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Anthropology Final Study Guide

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Anthropology Final Study Guide ANTH 3853 001

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Final Study Guide
Music, Language, and Culture
Dr. SeanO'Neill
Study Guide
50 ?




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This 55 page Study Guide was uploaded by Lauran Notetaker on Saturday May 14, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to ANTH 3853 001 at University of Oklahoma taught by Dr. SeanO'Neill in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see Music, Language, and Culture in anthropology, evolution, sphr at University of Oklahoma.

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Date Created: 05/14/16
1st Midterm February 22, 2016 Short Answer There will be five concepts. First, define each term then give an example or two illustrating the general significance for both language and music. One Essay (Two to choose from Evolution or Social Foundations) Be sure to start with a brief statement of your central thesis, before going on to develop this argument in the body of your paper. Toward the end of your essay, you might also comment on evolution or the possible biological basis for language and music. What light does your evidence shed on this emerging area of research? Music, Language, and Culture January 20, 2016 The course focuses on the whole world, not just non-western bard - write story to music
 “touch the sound”
 language - left side of brain music - both sides of brain Common Ground: The Spectrum      Pure Language: (No rhythm, melody)   Pure Music: (No words)            Poetry: (Melodic cadence, Rhythmic meter)  Pure Language: 
 Ordinary (No rhythm, Song Language melody) Griot   Pure Music: (No words)      January 25, 2016 Library password for readings: ONeill3853 Universalism vs. Relativism Is language innate? Ex. Egypt poor kid experiment - took a child and kept it away from any spoken language to see if it would come up with its inherited language or a new language Or is it a product of the social environment? The same goes for music and culture Ex. 2 year olds picking up on a new language more quickly than that of older people Social Foundations Generating meaning Socialization Dialogic exchange Cultural traditions Ex. Nicaraguan Sign Language - placed deaf children in a room without any communication and they came up with a whole new language on their own coming from just interaction, has no roots. From genetic code? Universalism and realism go hand and hand About 6,000 languages on the planet UG - Universal Grammar George Herzog - When it comes to music, we only have dialects, not language; mutually intelligible music might be more dialect than language Bird Song Allegory
 cuckoo - all sign same song, even without exposure Ex. of pure rationalism
 bull finch - sings any song it hears, even those of other species Ex. of pure empiricism
 empiricism - mind is a blank slate birds communicating territory chaffinch - no song without exposure, sings basic song shortly after birth; eventually learns local “dialect” critical age: 10 months
 about 15,000 languages before living in big cities about 150,000 years ago critical age about 16 years old (when you probably cant play music anymore) The Culture Concept
 Social construction of reality Language
 Etc. (Humor, Food) Alterity - opposite of identity Culture Ontologies Ways of being Web of relationships
 Ex. Repatriating Hopi songs Ex. How close you stand to someone, interrupting while talking to friends February 1, 2016 Structuralism
 behavior patterns in language and music for exam: prepare your own responses takes about 10,000 hours to learn a new language UG - Universal Grammar
 holy grail of Linguistics How could language survive without sound? - gestures
 - facial expressions
 - writing - rhythm
 - visual imagery theory of mind - getting into someones head Sound units: signaling devices
 functional elements of sound in language or music create shifts in meaning or structure hold no necessary meaning in isolation Phonotactics - how we put sound together tsunami psychology but can end stops Silence can even communicate something Phonemes
 - minimal units of sound in language Distinct - sounds lumped together Ex. The “L” in light, Lean, Clean, Glean Asperation for “Pot”
 Unexploited for “stoP” There is about 180 symbols that make about 40 sounds in English about 2,000 languages in Africa Signaling Devices
 “Talking Drum” of West Africa “Tonemes” (Levi-Strauss)
 - Minimal units of sound in music?
 - Distinctive Scales (interrelated pitches that form melodies) - Timbres - Tonal qualities of Instruments
 - B.B. King “Blue Notes” and Jazz notes - Microtone
 - sliding or bending strings, guitar sings goes between major and minor chords Meter: Measured flow of sound
 - Presence of “beats”
 - Regular or offset (syncopated)
 - Stress patterns (“accent”)
 - Syllables (language)
 Ex. Tabla Rhythms of India - speech copying sound Phrase Structure
 - Heirarchial organization - Phrases
 - Groups of Words - Melodies
 - Groups of Notes 
 Ex. From Patel (2007) Music, Language, and the Brain 
 February 3, 2016 
 Languages Lost and Found: Speaking and Whistling - Video the mamma tongue 
 90% of languages are not on the internet Canary Islands - La Gomera 
 70 Whistling Languages around the world
  Subo Gomero - more than 22,000 inhabitants and speak language 
 If your language is lost, what would you say? 
