormones and Personality - Testosterone: o Higher prenatal levels weeks 8-24, months 1-5 after birth and after puberty for normal males § Developmental default is female § Exposure to androgens results in male physical and neurological development § Exposure to higher levels of prenatal androgens: • Associated with higher self reported physical aggression scores in response to hypothetical situation (boys and girls) • Associated with cross-gender toy selection along girls Testosterone and Adult Personality - Focus on associations with dominance and antisocial behavior o Positive associations with: § Violation of prison rules among inmates and likelihood of having committed violent crimes § Trouble with parents, teachers, classmates when growing up (increased effects among low SES) § More dominant and confident social interactions § Not being married, getting divorced, having an affair and domestic abuse among men testosterone data loaded with impulsiveness, sensation seeking and dominance Chapter 8: The Psychoanalytic Perspective Basic Themes - Conflict between aspects of personality - Defense mechanisms to manage threat - Human experience suffused with lust, aggression, sexuality, and death - Perspective is highly metaphorical Topographical Model of the Mind - The mind is organized into levels of functioning o Common characterization: § Conscious level § Preconscious level o Freud’s contribution § Unconscious level The Conscious Level - Contains elements about which a person is currently aware - Contents can be articulated verbally - Contents can be thought about in a rational/logical manner The Preconscious Level - Represents elements in ordinary memory o Those outside current attention - Contents are easily brought to current awareness - Examples: o What you had last night o Grandmother’s first name The Unconscious Level - Elements of the mind that are actively kept from consciousness - Generally, a repository for images, feelings and ideas associated with anxiety, fear and pain - Contents cannot be brought to consciousness directly, but can only enter awareness in distorted form - Even though they are outside of awareness, the contents of the unconscious can have a dynamic influence on personality The Structural Model - Complements to Topographical Model - Describes the three components of personality functioning o ID o Ego o Superego The ID - Original part of personality; present at birth - Embodies inherited, instinctive and primitive aspects of personality - Tied to biological functions - Operates entirely in the unconscious - Functions as the engine of personality, through which all psychic energy comes - Conforms to the “pleasure principle” o Wants what it wants, no matter the place/time o Wants to be pleased Pleasure Principle - Asserts that the true purpose of life is the immediate satisfaction of all needs - Gives no consideration to risk, environment, social constraints or problems in satisfying needs - Unmet needs result in a state of aversive tension - Mechanism for discharge of tension à Primary Process Primary Process - Primary way for ID to satisfy needs - Formation of mental image of desired object, activity that would meet need - Act of forming such an image à Wish fulfillment o Examples: § Hunger à Cheeseburger/pizza § Thirst à Lemonade, cool stream - Problems: o Can’t distinguish between objective and subjective states o Doesn’t care how needs are met o Can be irrational, reckless, immoral The Ego - Evolves out of the ID because ID functions cannot deal effectively with objective reality - Operates primarily at the conscious and preconscious, but also at the unconscious - Operates according to the “Reality Principle” - No moral sense, simply wants to fulfill needs given the constraints of reality The Superego - Embodiment of parental and societal values - Arises from complex feeling resulting from relationship with parents o Love and affection à obtained by doing what parents think is right o Punishment and disapproval à obtained by avoiding what parents think is wrong - Introjection: the process of incorporating values from an external source o Mostly parents, sometimes society - Operates at all levels of consciousness o Interesting implication à feelings of guilt for no apparent reason Components of the Superego - Ego ideal o Consists of rules about good behavior and standards of excellence o Conforming behavior results in feeling of pride and worthiness - Conscience o Consists of rules about bad and prohibited behavior o Non-conforming behavior results in feelings of guilt and change Goals of Superego - Inhibit any ID impulse that would cause disapproval from parents - Force ego to act morally, rather than rationally - Guide person toward perfection in thought, word and behavior - Problem: While it exerts a civilizing effect, its perfectionism is not realistic Balancing the Forces - Must find a way to release tension (id demand) immediately, in a way that is socially acceptable (superego demand) and realistic (external environment) - Ability to function effectively, despite these conflicting forcesà ego strength o Little ego strength à torn among conflicting pressure o Too much ego strength à Very rational and efficient but boring/ distance ****Balance is key**** Two Classes of Drives - Life or sexual instincts (Eros) o Deal with: § Survival § Reproduction § Pleasure - Death instincts (Thanatos) o “Goal of all life is death” o Today’s biology assumes a death instinct in human physiology o Active gene- directed suicide process (apoptosis) Catharsis - Release of tension in such an experience o Engaging in aggression should reduce tension because the aggressive urge in no loner bottled up Anxiety - Aversive inner motivation state - Freud saw it as a warning signal to the ego - Types of Anxiety o Reality anxiety: fear of something real in the world o Neurotic anxiety: