PAM 2030, Final Exam Study Guide
PAM 2030, Final Exam Study Guide PAM 2030
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Date Created: 05/14/16
PAM 2030 Sassler Spring 2016 Final Exam Study Guide (Class and Reading Notes) CLASS NOTES INTRODUCTION demography: the scientific study of human population o Mathematical knowledge of populations; general movements; physical, civil, intellectual and moral state Components of population: ex. o Size o Distribution o Composition o Changes in above variables o Components of change (ex. mortality, fertility, migration) growth o the “doubling time” (time it takes for a population to double in size) o track: fertility mortality (recently slowed by technology, medicine and agriculture) migration (domestic migration looks at incoming and outing populations unlike global migration because aliens aren’t coming in) o historically: the combination of fertility, mortality, migration most of human history: hunter gatherer existence fertility and mortality: high o infant mortality was high so a woman would have many children as a social insurance o slow population growth o carrying capacity was low (if population grew too quickly then there would be a food shortage) agricultural revolution increase in carrying capacity population grew leading to survival challenges o upheavals, plague significant decrease in population due to disease (modern ex. college students and meningitis) urbanization lead to more disease poor sanitation, living conditions, dangerous working conditions, scarcity of fresh food, pollution, overcrowding, nonexistent sewage and hygiene system o modern ex. NYC 1900-1910 Tenement “Death Trap” cities Civilizations peaked Modern era: stabilized population Enlightenment and industrial revolution brought improved technology, application of science and medicine Further increase in population o 20 century public health improvements Immunizations, disease control, safe food, workplace safety, healthier mothers and babies, water fluoridation, decrease in heart disease and stroke, car safety, family planning, decrease in smoking (just don’t smoke) o Population is growing fast Low mortality, relatively high fertility (although fertility has been decreasing) More births than deaths Births – Deaths = Natural increase/population growth Hans Rosling In 1963, developed countries had low mortality and relatively low fertility while developing countries had higher mortality and relatively higher fertility o As time passes/passed, the trends showed developing countries shift in mortality and fertility rates to match that of developed countries World population will plateau: the adult population is increasing but the children population is stable, so when the children become adults (and the adults have died off in proportion) the population will have plateaued (think toilet paper example) o Now: Europe has slow population increase; Middle East still has high population growth This will cause a change in population distribution, shift in power potentially, and increased migration from less to more developed countries Low fertility in developed countries also means an aging population Decrease in economic growth differences in political ideology increase in social welfare programs side note: the younger generation is more diverse than the older generation DATA SOURCES Census: not all but mostly demographic in material o Conducted by the government required by the Constitution for apportionment Constitution says: who to include in census**, when and how often to conduct the census (every 10 years) **Original instructions include discussion of slaves (Archaic) (changed by the 14 amendment) o Now: everyone is counted (Regardless of citizenship, documentation status, age, ethnicity) being included in the census does not imply voting rights or citizenship citizens: all born or naturalized (birthright citizenship) o issue: “anchor babies” voting right: age based (given citizenship) citizenship and voting rights are involved in the census question because the census affects representation and congressional district boundaries concerns with gerrymandering (drawing of state boundaries to retain recumbents) border states have a higher number of immigrants o De facto population: the people on the territory on a given day (the US method) Census counts based on usual residence Issues: College kids, snow birds (people with multiple homes), Mormon missionaries o De jure population: the people who legally belong to a certain area (other countries’ method) Issues: homeless, soldiers, immigrants o Determines tax payers, how many marriages, deaths Affects taxing, planning (labor force, education, businesses, health facilities), resource allocation, military o Determines the number of representatives: fixed at 435 representatives 30,000 people per representative (this changes with population growth) Minimum 1 representative per state Historically: in the Bible, Islam, Roman empire o Changes in how the census is conducted reflects social values and focus o “modern era” of census starts around late 1700s Issues with the census o Coverage error: people aren’t counted correctly net census undercount = (Not counted) – (Counted twice (think snow birds)) Some populations are counted better than others: differential