 Asiklar: Those who are in love - Video microtones 
 saz - ashnik played alvi from ashnik 
 philosophy - people, tolerance
 benefit to people, never asks for money 
 cultures transformed into something entirely new February 8, 2016 Semantics
 - Creating meaning, based or regular code - Ferdinand de Saussure, Swiss Linguist Semiotic - the study of meaning
 how it is we generate meaning
 how we pair meaning with musical sound A minor - sadness Ex. Shaw Tyler plays Jimi Hendrix ways to convey myth through performance Ex. Whales have some songs that are semiotic; Dolphins possibly Musical Semantics
 Leonard Bernstein - composer/songwriter was very convinced that music narrates a story trying to be told by composer Ex. Narration of Beethoven Metaphor
 Structured Comparison Language (Source = Target) Badger = (furious) person Ex. Honey badger think metaphorically musical comedy Music (A = B)
 two measured units in flow of sound (paired phrases in melody) Ex. Beethoven’s fifth
 suggestive rapping on door Lyrical Metaphor
 Ex. John Lee Hooker “Car” for Body
 from Robert Johnson
 trying to make guitar like a piano; talking about a woman jealousy, betrayal Metonymy
 “Part for Whole” (language) the pen is stronger than a sword sword for military force pen for written word, statement “Taps” as reference to military and funerals musical allusion
 parts of melody
 as reference to whole composition Amazing Grace
 National Anthem
 Any Theme Song Synecdoche: Reciprocal Substitutions Part Whole Whole “Hand” for work
 passage for whole work (music) Part “law” for officer
 “Genre” that is synonymous with specific artist “Classical violin” - Paganini (greatest virtuoso)     fractal - every little bit represents the whole
 Ex. Universe from the atom and how both look similar Puns
 Same sound triggers different meanings Removal from ordinary context
 Marx’s tomb is a communist plot Cell phone melodies? Ex. Mary had a little lamb” as Blues - Buddy Guy Anagrams
 Rearranging the same structural elements... Either “letters”... Or musical notes
 To create new words, melodies, harmonics, etc Ex. Stipend = spend it Archeologist = Goal is to search Virtually all melodies using one “scale” February 10, 2016 Structuralism
 Behavioral patterns in language and music Antithesis
 Pairing of opposites Love-Hate Secular-Sacred ... in council you descant on bravery, and in battle you tremble... (oxymoron) dark and light - two colors if only two in a language
 red - danger, patriotic color (crimson)
 duets - pairing opposites; major and minor chords strong heros and villains
 Akin to counterpoint in melody (moving in opposite directions) Ex. Counterpoint guitar vs voice 2 distinct voices Chiasmus
 Reversal of formula Ex. “All for one, and one for all”
 A kind of symmetrical parallelism Ex. Mozart “Eine Kleine Nachtmusik” Humor
 Message sent in jest Parody
 Off-record commentary Ex. Pirates of Penzance Alliteration
 Structures that start with the same “sound” Phonemes of language
 “Notes” of music Ex. “Always avoid alliteration” - form of alliteration
 Harry Potter, Beethoven Words, Melodies, rhythms, etc.
 Ex. Beethoven’s 5th Symphony (Rhythm)
 Synethesia - scents that bring back memories “Mixing” the senses “Loud” tie
 “Stinky” composition
     “Sour” note
 Any image usually linked to sound Irony
 Opposition in intended meaning Sarcastic
 Dramatic Ex. “Model Biblical Philologist” Parody Palindrome
 Complete reversal of sound sequence Identical meaning and structure hannah (spelled backwards) hannah racecar (spelled backwards) racecar kayak (spelled backwards) kayak Ex. “Le Palindome” - Mozart Anaphora
 References to established figures in flow of sound “She”/“That” in language
 Otherwise meaningless in themselves Ex. St. Joseph
 When Mary walked into the room, She (?) saw her (?) husband Musical perception Reoccurring figures in music: melodies, rhythm, harmony Lost in slow motion Each element understood in terms of what came before Negation
 Oppositions in language “No”/“Not” ____
 Silence in music?
