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Chapter 1 and 2 Study Guide over Julia Wood Gendered Lives: Communication, Gender, and Culture 9th Ed.

by: Allie Wigginton

Chapter 1 and 2 Study Guide over Julia Wood Gendered Lives: Communication, Gender, and Culture 9th Ed. JOUR J475

Marketplace > Indiana University Purdue University - Indianapolis > Journalism and Mass Communications > JOUR J475 > Chapter 1 and 2 Study Guide over Julia Wood Gendered Lives Communication Gender and Culture 9th Ed
Allie Wigginton
GPA 3.62

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About this Document

This material covers definitions of sexual orientation, sex, gender, quantitative research, qualitative research, etc. Chapter 2 deals with theoretical approaches to gender development, including t...
Race, Gender and the Media
Kim Trager-Bohley
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Allie Wigginton on Saturday May 14, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to JOUR J475 at Indiana University Purdue University - Indianapolis taught by Kim Trager-Bohley in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 40 views. For similar materials see Race, Gender and the Media in Journalism and Mass Communications at Indiana University Purdue University - Indianapolis.

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Date Created: 05/14/16
Chapter One: The Study of Communication, gender and Culture What is the difference between sex, gender and sexual orientation? They are all interlinked but sex is a designation based on biology-based on hormones, chromosomes, genitalia, whereas gender is constructed or expressed- it is a social construction and attaching a social meaning to biological sex, lastly sexual orientation is a person’s preferences for romantic or sexual partners. Be able to describe the following methods: Quantitative research, qualitative research, critical research and mixed research. How do these methods differ from one another? Quantitative research gathers data that can be analyzed to draw conclusions. Qualitative research deals with interpreting things to understand the nature and meaning of things that cannot be quantified. Critical research identifies and challenges problems in social life, raise awareness and motivate change. Mixed research is a mixture of two or more methods listed above. Your instructor discussed ethnography. What is it? Why does this approach appeal to many feminists? It relies on extensive and sensitive observation of human activity and what things mean to humans. It helps show how men and women’s behaviors are interpreted. What are some factors that affect how masculinity and femininity are performed? (pp. 22-25) Gender is learned at a very young age. Boys learn not to cry and to be assertive, competitive, strong, independent, work, do dirty work or yard work, like sports, wear a baseball hat, etc. Girls learn to be pretty, polite, wear bows and dresses, soft spoken, helpful, do chores, cook, take care of children and the house, etc. Gender, masculinity, and femininity come from society, cultural ideas, and social meanings. The term patriarchy literally means “Rule by Fathers”. True or False Researchers have found that views of gender generally remain consistent over the average person’s life-span. (p. 23-27). True or False Hermaphrodite is the preferred word for people who have male and female organs. (p. 20) True or False There are only two distinct genders, male and female. (p. 20-26) What is essentializing? Why is it an important concept to discuss in a gender and communication class? When you contend that every member of a group share the same qualities without taking into account the individual. Essentializing should be avoided because it generalizes people. (Possible essay question) Discuss the difference between the content and relational levels of meaning. Provide a concrete example of each level of meaning. The content meaning involves the literal words of the conversation. Telling someone they can’t buy a car means they can’t buy a car. It also means that both parties probably know, they can’t buy the car. It implies a literal message and an appropriate response. The relational meaning is less obvious and it defines the relationship between the communicators. So, if one person tells the other they can’t buy a car, it isn’t about the car necessarily, it is that one person has the power or says over another. If the person then buys the car, they are fighting the balance of power and proving the other person doesn’t “run the relationship”. What is the difference between cisgendered and transgendered? Why do you think fewer people use the former term? Transgendered is the term used to describe individuals who feel they are biologically assigned a sex that is inconsistent with their true sexuality. Cisgendered is when a woman, who feels like a woman and is biologically a woman prefers males a sexual partners. Cisgendered is used to describe the norm, or actually not used. People don’t’ use this term because it is considered normal and isn’t labeled. (Possible essay question) Unlike sex, gender is a relational concept. Explain what this means and the implications of it, and give an example that illustrates your point. No one can acquire their sex they are born with it. They can, however, develop and acquire their gender. Gender is neither innate nor necessarily stable; it is defined by society and acted out by individuals based on expectations as they interact with others, and are influenced by the media- it evolves over time. What is the difference between being transgendered and transsexual? Transsexuals are attracted to the same sex before their transition; their sexual orientation doesn’t change. Transgendered is the term used for individuals who feel that their biologically assigned sex is inconsistent with their true sexual identity- they are women despite having male bodies, or men despite having female bodies. Woods asserts, “Gender, culture and communication are interlinked.” Explain what Wood means by this statement. How do these elements mutually influence one another? Gender norms are determined by culture and communication with others. The interlinking means they cause or affect one another. Chapter Two: Theoretical Approaches to Gender Development 3/7/16 Answers in red text for multiple choice and true/false Research into male hormones indicates…., “Males who use drugs, engage in violent and abusive behavior, and have behavior problems tend to be at their cycle’s peak level of testosterone. Additional research shows testosterone is also linked to jockeying for power, attempts to influence or dominate others, and physical expressions of anger. It also indicates that hormones influence cognitive abilities including decoding nonverbal communication and judging moving