undercount o Content error: Questions are misunderstood or incorrectly answered Age heaping: rounding ages Nonresponse problem: (people don’t answer income questions) o Imputation: estimating who wasn’t counted mathematically Not used for apportionment DEMOGRAPHIC PERSPECTIVE population growth is…. o good: population is power (tax sources, military, increased human resources intelligence creativity o bad: population increase leads to misery, poverty, overcrowding (Malthusian) o both: “it depends” o views are also changing pronatalist vs. antinatalist (ex. ZPG) population affects social welfare policy among other things o aging population affects economic growth historically: more pronatalist than anti- o pro: rome, khaladun, Aquinas; anti: augustine; in between: china, greece o religious affiliations (st. Augustine and Aquinas) Malthus o first to identity the two natural increase components (births and deaths) o Poor laws help the poor which will only increase the numbers and dependency, ultimately leading to national bankruptcy o laws of population we need food: food increases arithmetically people like reproduction: humans increase geometrically formula for doubling time: 70/(growth rate) power of population populations will growth until they outstrip their lands’ resources leads to poverty o population checks preventative checks moral restraint: no sex until marriage and also marry late vice: checks through abortion, infanticide positive checks war, disease, famine, (the ultimate checks) o neo-malthusian: use contraceptives! Engels and Marx o poverty is a fault of the economy o more people means more laborers which is good o a socialist economy will absorb population growth with no effects DEMOGRAPHIC TRANSITION THEORY o model: describes patterns of population change over time o framework: population growth is determined by two crude vital rates (fertility and mortality) (CVR: vital stats, births, deaths from births, death certificates) first: mortality falls nd 2 : commensurate fertility falls o demographic accounting equation: P 2 P =1B 1,2 D 1,2+ IM 1,2– OM 1,2 P:ipopulation size at time i (i=1, 2) B:ibirths at time i (i=1, 2) D:ideaths at time i (i=1, 2) IM:iin migration at time i (i=1, 2) OM: iut migration at time i (i=1, 2) o 2 basic rates: combined = rate of natural increase = CBR - CDR crude death rate (CDR) (number of deaths in a calendar year)/(mid year population) * k o arbitrary constant k infant mortality rate would have only the infant population in the denominator crude birth rate (CBR) (number of births in a calendar year)/(mid year population) * k o the history of DTT early developments warren Thompson: divided world into three groups (A, B, C) and characterized them by development level and population growth rates o A: N and W Europe, US: from 19 c. through 1927, went from very high to very low rates of natural increase o B: S and central Europe: birth and death rates declined but not as much change as group A o C: rest of world: no control in these areas over births/deaths Frank Notestein: proposed types of growth patterns o incipient decline o transitional growth o high growth potential Kingsley Davis: coined the term “DTT” modernization theory DTT: predicts and explains how fertility falls, when population will rise and fall changes in social institutions lead to change in birth and death rates Stage CBR CDR 1 High High (baby bank, (disease, famine, religion war, lack of encourages sanitation, limited pronatalism, education and workers and kids medicine, needed) competition for food) 2 High Lowered (mentality of stage (improved 1 CBR persists) medicine, hygiene, sanitation; lowered baby deaths) 3 Lowered Lowered (Modernization (improved family (same as stage 2) theory) planning, change in mentality, mechanization lowers need for workers, status of women evolves) 4 Low Low (established (improved economy, education and existence of healthcare) middle class, political stability) DTT: society vs. economy o economy no economic gain from restriction vs. economic gains from restriction Caldwell: the movement from economically unrestricted to restricted fertility is a social change and is economically rational o society traditional society: children work wealth: from children to the parents modern: increased importance of education and investment wealth: from parents to children critiques o DTT is ethnocentric (focused on the western sphere) o DTT has preconditions of industrialization and urbanization o the original assumption that homeostasis would be reached has not been true in parts of the world AGE o age transition: age structure: the interaction of fertility, migration, mortality the “master transition” o Age Stratification Theory: distribution of resources according to age according to roles and responsibilities see slides for tables that show Category Characteristic/Activity Social Demography Economic o age cohort: group of people who experience an event at the same time cohort flow: people of same age are influenced by the same historical events changes are measured over time, separating effects of age(A), period (P), cohort (C) sex ratio: time constant, ratio of men to women o masculinity ratio: (populations of men)/(populations women)*1000 o 100 is the balance point sex ratio > 100: excess men