 (Not = Sound)
 Defying expectation (not what you expect) Ex. John Cage “4’33” (New Topic) Evolution
 The biological basis of language and music Music can draw people together (churches) February 15, 2016 Dr. O’Neill was sick. Class was cancelled. February 17, 2017 Evolution Genetic underpinnings for language and music
 “How could we have language if no other species has some?” Dogs know about 200 human words
 Parrots know songs, words, phrases and can repeat humans Steve Pinker
 Language is functional and biological Language is “instinct”
 Music as aesthetic pleasing without a biological role
 Music is like cheesecake, it tastes good, but is not very good for you Noah Chomsky
 Product of Natural Selection? Complexity of: Language Grammar Brain Structure Possible relation to music? Recently revised his position to consider evolution of language and music Aniruddh Patel
 Bootstrap Concept Human music benefits from language evolution Language to Music Fire Metaphor
 Cultural, rather than biological basis? Daniel Levitin
 Biological roots of Music Dance Language
 “Without Music we would not be human” Social functions:
 Friendship Knowledge Joy Religion Comfort Love Parallel Traits Melody/ Phrases Yes!
 Birds and Whales Beat/Rhythm (Maybe!)
 Monkeys, Birds, [Dogs]
 Ex. Elephants and beat perception Absolute Pitch
 (1:2:3 does not equal 4:5:6) Birds, Primates
 Key Changes are not understood Relative Pitch
 (1:2:3 is about 4:5:6) Among humans
 Song is understood in any pitch/key Ex. “Summertime” Key of B-flat - Ella Fitzgerald Modulation: Key Changes
 Difficult for non-human primates Perceived as different song (1:2:3 does not equal 4:5:6) Ex. “Summertime” Key og G - Janice Joplin
 Harmony Consonance
 Sense of pleasing combinations
 “Le Palindrome” Mozart Greater Tolerance for Dissonance among primates, birds Ex. Symphony out of tune Tonality
 “Octave equivalence” among primates
 Ex. Octave Unison, “Lonesome Moonlight Waltz” A = 440 880 220
 Preference for roots plus fifth = power chords of rock = Parallel fifths of classical
 Ex. Power Chords, “Wild Thing” Product of Natural Selection” What evolutionary forces drove development? Language Music Bird Allegory Genetic Basis
 Fox p2 gene Language Music Rhythm
 Similar mutation among song birds
 “Babbling Phase” with babies Playing with sounds Language
 spontaneous use of “exotic” sounds Music
 Melody (humming) Beats (tapping) Critical Age
 Puberty for language Ex. “Genie”
 Especially for grammar Cut off less strict for music Sexual Selection? Advantages for proficiency?
 home life (raising children)? Ex. McJagger Effect? Williams Syndrome
 Change in Chromosome Really good at music and language Highly fluent 
 Study Guide Midterm II February 22, 2016 First Midterm February 24, 2016 Theoretical Foundations Music as discourse
 Ex. Peter and the Wolf, Prokofiev representational music playing instruments and same notes and being able to tell them apart timbre (tombre) or tome
 Choral sound to church and organ
 slides Hawaiian tried to make different sound, now used around the world Discourse
 Interpretation of Symbolic action dialogue
 gesture/facial expression narrative
 visual symbols contextual cues ideological background Gestures with different meanings overseas - Left hand (dirty!) 
 - Two fingers (“the bird”) 
 - Sole of Shoe (unclean) 
 - finger crossing over (vulgar) 
 Background system of ideas 
 Template for interpretation (often unstated) 
 Ex. War of Worlds
 Orson Welles Hearing, 1938 
 Types of Composition 
 Staging of Roles (Duet...Dual...Poetry reading) 
 jokes, novel, poem conversation sermon shopping list text message Ex. Lord of the Rings meets Metal Guitar prose/poetry
 song Music ballad instrumental jam session opera
 blues Cultural Ontologies ways of being Web of relationships
 Ex. Repatriating Hopi Songs - Trevor Reed Songs come from sky, corn Ex. “Eat it” - Weird Al parody of 1980s Rock Video “Footing” and “Uptake” Sender’s stance (Joke???)