fear of punishment resulting from ID impulses getting out of control o Moral anxiety: fear of violating moral/ethical codes arising from the superego Responses to Anxiety - Increase rational problem-oriented coping o Conscious activity to deal with threat o Works best with reality anxiety - Activate defense mechanisms o Tactics developed by ego to deal with anxiety o Can operate unconsciously o All distort, transform or falsify reality in some way Repression - Act of forcing something out of consciousness - Important in restraining ID impulses - Applies to painful or upsetting info, memories, and behavior - Can have partial repression o Some info is “leaked out” Denial - Refusal to believe an event took place or condition exists - Generally, deal with threats that originate outside the dynamics of the mind - Effective at keeping anxiety at bay, but requires constant psychic energy - Because of the energy cost of repression and denial, other strategies have developed to free up energy Projection - Ascription of unacceptable impulses, desires, or qualities to someone else - Serves to express the IDs desire, thus releasing energy required to suppress it - Makes the expression of an impulse in such a way that is not recognized by the ego or superego Rationalization - Making excuses for unacceptable behavior - After a failure, rationalization maintains self-esteem - Common response to success and failure experiences (Fundamental attribution error) Intellectualization - Thinking in a cold analytical or detached way about things that normally evoke distress - Allows disassociation of thought from feelings - Suggest that the intellect part of an idea can exist in the conscious mind, while the emotional quality remains the same Displacement (most adaptive/less neurotic) - Shifting an impulse from one target to another - New target is less threatening, thus anxiety is reduced Sublimation (most adaptive/less neurotic) - Transforms the impulse into a more socially acceptable form - The expressed impulse is more acceptable, anxiety is reduced - Considered the most mature defense mechanism Psychosexual Development - Oral, anal, phallic latency, genital - Adult personality is influenced by how crises are resolved at each age Oral Stage (birth-18months) - Crisis à Being weaned from mother - Mouth is source of tension reduction - Two phases: o Oral incorporative à dependency, gullibility, jealousy o Oral sadistic à verbal aggressiveness - Oral personalities o Preoccupied with food and drink o When stressed, reduced tension through oral activities (smoking, nail biting) o When angry, engage in verbal aggression Anal Stage (18 months-3years) - Anus is the source of pleasure from stimulation that results from defecation - Crisis à toilet training - Two orientation of toilet training: o Praise for successful elimination at desired time and place § Basis for adult productivity/creativity o Punishment for failure § Anal expulsiveà child acts with rebellion (messy, cruel, destructive, hostility) § Anal retentiveà child reacts by withholding (rigid, obsessive, stingy, orderliness) Phallic Stage (3-5 years) - Genitals become source of pleasure - Crisis à attraction toward opposite sex parent o Boys § Attracted to mother, wants to replace father (Oedipus complex) § Fears retaliation on part of father (castration anxiety) § Repress feelings toward mother, begins to identify with father § Identification with father gives rise to superego o Girls § Attracted to father abandons love for mother (Electra complex) § Wants father because he possesses a penis (penis envy) § Repress feelings towards father, begins to identify with mother § Identification with mother gives rise to superego Latency Period (6 years-teens) - Period of relative calm, no new developmental conflicts - Attention is focused on other pursuits (intellectual or social) Genital Stage - Late adolescence and adulthood - Libidinal energy still organized around the genitals - Focus on mutual sexual gratification - Develop the ability to share in warm and caring relationships and have concern for other’s welfare - Demonstrate greater control over impulses - Represents an ideal, rather than an absolute endpoint of development Psychopathology of Everyday - Not random, but arises from impulses/urges in the unconscious - Error of memory, word mix ups and accidents (parapaxes à faulty achievement) o “Forgetting” = repression o Slips of tongue or pen = unsuccessful repression Dreams - “Royal road to the unconscious” –Freud - Two aspects o Manifest content à actual sensory images o Latent content à the source of the manifest content; meaning underlying the dream § Sources • Concurrent sensory stimulation (barking dog, ringing phone) à guardians of sleep • Current concerns (thoughts, feelings, concerns in life) • Unconscious ID impulses à present in all dreams Projective Assessment Techniques - Represent formal approaches to assessing unconscious processes - Projective hypothesis: provide people with ambiguous, unstructured stimuli and they will apply projection in their interpretations of what they see o Low validity, low reliability o Provide more qualitative data Rorschach Inkblot Test - Chosen for ability to evoke different responses from different psychiatric patients - 10 bilaterally symmetrical blots o 5 all black, 2 red and black, 3 pastels - Administration in predetermined order - Administration in two stages o Free response formatà indicates what is seen o Systematic questioning à reminded of previous responses and request to indicate what about the blur made that person say what they did Rorschach Scoring - Based on three factors o Location of response à part vs. whole, commonly noted detail vs rarely noted detail § Blot vs. space surrounding § Response based on whole blot indicative of conceptual thinking o Determinants of response à form, shading, color, texture