sex ratio < 100: excess women o at birth, there are more men, but men have high mortality rates at all ages feminization of old age consider the marriage market, “marriage squeeze” in China old vs. young o young: younger than 15 o old: older than 65 o DR: dependents: 0-14, 65+ ratio increases = increased burden on the working aged population increased DR in developing nations: caused by high number of children issue with current definition of dependents’ age: education extends the age at which people stop being dependent DR = ((population of 0-14 yr olds)+(population of 65+yr olds))/(# of people between 15-64 yrs)*100 o population pyramids 3 shapes expansive, classic: broad base, high fertility, high morality o issues caused: limited schools, jobs, housing constrictive, barrel: low fertility o issues: aging population o generally has feminized old age stationary: unchanging patterns of fertility and mortality, rectangular Age transition: o drivers: lowered mortality: population youngs lowered fertility: population ages migration: relocates (generally the younger) populations from donor to host regions (characteristics of population depends on distance of migration o population processes’ influences of age/gender structure migration: dramatic short run impact change the prevailing age if the age composition of migrants is significantly different tend to be younger child bearing aged populations mortality: affects both the short and long run, not dramatic unless a pandemic occurs all ages and gender are affected with consistent patterns in all countries improved health means decreased death rates at all ages fertility: most important influence though with relatively small short run impact o generally, global populations are aging faster than the US is US: aging: 14.5% is 65+ o old age Third Age: 65-84, limited physically but able to work Fourth Age: 85+, senescence, retirement o implications: health and expenditures welfare older people tend to have chronic conditions and more than one of them politics: party split along generational lines Social Security better education >> better health (easier jobs physically) >> longer life, better pay o SS works better for some people than it does for others should there be a change o change the calculation method used to decide monthly benefits o raise income taxes on SS benefits o increase flow of payroll taxes o change the cost of living index o change retirement age what about child poverty, why don’t we care as much o the younger generation is racially diverse AMERICA’S CHANGING RACIAL AND ETHNIC COMPOSITION o ethnicity v. race race is defined on basis of physical characteristics skin color, hair textures, shape of features ethnicity: based on culture: language, religion, appearance, ancestry, region sense of identity and membership in a particular ethnic group historically: race has gone from an essentialist to a constructionist biological (primordialist) to situational definition o directive No.5: 5 categories for the census, not mutually exclusive American Indian/Alaska Native Asian/Pacific (divided towards Native Hawaiian) White Black Hispanic (been removed) o Census, history and race 1980: first appearance of classification questions questions about ancestry 1990: not much change “negro” and “Indian (Amer.)” were used order matters o Q4 asked about race, Q7 asked about Spanish/Hispanic 2000: change: allowed people to claim more than one race group order changed o Q5: Hispanic/Spanish/Latino? this is an ethnicity question o Q6: race? o Q10: ancestry? ethnic origin? examples provided which skews responses give white people something 2010: more change “For this questions, Hispanic origins are not races” 2020: ? testing combination of ethnicity and race/origin questions o AQE: Alternative Questionnaire Experiment o combination of race and ethnicity in a question: higher response rate with unchanged proportions o Hispanic: race vs. ethnicity note, ethnicity is subjective, more so than race assumes a common bond among those in an ethnicity OMB : Directive No.5 says this is an ethnic category vs. Asians? (Asians are pan-ethnic) Latinos are under this category although the term only exists in America o Public Law 94521: religious affiliation questions are not allowed questions and concerns do exist particularly about Jews and Muslims o future of America: majority minority population MORTALITY TRANSITION morbidity vs. mortality o morbidity: prevalence of disease in a population o mortality: patterns of death epidemiologic transition o transition from prevalence of communicable diseases to degenerative diseases 3 eras o era of pestilence and famine life expectancy: 20-39 infectious disease, malnutrition, infant related deaths o era of receding epidemics life expectancy: 30 to 50 yrs infectious diseases are still prevalent, large mortality fluctuations less common o era of degenerative and man-made disease life expectancy: 50+ cardiovascular disease, cancer, diabetes o 4 limitations eras are not sequential, are reversible, no explanation of disease patterns, discusses mortality not morbidity health eras o age of environment (up to 1935) vaccination, antiseptics, health department development, cleaner water, pasteurization o age of medicine (1935 to 1950) sulfa, penicillin, anti