 Receiver’s Interpretation (Sarcasm!) stance changing routine in English Sender’s stance (Serious music!) Receiver’s Interpretation (Terrible Parody!) (Full of cliches)
 Ex. “Friday” Rebecca Black Pretextual gap
 (difference in understanding) The “Chronotope” (Bakhtin)
 Construction of (imagery) space and time in the flow of narrative The Road Novel (Space is Time) Ex. “Road Trip” Genre
 Founding Fathers (Cars? Modern guns?) Elvis as an Icon of 1950’s America Jailhouse Rock as Iconic 50s Musical Genre suggests an Era Youth Rebellion
 Greaser Look Early Rock
 The ability to be heard Function of power and persona February 29, 2016 Watched video “The language you cry in” about slavery stripped of identity, culture, and memory “memory is power” Amelia Dawley
 Africanisms in the Gullah Dialect 1750 - 1800 Bendu “Tenjami”
 white - symbolizes death March 2, 2016 The Language of Music
 how musical experience is shaped by verbal discourse Ex. Dick Dale, Surf Rock Lebanese background Angel Gabriel to Mohammed
 BB King - Gospel was where he wanted to be The Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis (AKA Principle of Linguistic Activity)
 Influence of Language on thought and perception
 “Political language is designed to make lies sound truthful and murder respectable” - George Orwell
 Argot: Specialized Vocabulary The language of Jazz Jazz Lingo
 bird-brain - Charlie Parker heat - solo spot clam - mistake
 Charlie Parker - “Anthropology” hip - acceptable cat - person (male) drag - depressing
 bad - good
 beat - exhausted
 cool - acceptable
 funky - sexual and good gone - very good scat singing - vocables burnin - solo
 hipster - follower of bebop schmaltz - yiddish glossolalia - of divine origin, speaking in tongues Lifestyle
 Jam session Bread - money
 Roofer - pot
 horn - any instrument axe - any instrument junk - heroine
 take five - break
 licorice stick - clarinet popsickle stick - sax reed blues harp - harmonica Benny Goodman, Sonny Boy Williams
 slide guitar - bottleneck, “steel guitar” in country Son House, “Death Letter” baby - partner
 house: crib or pad
 blind - railroad car
 crossroads - between heaven and hell Rock slang (derived from jazz)
 chill hip mellow cool “on fire” Ex. “Rock me” Mance Liscomb
 A guitar can “sing or sweep” (personification) George Harrison
 Notes are bent, pushed into position with the finger or tongue Rock Parody: Spinal Tap (“Mockumentary”) Heavy Metal: Figures of Speech “Metal” - Iconic for toughness, not easily broken or changed Iron Maiden Led Zeppelin
 Country Slang
 Twangy (Dobro/Fiddle) Down - Home Double stop March 7, 2016 Papers - look up books
 based on music first hand experience sounds, what is behind it Notes on syllabus The language of music -lect
 accrolect - high language staccato - from italian, renaissance Country Slang Descriptors
 “y’all” “you guys” “dipthong” in linguistics “twang” “fixin to” Twangy
 Down - Home
 Double-Stop - 2 notes at the same time Instruments
 Fiddle (NOT violin) Steel Guitar or Dobro(not slide or bottleneck) Ex. Jerry Douglass - Dobro (“Twangy”) slides into chords
 Ex. Byron Berline: Fiddler Extraordinaire (and master of the “double stop”)
 Down-Home “Country”
 “My girl” (not baby) Mountain Dew: “moonshine” Life-Style Shindig
 Honky-tonk - dance joint, bar Western Classical Terminology Scales Lettering System (a-g)
 Intervals: First, Second, Third, etc. Terms and Semitones (Microtones) Octave: “Eighth Note” “Quality of Note” Tremolo (volume) Vibrato (pitch) Volume
 Crescendo (rising) Descrescendo (falling)
 Ex. Bo diddley, Tremolo (and Polyrhythm) Quality of Note - Tremolo (volume) Ex. Buddy Guy “First Time I Met the Blues”
 Blending of Notes (Staccato - detached), (Legato - blurred) Pace
 grave (20-40) adagio (55-65) moderato (86-97) allegro (110-130) presto (168-177) Change of pace ritardando accelerando Ex. “Fire on the Mountain,” Monroe and Tex Logan Pace presto (168-177) Ex. Manitas De Plata, Flamenco Guitar
 change of pace ritardando, accelerando Roma - Gypsy (Egypt) really India
 Synthesia: Mixing the Senses (Sound ~ Sight = “Loud Tie”) Taste (Gustatory)
 “Sour” Note (unpleasant taste) “Sweet” Composition
 “Bland” Music
 “Salty?” Attitude
 Touch (Tactile)
 Sharp sound (painful tactile sensation) Flat sound
 Soft Tone
 “Hard rock”
 Hot Solo
 Cool Music Visual Field
 “High” and “Low” Notes Flat Note - position
 the blues - color
 light solo - saturation dark tone - saturation smell (olfactory) that music stinks smoking solo (sight) March 9, 2016 Paper Topics
 Structural Parallels Cultural Foundations Evolution
 come by office with ideas
 Evolution of Music from Church to different types One Song or One Country Compare and Contrast Roots of Country Music?