or perceived movement in location of response § Response based on color indicative of emotionality § Response based on human movement indicative of imagination o Content of response à subject matter § Conveys overt meaning and symbolic meaning Problems and Behavior Change - Problems arise from overuse of defenses o Unresolved conflict resulting in fixation o Broad libidinal repression of basic needs o Repressed trauma - Goal of therapy is to free up energy by releasing need to repress through awareness and in sight o Consequences of therapy § Resistance àactively fighting against awareness of represented conflicts and impulses § Transference à Displacements onto therapists Problems and Prospects - Controversial o Prominent sexual themes o Many determinants of behavior that are outside of awareness - Difficult to test empirically o Ambiguous terms or ill defined concepts - Heavy reliance on a small number of potentially biased studies - Confusion of fact with inferences - Even so, Freud offers a significant and important contribution to the discussion of personality and human behavior Chapter 9: Psychosocial Theories Object Relation Theories - Focusing on relation with others - Primary tasks in life focus on relations with others - Many theories with some overlap: o Patterns of relating to others established in early childhood o Patterns recur throughout life Mahler’s Theory - Initial state of infant à fusion of symbiosis with mother o Differentiation between self and mother does not exist - Development represents a process of separation0individuation o This need is in conflict with the need to be taken care of o If process goes too fast à separation anxiety o At age 3, stable representation of mother develops, which is derived from experiences o Uses image as lens to view mother in future o Uses image to generalize to other people - These patterns from the core of adult patterns of relationships Self Psychology (Kohut) - Relationships create the structure for the self - Initial needs involving others (self object) are narcissistic - Responding to a child’s narcissistic needs in an empathetic accepting way establishes a sense of self - Initial sense of self is grandiose - Grandiosity eventually evolves into ambition and self-esteem - Love illustrates an adult form of mirroring- people represent self objects for each other and demonstrate mutual mirroring Attachment Theory - Attachment: basic human element of human nature involving an emotional connection to others - Infant attachment o Carries survival benefits (proximity maintenance) o Develops as mother (caretaker) responds to infants needs and provides a dependence base from which the infant can explore the world and retreat from threat o Patterns of infant attachmentà Strange situation § Secure attachment à distress at mother’s departure and happy enthusiasm at return § Insecure attachments: • Ambivalent: anger at return, upset at departure • Avoidant: Calm at departure; avoidance and rejection at return Adult Attachment Patters - Relationships of Secure People o Happier, friendly, trusting o Mental model of loveà it’s real and it stays - Relationships of Avoidant People o Less accepting of lover’s imperfections o Mental model of love à cynical, romantic love doesn’t last - Relationships of Ambivalent People o Obsessive; preoccupied, extremes of emotions, sexual attraction and jealousy, love at first sight o Mental model of loveà Falling in love is easy, but doesn’t last Alternative Conceptualization of Adult Attachment - Two dimensional Approach o Self (positive vs. negative)/others (trustworthy vs. not trustworthy) Stability and Specificity - Stability o Mixed findings that suggest overall a moderate level of stability across time o Review of literature suggests a prototype for close relationships arise in infancy and persists in the face of new experiences o Those who show patterns of change overtime may be those who are insecure, but have periods of security - Specificity o People demonstrate different patterns for relationships in different contexts (close friends, groups) Other Implications of Adult Attachment - Avoidant: o Socialize less at work; greater desire to keep busy o Seek less support to stress partners o Less responsive caregiving o Greater use of distancing coping - Ambivalent: o Unhappiness with job recognition and security o Higher levels of compulsive caregiving o Higher levels of self criticism and wishful thinking, coping - Pairing o Stable à secure-secure; avoidant men-ambivalent women o Unstable à Ambivalent-ambivalent; avoidant-avoidant (women)-ambivalent (men) Psychosocial Development (Erik Erikson) - Stages from birth to old age (lifespan development) o Each stage characterized by a central conflict around which growth potential and vulnerability are high - No single stage is more important than another - Central themes o Ego identity and its development is critically important § Develops from transactions with social reality § Changes in response to events in social environment o Competency and personal adequacy § Key motivator of behavior § Results from mastery of a stage Early Psychosocial Stages - Infancy (Trust vs. Mistrust) o Developing the ego strength of hope - Early childhood (Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt) o Feelings of control and developing the ego strength of will o Toilet training - Preschool (Initiative vs. Guilt) o Basis for a sense of power in the world and developing the ego strength purpose - School Age (Industry vs. Inferiority) o Basis for sense of value, citizenship and developing the ego strength of competence o Social roles o Gender roles - Adolescence (Identity vs. Role Confusion) o Basis for an integrated sense of private and social self and developing the ego strength of fidelity o Role


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