TB, antibiotics o age of lifestyle diet, exercise, smoking MORTALITY o postponing death by preventing and curing disease prevent disease from occurring/spreading when they do occur vaccinations, clean water, sanitation, good nutrition no physicians needed examples: resurgence of measles due to anti vacc movement o flint’s lead poisoning curing disease when people are sick diagnostic technologic, drugs, skilled physicians o how to measure mortality improvements life span: oldest age of human survival, potential almost entirely a biological phenomenon longevity ability to remain alive, resist death measured by life expectancy (average expected age at death, currently 71y) people can live a long but not healthy life (mortality and morbidity relationship) o social and bio factors and health and mortality behaviors that shorten longevity: poor diet: fatty foods, rapid weight gain/loss, excessive alcohol, smoking, drugs lack of exercise: sedentary activities, sporadic excessive exertion behaviors that increase longevity regular exercise, daily breakfast, normal weight, moderate drinking, adequate sleep, no smoking o age and death J shape curve youngest and oldest have the highest mortality rates declining infant death rectangularization of mortality (sudden drop off at a later life expectancy age) o gender variations in mortality women: lower probability of death o causes of death communicable diseases bacterial, viral, protozoan maternal prenatal conditions noncommunicable diseases injuries o “real causes” of death tobacco, diet and activity, alcohol, microbial agents, toxic agents, disease, guns, violence o Measurements use rates (for comparison and to see frequency of events) crude rates: for entire population E/P *K o E: number of events occurring among residents of a specific area over an accounting period o P: total population o K: constant, usually 1000 or 100,000 crude: don’t account for which people are at risk for the event o useful: easy to obtain the data (think: resources available to poor and less developed countries) helps in funding, allocations measures change over time vs. specific rates: for subgroups age specific death rate o 1000*(number of deaths in age group/number of people in group) o similar formulas can be refined for race, causes, gender, pros: can control for age differences and show timing of events cons: unwieldy lots of data points, difficult to summarize other common refinements: cause specific, IMR IMR: infant mortality rate o younger than one year old o a ratio, not a rate o pros: measures development o cons: dependent on stats and reporting; not a rate o general influences: low birthweight, preterm birth, poor prenatal care, low education of mother (less than HS), tobacco, sudden infant death syndrome o refine: Neo-natal mortality rate (younger than 28 days) endogenous factors (genetic make up) post neonatal (between 4 to 52 weeks) exogenous (external) o survival rate: Lx+N/Lx FERTILITY TRANSITION o high to low (largely under women’s control) later start, earlier end o terms fertility: actual birth performance fecundity: (limits fertility) physiological ability to reproduce usually greater than actual fertility impaired fecundity: infertility, sterility fecund women: can reproduce; sterile woman: can’t controlling vs. limiting controlling: when you star and spacing limiting: stop/reduce o natural fertility, family planning natural fertility: number children that can be born without birth control max level of reproduction theoretical figure ~6 to 7 (which is a number that matches the high mortality rates) hutterites (~11) method of calculation start young: menarche, ~15 end old: menopause: 49 no birth control less than 9 months per pregnancy 18 months between end of one pregnancy and start of another not deciding on a certain number/continuing through entire reproductive span totals to about 1 kid per 2.2 years, summing to 16 kids o assuming no multiple births o historically kids = status and prestige for women women had kids, early and often and abortion/contraception was highly stigmatized o social and economic factors physiological and biological marriage traditions sexual mores preferences attitudes employment and childcare opportunities o (Coale’s) requirements for lowered fertility control (choice over options) ideational change READY belief in clear advantages of lowered fertility and reason for having fewer kids more live invest more in each kid moms can be healthier and better parents WILLING knowledge and mastery of effective contraception how women get pregnant (when in cycle) conception delay/prevention methods: effective ABLE o perspective (innovation diffusion and social strata): 2 theories of social stratification culture innovation occurs in the higher social strata and trickles down to the lower strata as they imitate privilege, edu, resources rigid social stratification inhibits downward social mobility and diffusion of low fertility ideals o historical dealing with high fertility infanticide, neglect, inattention (death) fosterage of kid by another family who needs/can afford it orphanage (abandon kid to be found by strangers) o proximate determinants of fertility (7 of these according to Davis&Blake, #1 being number of married women among all reproductive aged women): intercourse