 Discourse Analysis Ideology
 Technology Media Tourism Politics Globalization Syncretism Ex. Language Matters with Bob Holman
 “learning more than 1 language helps teach respect for others” March 14 - 18, 2016 Spring Break March 21, 2016 The Musical Pole of Speech
 Poetics, Ethno-poetics, and songwriting Figure out paper topic
 lyric - poem you put to music poems were epic while instruments were simple (12000 - 14000 lines) West African - Griots (turned into banjo) Celtic Bards - Ireland storytelling music King David, writer of psalms Lyrical Origins
 Lyre - like a harp melodic poems
 The psalms (“praises”) King David Ancient Israel C. 1000 B.C. writes 73 (Roughly 1/2) Hymns Laments The “Singer of Tales” as pan-human archetype - Celtic Bards - West African Griots
 - Tribal Leaders the world over - Contemporary Songwriter The “Unquiet Grave”:Love-Death in couplets couplet-pairing of two ideas Beowulf (old English) 8-11th Century
 “I might could do it”
 Scandish English
 The Griot tradition of West Africa Kora
 The Singer of Tales Lord 1960
 Bowed Instruments: Gusle
 Rebab - like a banjo Serbo - Croatian Bards The Nature of Poetic Language Parallelisms - R Jakobson (Linguist) Sounds and Images - juxtaposed Parallelism
 Psalm 27:1 A1) The LORD is my light and my salvation; B2) whom shall I fear? A2) The LORD is the stronghold of my life; B2) of whom shall I be afraid? Rhyme (Parallel Sound Sequences) Alliteration (Initial Sound) When I do count on the clock Ex. Mrs. Robinson, “Simon and Garfinkel” Assonance (Vowels Alone) Free as a breeze High as a kite Mad as a hatter Ex. “Light my Fire”
 End - Rhyme (Final Consonant) The curfew tolls the knell of parting day Verses (paired images delivered in meter) Couplets (A-B) - Precise pairing “American Verse” (A-A-B)
 Lyrical Analysis
 Ex. “Cold, Cold Heart” - Hank Williams (A-A-B): Blues, Gospel, Country, Rock call and response Rhythmic Structure
 Time Signatures in Music (4/4, 5/4, 3/4, 6/8, etc.) Meter in Verse (Rhyming Schemes) Ex. Take Five (Brubeck) 5/4 signature
 Boom, boom, boom - John Lee Hooker !! March 23, 2016 Moved Exam 1 to Monday  Crwth - welsh, sounds like a bagpipe
 Symphonium - one instrument pounds like whole symphony Mythic Ground Homeric Epic Gods and Goddesses of the Ancient Greeks Ex. California - Coyote O Brother Where Art Thou - Oddesey in Modern Terms Utopia in Music
 Nirvana Principle - to get away from suffering Ex. “True Love” in American Music;
 (Norah Jones “Cold, Cold Heart” Hank Williams) Liminality
 Norah Jones - World Music Nationalism throughout the World Stress Patterns
 Iamb - Unstressed Syllable and Stressed so long/ as men/
 can breath/ or eyes/ can see Trochee: Stressed syllable and Unstressed Tiger, Tiger, burning bright in the forests of the night
 Ex. Who Will Call You Sweetheart - The Stanley Brothers “I don’t believe you met my baby” - Alison Krauss 1. Sad and Lonely 2. Longing
 3. Meeting and Jealously 4. Intrigue
 5. Anxiety
 7. Resolution into Marriage Louvin Brothers before Alison Krauss
 The Wind That Shakes The Barley (Robert Dwyer Joyce 1836-1883) True Love
 I sat within a valley green
 I sat me with my true love
 My sad heart strove to choose between
 The old love and the new love
 That’s Alright Mama - Elvis Personification - “Mr. Blues” chases, walks, hunts,
 The old for her, the new that made
 Me think on Ireland dearly
 While soft the wind blew down the glade And shoo the golden barley
 murders, torments, listens to pleas !! March 28, 2016 Ideology: Guiding System of Ideas
 Hebrew or Navajo as Sacred Tongues
 Country Music as “White” - American ethnic music Acrolet - prestige language, (English) superior Iconization
 Associating Imagery with no sound.. Social groups with features of language or music Invoking a “Way of Life”
 Ex. Clicks become iconic in South Africa Kholsan people Ex. “Surfer Worldview”
 Surfer talk and inflections Ex. “Valley Girl” (Moonunit Zappa)
 noncool suburb; San Fernando Valley “False Consciousness” (Karl Marx) Ideology exists in contrast to reality...