objects”. True or False Queer theory applies to only gay people, not heterosexual people. When parents who seem to promote traditional gendered behaviors in their children punish their boys for playing with Barbies, they are assuming which theory of gender? A. Biological Theory B. Psychodynamic Theory C. Social Learning Theory D. Symbolic Interaction Theory E. Standpoint Theory *Expect several “application” questions concerning theoretical approaches to gender development. Make sure you can describe and discuss ALL of the theories above. Make sure you are aware of key terms (e.g., rewards and punishments) and scholars associated with each theory. Much of my questions come from the lecture notes on these theories. So, make sure to review your lecture notes about these theories. Biological Theory: Theory that maintains that biological characteristics are the basis of gender difference. Biologically based theories focus on how X and Y chromosomes, hormonal activities, and brain specialization influence a range of individual qualities from body features to thinking and motor skills. Psychodynamic Theory: Theory assumes that relationships, especially the earliest ones, are central to human development. For most children, the first important relationship is with the primary caretaker, typically the mother. This theory claims that this first relationship fundamentally influences how an infant comes to define her or his identity, including gender. Theorists maintain that the identity formed in infancy is fundamental, thus, as infants mature, they carry with them the basic identity formed in the pivotal first relationship. Social Learning Theory: Claims that individuals learn to be masculine and feminine primarily by imitating others and getting responses from others to their behaviors. Children imitate the communication they see on television, films, and DVDs, as well as the communication of parents, teachers, siblings and others. Because children prefer rewards to punishments and neutral responses they are likely to develop gendered patterns of behavior that others approve. Symbolic Interaction Theory: Claims that through communication with others we learn who we are and how our culture views our identity. Newborns begin learning from others to define a sense of self. As parents and others interact with children, they literally tell the children who they are. Standpoint Theory: Compliments symbolic interactionism by noting that societies are made up of different groups that are organized in social hierarchies. Standpoint theory focuses on how membership in groups, such as those designated by gender, race, class, and sexual identity shapes what individuals experience, know, feel, and do, as well as how individuals understand social life as a whole. Queer Theory: A critique of conventional categories of identity and cultural views of “normal” and “abnormal”, particularly in relation to sexuality. Queer theory argues that identities are not fixed, but somewhat fluid. Performative Theory: Argues that humans generate identities, including gender, through performance or expression. Believes gender is not a thing we have but rather something we do at specific times and in specific circumstances. This is why gender is believed to be a verb, rather than a noun. Cognitive Development Theory: Focuses on how individuals learn from interaction with others to define themselves, including their gender. Also assumes that children play active roles in developing their gender identities. True or False Men and women both have hormonal cycles that can affect their behavior. In connection with the last question, why did I show the “period” clip with Tina Fey? What larger points did we discuss in relation to this clip? **was not in class** True or False Cultural theories can correctly explain more aspects of gender than any other theories. (pp. 39-41) Drawing directly on one of the video clips we watched in class, explain the strongest evidence that supports the position that biological influences do intersect with gender. **was not in class** What is a gender schema? Explain why this concept is important to cognitive development theory. Did we watch in videos that showed children drawing on a gender schema? If so, describe the clip. A gender schema is an internal mental framework that organizes perceptions and directs behavior related to gender. The gender schema theory claims that cognitive processes are central to our learning what gender means in our culture and learning how to perform our gender competently- like the cognitive development theory. It says that even before reaching the first birthday, an infant distinguishes between male and female faces and voices. By the age of two children use the concept or schema of gender to organize their understandings. Psychological theories emphasize the power of others’ communication to teach lessons about gender and to provide models of masculinity and femininity. In class, we watched Bandura’s famous Bobo doll experiment. Describe this experiment. Connect this experiment to a theory from this chapter. What were some critiques raised about this experiment? **was not in class** When is gender constancy achieved for most children? Gender constancy is a person’s understanding that he or she is a male or female and this will not change. Gender constancy may develop as early as age three and almost certainly by age six. Once gender constancy is established, children become motivated to learn how to be competent in the sex and gender assigned to them. Based on the textbook and class lecture, what is a role? A role is a set of expected behaviors and the values associated with them. Roles are external to individuals because a society defines roles in general ways that transcend particular individuals. Roles are assigned to individuals by the society as a whole, thus, for each of us there are certain roles that society expects us to fulfill because of society’s definition of us. What does it mean to say that gender should be viewed as a verb not a noun? (pp. 63-64). In the readings it says gender should be viewed as a verb instead of a noun because gender is something we do at specific times, not something we have. We express or perform conventional gender through everyday practices such as dominating or deferring in conversations, offering solutions, and judgments or empathy when a friend discloses a problem, crossing our legs so that one ankle rests on the knee of our other leg or so that one knee rests over the other knee, wearing a dress and heels or a sweatshirt and khakis. It also says that our performances are not solo operations as well. They are always collaborative, because we do so in context of social meaning. This is the central idea in the queer performative theory.


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