forming/dissolution of sexual unions o age of entry o permanent celibacy o time period spent after/between unions divorce, separation, desertion death of partner/spouse exposure to intercourse o voluntary abstinence o involuntary abstinence (illness, temporary separation) o coital frequency #2 conception exposure to contraception o fecundity/infecundity (voluntary/involuntary) o non/use of contraception #3 breastfeeding during the 6 months following birth #4 o voluntary fecundity/infecundity (medical treatments, sterilization) #5 gestation successful parturition fetal mortality (involuntary: miscarriage, still births) #6 fetal mortality (voluntary: abortion)#7 4 major variables: permanent celibacy, infecundity/fecundity, contraception, fetal morality (voluntary) indirect factors of fertility o education, income, gender differences (affects proximate determinants FERTILITY o at risk of fertility: women, fecund, between menarche and menopause, not sterile, had sex, not currently pregnant o period vs. cohort data period: cross section of population at a specific time (snapshot) ex. CBR cross sectional data makes for period analysis cohort: focuses on experience of a particular group of people (ex. women) who share demographic experience (ex. as women go through their childbearing years of life) longitudinal data: over time, across a life course, before after a certain period (ex. recession) more data necessary but reveals how events affect a population o period measures: simplest, readily available data CBR: crude birth rate (# of live births in year X)/(midyear population in year X) *1000 ignores age structure GFR: general fertility rate requires gender and age structure data (# of live births in year X)/(midyear population of women aged 15 to 44 in year X) *1000 refined by those at risk of birth GFR = approx. 4.5xCBR shortcomings o GFR is influenced by shifts in the age distribution o not age specific ex. if more women are older than 35, there will be a downward effect doesn’t reveal delayed childbearing can be refined into General Marital Fertility Rate and General Non-Marital Fertility Rate o the denominator is refined by marriage status of the women o recently: GMFR has decreased as GNMFR has increased GPFR: general paternal fertility rate men’s reproductive span in longer than women’s (15 to 44): 15 to 54 years aged men; so the overall GPFR<GFR CWR: child woman ratio (# of children younger than 5yrs)/(#number of women 15-49) *1000 vital rates information not required tends to understate fertility o due to greater mortality rates among children than among childbearing women o the 0 to 5 year range for kids lessens this effect rate vs. ratio: rate: frequency of an event, allows comparison between countries and populations ratio: relation between subgroups (ex. dependency ratio) o cohort measures: TFR: total fertility rate calculated from age specific fertility rates assumes a stable population in each age group o creates a synthetic cohort: examine 1000 women and then scale by fertility rates o longitudinal data o standardizes the population note: assumes that every age group will have the same birth rate regardless of the cohort that passes through it how to calculate o per age group of x to x+4 (5 year groups) o (# of births to women aged x to x+4)/(# of women aged x to x+4)*K = age specific fertility rate o multiply age specific fertility rate by 5 o sum all age specific fertility rate from (15 to 19) to (45 to 49) = TFR hypothetical measure based on fertility information from one point in time can fluctuate dramatically if there’s a shift in the timing of the births among women in their childbearing years meaningful numbers o should be 2.1 (in developed countries) o “lowest low” <1.3 TFR GRR: gross reproduction rate measures number of female children (potential mothers of the future) = ~.492xTFR doesn’t consider age structure NRR: net reproduction rate considers the likelihood of surviving childbearing years if NRR=1, means exactly enough daughters are born to replace the mothers’ population doesn’t consider age structure CEB: children ever born completed fertility rate counts the number of children a women has in her lifetime TEEN PREGNANCY o Big Picture: a rise in non-marital births increasth in past 5 decades, especially since the beginning of the 20 century 2008 (Great Recession): birth rates reversed another shift: cohabiting women are the majority (~60%) of all non- marital births in some European countries, these women are the majority of all births o why does it matter? unmarried women’s babies are at greater risk for adverse outcomes ex. birth weight, preterm birth, IMR unmarried women’s babies are likely to be unplanned mothers tend to be younger women for whom social and financial supports are limited most attention has been on teens but recently there’s been a shift towards women in their 20’s old focus: teen this is a hype, not a reality, since teen birth have been declining since 1990 o public policy factors: bio, soc, cultural proximate determinates: intercourse, conception, gestation cultural: sex ed curriculum design: not at all, abstinence only, comprehensive Abstinence: focuses on phase 1 (intercourse) o Title V: funded abstinence only education Education about contraception (phase 2, conception) age