 Distorting the perception of the true nature of things Dupe them will false conscious Carrot on a stick for horse or donkey pulling wool over your eyes
 Ex. Working Class Hero - John Lennon Power by Consent (=Hegemony) Gramsci Top-down spread of ideologies   Standard languages (media, schools)
 Corporate Music Acceptance of place in hierarchy False Consciousness (Masked Oppression)
 Ranking of languages musical genres
 Association with race, class, or gender hierarchies Claims of inferiority or superiority Ex. American English (Inferior?)
 Ex. acrolet
 Noodling: Stigmatized Accents hollywood actors bottom of things surfer 14 yo boys !!!!! Counter-Hegemonic Movements Confronting of false ideologies Challenging false hierarchy Ex. Sinéad O’Connor, ripping up Pope picture
 Heteroglossia: Clashing Ideologies Internal diversity within all...
 Speech communities and musical traditions Reflection in all “texts” Multiple voices Clashing Ideology
 Ex. “The Farmer and Cowman” (Oklahoma) erasure of indians and African Americans naturalized - seen as real, incontestable Language Ideologies Purism
 March 30, 2016 Language Ideologies
 Purism - boundary around language and nothing can come through it “Xenoglossophobia” Syncretism Spanglish “Navlish” Yiddish Sacred Languages
 God - the name that cannot be spoken, try to preserve the name    “Not to say the lords name in vain” Secular Languages Music Ideologies
 Nationalistic overtones Gender
 Apache rule among siblings, no profanities among brother and sister Prince
 Willie Nelson - Cherokee heritage
 Lady Gaga - You and I Exoticism
 Beetles with harkav, (Indian music) Nativism Ethnicity Identity
 1=1 algebra 2=2 algebra
 sense of same ness that can be socially constructed
 kind of imaginary, just cause you check male of female doesn’t mean you know a lot about the person Essential vs. Constructivism Inherited Differences Primordial past.
 Generic or racial difference Holocaust
 Jews Disabled Gay Uniform within community? versus Creative Differences
 Basis in culture, experience, choice
 Social difference Diversity within cultures
 “Here” “Now”
 Feeling to evoke - hey! sit
 - How are you?
 Einstein and Beethoven building on this Speaking was Creative Traditions what we’re all a part of Jakobson’s Functions of communication (during interaction) Context Environment - !!!! Sender !! Message Receiver ! down! Focus on relationship Talk about talk ! Message - Focus on form (parallelisms) The Identity Function
 A sense of sameness (even imaginary) = Identity Ex. “The Navajo” A sense of difference (also imaginary) =Alterity Indexicality
 Contextual ‘Pointing’ Rooted in social imagination
 Ex. Smoke to Fire Physical or Casual Relationship         Contact  Code  Ex. Footprints to Presence
 Ex. Dialect to Social Background Language
 Speaker’s accent references social past. Southern Accent Valley Girl Surfer Talk Homology? Music
 Style references performer’s identity. Gospel
 Griot/Bard (~Royal) April 4, 2016 Midterm II April 6, 2016 Globalization Oud - Wood in arabic
 Lute - usually has frets made out of strings (animal intestines) almost makes sound like whole instrument, very rich sound The “Modern” Era Rapid transit trains, cars, planes
 Ex. Columbus (travel) High-Speed Communications
 telegraphs, phonographs, radio, television, internet Ex. Edison (radio) Strictly a Modern Phenomenon?