of debut and condom use has increased but conception rate is still high FAMILY AND HOUSEHOLD TRANSITION o changes in family and household formation increasing diversity lowered mortality and fertility, people are living longer and having fewer kids, higher standards of living feedback effects from (The Second) Demographic Transition o main evidence people don’t rely on marriages and death for creation or dissolution of households children increasingly live in a wide array of household and living arrangements changes: growing proportions of adults that will never marry cohabitation (sexual relationships sans marriage) higher levels of divorce higher levels of non-marital child bearing o children growing up with multiple parents o units of analysis families a family unit: any group of people who are related to one another by marriage, birth, adoption o a social unit: various rights/obligations with family membership census: 2 or more people living together related by blood, marriage, adoption o updated to include cohabitation (POSSLQ) otherwise leaves out cohabitation in definition households a family household: a housing/residential unit occupied by people who are related to each other o a consumption unit non-family households: roommates, living alone, cohabitation? o family demographics formation, change over time, dissolution family stratifies life opportunities: marital homogamy (marrying people similar to you) socioeconomic correlations gender equity, empowerment of women factors of stratification: ascribed characteristics: attributes we’re born with, and unchangeable (sex, race, ethnicity, religion) achieved characteristics: earned/chosen attributes; skills abilities efforts (edu, occupation, income, marital status) o family diversity plurality of family forms differs by race/ethnicity varying employment patterns children have a variety of experiences diverging family opportunities o proximate determinates factors related to family change a. marital delay/non-marriage b. fertility decline, likelihood of childbearing outside of marriage c. increased cohabitation prior to/in lieu of marriage o increases risk of pregnancy d. high levels of union instability e. increased life expectancy a. dual earning couples, blended families, greater expectation of shared work c. not normative among college education women edu of mother has implications d. education affects/correlates o educational difference in transition: divorce: increased during 1970 to 80, leveled off and then decreased fewer couple marry and do so more selectively factors: (association with social class) o age at marriage o being already pregnant/a parent at marriage o low income (related: edu) o having a divorced parent early research showed that cohabitation related to divorce (before the 80s) o now the association has changed o increased cohabitation and decreased marriages from cohabitation MARRIAGE AS A POLICY 1990s. featured prominently: “Healthy Marriage Initiative” o public ads o education AAUW (American Association of University Women) o marriage is not a solution o risks of promotion: non-healthy relationships untested policy government intrusion into home o marriage policy is a front end solution instead use contraceptives reducing nonmarital births is a more effective approach to increasing marriage o get married, stay married, marry well (unmarried moms won’t be able to) family policies o family allowances (direct payments to the parents of dependents) o paid parental leave o publically funded care for children under 3 years theoretical explanation for retreat from marriage o economic models (men’s economic circumstance vs. women’s independence) incorrect o welfare (marriage substitution, “surrogate husband”) o sex ratio imbalance(shortage of good men) incorrect what is true: shortage of economically attractive men o modernization of attitude and values gender roles INTERRACIAL MARRIAGE o terms heterogamy: mating with someone of a different age, education, race, ethnicity, gender, religion homogamy: opposite of heterogamy hypergamy: mating with someone of higher social status hypogamy: mating with someone of lower social status o why intermarry preferences: values and attitudes structural opportunities (school, neighborhood, context) third parties (parents, laws) Anti-Miscegenation Laws o became unconstitutional in 1967 Loving v. Virginia o penalties included: felony verdict, jailing, fines, voiding of marriage o regions excluded different races War Brides Act of 1945 o allowed non-Asian spouses and children to come to US o (war brides: wartime marriages between soldiers and foreigners) o racial and ethnic boundaries bright vs. blurred boundaries unambiguous social representation or self identity are unambiguous boundary crossing individuals move from one group to another without changing the boundary boundary blurring individuals’ locations with respect to boundary are ambiguous o ex. bilingual, multinational boundary shifting inclusion/exclusion of groups o likelihood for intermarriage affected by race, ethnicity, gender, nativity (US or foreign born), education, religion o age homogamy prevalent: normative constraints, preferences female hypergamy (males are the older) reasons: maturity, economics, remarriage o theory social exchange