 The Silk Road 114BCE - 1450s CE “100% American” (Linton)
 Indian - Cotton, clothing, how we dress Persian - bed
 Sumerian Priests - Shaving
 Central Asian Steppes - Business suit Egypt - Sandals
 Ethiopia - Coffee
 Aztecs - Chocolate
 Meso-America - maize The “Cowboy” Look
 Iberian Peninsula - Mexico, Texas, Global Spread of Hindu-Arabic Math Glocalization - make things local Algorithm (mathmetician) Global Spread of English
 “The sun never sets on the English language” - Joke Austronesian - languages of the Globalization: Impact on Music
 Fluid exchange across traditional boundaries International Pop music
 World Music Scene Cultural Copyrights? Turkish Popular Music
 Italian Violin, Dance Music, Love Themes, and Rock Influence Ex. Bendeníz, Kirmazí Biber V&G The story of “Slide Guitar”
 Roots in Hawaii (late 19th century)
 Migrant Cowboys from Mexico bring the Spanish guitar Paniolo < español Adapted to local music Weissenborn Guitar National Guitar Hawaiian Virtuoso - Bob Brozman Ukelele Global Spread Mississippi Blues (1920s) Country “Steel” (1930s) Sacred “Steel” (Gospel today) - Robert Randolph Indian - Classical Music “Diddley Bow” (Jack White) The Story of the Lute Imported to Europe April 11, 2016 Globalization
 The spread of culture throughout the world And the untold role of language and music Herzog - ethnomusicology
 when you have something like a language it has a barrier may pick up a dialect with ease
 Music has a pretty porous barrier
 Language and music have strong bonds, but are also very different Almost inherintantly create diversity - Bahktin The “Modern” Era Rapid Transit Trains, Cars, Planes High-Speed Communications Telegraphs, Phonographs A Pan-Human View Human Migrations Trace instruments background around the world for paper? The Elusive Roots of the Lute Chinese Pipa
 2nd Century  Persian Barbat c. 200 CE   Arabic Oud
 c. 600 CE “Guitar” European Lutes c.   Chinese Pipa - Triangle Frets Andalusian Moors (700 Ad) Baroque Guitar -
 Spanish Guitar - Flamenco Electric - 1930s forward First recorded by Oklahoman Resemblance to violin Adapting guitar to indigenous music Globalization + Local Realization
 Musical ideas flowing through communities Ocean Blues: “Sliding Through” the 20th Century Hawaiian origins
 (late 19th century) Mexican Cowboys US Mainland (Radio) Country Steel Guitar (1940s) Slide guitar in India Mississippi Blues (late 1920s) Rock Slide (1960s) Country Dobro (1930s)      Mexican Cowboys from Mexico bring the Spanish guitar Strings that Sing: “Fiddling Around” The Planet Mongolian Morin Khuur Persian Kemenche Chinese Erhu    Indian Sarangi April 13, 2016 Mongolian Morin Khuur Persian Kemenche Arabic Rebab Indian Sarangi Chinese Erhu Native Fiddle “Fiddle”         European Rebec Luthier - anyone who makes string instruments European Rebec - Medieval Fiddle (“Vielle”) World Music (Or Whirled Music?)
 Global Scene, Flung far from home Roots of World Music Mozart Paul Simon Roots Music
 Rediscovering Lost Traditions Cremona Violin  Bella Bartók George Bridgetower Beethoven
 George Harrison and Ravi Shankar
 (Fluid exchange across traditional boundaries) Often carried on in new lands, heavily modified. Cultural Copyrights Exoticism April 18, 2016 Value, Exchange, Availability The Marketplace The Market
 Physical Marketplace farmers market
 Ex. Joshua Bell (Virtuoso)
 “Oklahoma Accent”, “Authenticity” - Carrie Underwood, Reba Modes of Transmission
 Background Historical Legacy - Primacy of Aural/Oral The Language you cry in
 Scope of Memory - Written Traditions
 Recordings - Wide Circulation (even after death of artist); late 19th century Modes of Consumption
 Selling with Stories (Sex) And Songs Conspicuous Consumptions Resonance with Image, Gender, Class, Nation, Social Movement Elite Traditions Symbolic violence against “inferior,” “non-standard” Restricted Access Going “Underground”: Restricted Access Private languages and Argots “Indie” Movement
 Covert elitism
 Restricted circulation of bootlegs Esoteric knowledge Sub-cultures and their looks Creating a Market for Music April 20, 2016 Opre Roma: Gypsy in Canada (Video) April 25, 2016 Social and Political Action
 How to do things with words and other sounds Woody Guthrie “This machine kills fascists” on his guitar optimistic Joan Baez, Bob Dylan
 Injustices, Making differences Art as social critique
 Bob Dylan - Anti-war, Killing as Crime, Voice of Everyone Van Gogh pictures
 Percy’s Song: Crushing Power of Law Turning “Blind Eye” to the Wealthy Aesthetic Arrest, Emotional Depth
 Oratory: Martin Luther King, Jr. “We shall overcome” Inspiring Action
 Powerful message that changes the world Refrains Poetic Structure Musical, poetic quality Inspiring Action
 Civil Rights Movement 1960s Rhetoric: Persuasive Force Aristotle Conciliatory Message, emotional delivery
 Emotional Tone - Affect can overpower intellect (pathos) Poetic Speech Short, memorable statements not easily forgotten. Hyperbole, Personification. Modern-Day Camelot
 “The Land and The King are One” Image/Persona
 Character (ethos) easily overrides message Faulty Logic
 Enthymeme, incomplete argument
 “Political language is designed to make lies sound truthful and murder respectable.” - George Orwell Double-Speak (Negative = Positive) “Right to work state” (=no leave for mothers) Acquiescence of the Masses Burning villages = “Pacification” “Elimination of Unreliable Elements” People imprisoned w/o trial, sent to die. Public outcry suppressed. Redemptive Ritual
 “Fixing the Earth” In NW California: World Renewal Ceremonies - Hupa Reversing Moral Transgressions
 Swearing, stealing, adultery, speaking the names of the dead, killing in an improper state Restores the world through atonement April 27, 2016 Place of Music (From the spirit world)
 Songs strike audience emotionally, reach heavens Shamanistic Songs Formula for healing the sick, undoing wrongful action. Masking Meaning: Bypassing Censorship Covert Political Messages
 Nationalist Song masquerades as love ballads Ex. The Wind That Shakes The Barley Tourism and Performance studies
 Human diversity on display and its political overtones “Whirled Music”?