prospective partners trade on personal traits on the marriage market men: income, employment, status, power women: sex, appearance, expressiveness, assumed domestic skills “non-white daters gain status by dating any white” preferences and opportunities social context can lead to partner choice social context can lead to a network which can lead to partner choice intergroup contact racial attitudes is directly related to degree of intimate contact between members assimilation adopt cultural patterns, customs, language of the host/majority population intermarriage is the last step of assimilation winnowing dating leads to cohabiting which leads to marriage (potentially) o increasingly selective in the matching process heterogeneous relationships will dissolve, homogenous ones will progress to marriage WORK FAMILY BALANCE o factors: of increasing female participation in paid labor force (PLF) occupational factors: nature of jobs have changed rural to manufacturing to information and service economic factors: better wages, educated, more female-headed families demographic factors later marriage, fertility decrease, increase in life expectancy women have fewer children, reduction in time-intensive parenting high rates of divorce and separation/reductions in alimony o what about the men? % of men in PLF has decreased population is aging, early retirement of baby boomers however there is a growing group of non-employed who aren’t in school o attributes of labor force aging, globally the US isn’t doing so bad fertility is declining increased racial diversity more working women means that increase proportions of parents are in PLF change in household roles o changes in who does the reproductive labor (parents need to work, children need to be raised and socialized) o trends 1990: US has the highest LFPR (labor force participation rate) for women 2010: most other economically developed countries’ are higher o policies that are implemented by governments (not the US) parental leave the right to part-time work equal treatment of part-time workers public childcare expenditures these four have positive effects on the LFPR but increases gender differences the US vs. Europe US: has family and medical act; states that have parental leave generally fund them through disability funds if Europe’s policies were applied in US: o women’s LFPR would increase o men would share the load more, potentially lowering the wage gap US women: more likely to have managerial and professional roles o more likely to have leadership roles o unlike Europe with its greater numbers of part-time female workers US’s issues against these policies o health insurance is private vs. single payer o education is increasingly privately funded o public schools are increasingly privatized o cultural factors: arguments that Americans value children less now cultural values attributed from demographic behaviors: lowered TFR, increased % of women who are childless, later marriage suggests that self actualization is valued greater than child care is this true? no o factors: amount of time spent with children increasing selection into parenthood cultural change: defining a “good” parents change in how time is used: housework, leisure, sleep, kids women spend more time with children now than before how? schooling o children are more and longer at school o women do less housework o most work part-time o Sayer: children are getting negatively affected by the economic change look at change in time spent with children we looked at women, noted that increased education has made parenting easier o education also contributes to diverging childhoods men spend more time too behavioral changes account for more change than compositional shifts ex. working employ has less effect than a change in mentality trends: homeschooling has the potential to increase children: get more time with parents families: both parents report increased stress cultural shift: time with children is valued more MIGRATION o one of the three components of demography o linked with social stratification and upward mobility o affects US electoral map and representation o different from vital events socioeconomic process, not biological restrictions on occurrence repeatable event within the individual migration is inherently spatial migration is reversible o geographic mobility migration as a permanent change in residence migration between labor markets residential mobility; local changes o types: special conception internal migration: moving within a country international migration o in/out migration duration concerns is the move relatively permanent is it temporary how far a distance appropriate unit of analysis individuals vs. households o census: migration is defined as moves across jurisdictional boundaries o UN: at least 1 year in a new location in order to be considered migrant o immigration vs. emigration long term immigrants (>1 year) international migrants legal immigrants (official documentation, visa) undocumented immigrants (without official visa) o foreign born, non citizens o without valid documentation or overstayed valid visas refugees: fear persecution, file for status in origin country to emigrate asylees: already in the country during admission application visitors o migration: mid level theories