 Spun and “Flung” far from home “The Tourist” - Maccannell Response to “Alienation” Search for meaning in the “exotic,” deeper sense of alienation at home Anti-Modernist Voyeurism Humanity in it’s “pre-modern, authentic, original” state Superficial Understanding Tourist performance assumes little knowledge, builds little understanding Staged Authenticity Utopian Visions
 Countering “Alienation” Direct connection to “real” culture Ritual with “Imagined participation” Ex. Anadarko “Indian City” Ethnographic Allegory Antidote to modern problems Sexual liberation in Samoa? Contrast to sexually repressed world of Americans Intellectual Tourism? Detour to understanding modernist plight Exoticism
 Dehumanizing Romanticism = “Orientalism” (Edward said) alterity
 “Eroticized” Image of the “Gypsy” Common Targets (beyond “Orientalism”) Native Americans Roma
 Irish Indigenous People
 Ex. Serbian Band, with 19th century Irish look - Orthodox Celts Primitivism
 Conspicuous Consumption - buy from another culture “Re-Framing” As Roots Music Framing for Consumption Rediscovering Lost Traditions
 Often Carried on in new lands, heavily modified “Roots” Music: Appalachian
 The Song Catcher (2000) Iris DeMent
 The Celtic Roots of Appalachian Music, finding its way into Country and Bluegrass. African Origins Corey Harris Ali Farka Toure “Tourism” Among Descendants Resistance
 Cultural Copyrights Ex. Navaho rugs made in India and Mexico “Sampling”
 Royalties or credits for artists? Commercial Setting
 “Buddha Bar” (France) Welsh origins?
 Flute solo based on “Kookaburra” (1932) Copyright own by Sony, written by teacher “Down Under” - Men at work Repatriating Local Music
 Hopi Music - going in full circle Modern copyrights framed in terms of ownership and money Traditional sense was collective
 Relationships in community May 2, 2016 Nationalism and Transnationalism Imagined Communities Ex. Indians - transnational because they belong to tribe and then to the nation Nature of Interaction No longer face-to-face
 Language and music as key symbols Benedict Anderson “National Community”
 Imaginary kinship with multitudes
 Practical acceptance (accents, flags, “race”) Multiethnic Society
 Cuts across racial, cultural, and linguistic boundaries National Ideologies
 Identity within and beyond “the border” Ex. “Self-Determination” - July 8, 1970 Language as key symbol Printing press
 Prestige varieties Efforts to unify languages, origins of Diglossia written vs. vernacular Musicians as symbols of national heritage. Rise of American Folk Music
 Jazz, Rock-n-Roll, and Blues Anthems
 Socially constructed Star Spangled Banner (American) “To Anacreon In Heaven” (British) Gentlemen’s Club Song, Celebrating Drinking Transnationalism “Belonging” to multiple nations Modern-day examples Jewish and Roma Chinese and Japanese Irish and Italian
 East Indians and Africans Native Americans:
 USA and Tribal Nations The Vanished Homeland
 difficulty of return in modern times Diasporas
 Leaving Homeland, Dispersing Wanderings (forced)
 “Mythical homeland”
 Few can trace descent to place, since politics changed Roma Music
 Recreating Homeland Post-Colonialism “Longing” for a Homeland
 Jews throughout recent history Armenians, Africans, Roma, etc. Recreating the Homeland “Fervent Purism” Return to Indigenous languages around the world Print Media Newspaper/Internet Post Colonialism
 Ongoing Oppression (Legacy of Colony) Even with “sovereignty,” indigenous groups disenfranchised Second Class Treatment Healthcare, Land Rights, Military Service Counter-Hegemonic Movements Linguistic and cultural revitalization movements Return to Ancestral Traditions Final: 2 or 3 essays, very broadly think of music and language


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