early attempts of theory 1880s, Ravenstein, geographer o inductive approach to developing rules for migration migration and distance: most migrate relatively short distances migration by stages: most migration happens in waves streams and counterstreams: movement can occur in either direction location: urban dwellers as less migratory than rural females dominate among short term journeys development increases migration economics motives rather than political ones dominate as a reason for moving o pros and cons modernization and urbanization and women are considered (negative) aggregate models no individual or family models no characteristic/cultural/duration analysis 1970s, Lee o origin, destination, intervening obstacles, push and pull factors more recents: consider more family o theories non classical economics approach macro vs. micro supply and demand/cost and benefit new economics of migration collective group decision making segmented labor market world systems core vs. periphery social capital cumulative causation MEASURING MIGRATION difficulties: no available count of in or out migration, no universally agree upon measure net migration: requires 10 years of birth and death data o uses 11 years and mid year populations o (P2010P2000(20002010 2002010=net migration o can be negative natural increase : NI = B-D 10 year net migration ratio proportion of population growth estimating migration : surveys, where people move and live o results show most moves are short distance o mover rate has been declining dual career couples, aging population the migrants: young adults (and their children) move the most o women and men have same rates (gender equality) international migration o opportunity structures in place of origin vs. destination step migration (rural to town to city to another country) chain migration (a pioneer followed by others Massey’s Perverse Laws of International Migration o it’s easier to start than stop o restrictive actions often have the opposite effect decreases circular migration fundamental causes may be outside policy’s control immigrants understand immigration better than politicians and academics thus are often able to circumvent policies aimed at stopping them US, Canada, etc o US: has 20% of the worlds’ migrants mostly from Asia and Latin America favors family reunification o Canada: mostly from Asia favors employment and educational potential o Europe: more diversity URBANIZATION urban transition: rural/agricultural to urban o majority of US reside in cities (characteristics of richer countries) o range: 0% to 100% in urban areas 1800: 3% urban, a function of: o population size o land area (space) o ratio of population to space o economic and social organization proximate determinates of urbanization o internal rural to urban migration o natural increase o international urban migration o reclassification (rural to urban) o combination of all of the above urban negatives: crowded, strangers, prone to slums suburbanization o urban sprawl o development of edge cities, satellite cities edge city 5+ million sq. ft. of leasable office space 600,000+ sq. ft. of leasable retail space number of jobs > number of bedrooms perceived as a single place recently developed/created o smart cities: gentrification and new urbanism urban vs. rural: a continuum, not a dichotomy SEGREGATION o consequences (factors associated with segregation) access to economic opportunities: school, jobs, amenities (libraries, fire stations, parks) poor health (stress, access to health care, exposure to hazards) cultural consequences (peer effects on fertility, crime) o 20 and 21 centuries migration contributes to spatial patterns of living arrangements in receiving cities great migration of blacks, south to north o 1930’s and on: central city Black population proportion increased suburbanization (1950s – 70s) drew whites out of central cities into the surrounding rings international migration (Latin America) diversified the segregation o Two Main Views evenness (most common) related to degree to which a group’s percentage (%) representation in different neighborhoods departs from the group’s % representation in the city’s overall population exposure/isolation (to/)from people not like themselves aspect which relates to the degree to which members of a group are “isolated” because they reside in areas where their group dominates other standard approaches concentration centralization clustering activity space segregation time of day segregation o Data and Measurements data: census data of neighborhoods neighborhoods: defined by census tract data other accounting units: blocks, block groups, distance from city center, places Index of Dissimilarity degree to which two groups are evenly spread among census tracts in a given city D gives % of one group that needs to be moved in order to evenly spread 0 – 100 scale o 30 to 60% is moderate o 60% and higher is ‘high’ National Trends segregation decreased although it’s still pretty high Black Exceptionalism: distance from blacks is higher than distance from other groups segregation is lower in suburbs though it is increasing segregation differs within and between cities o racial balkanization o Explanation Theories socioeconomic differences: SES accounts for distribution expectation: segregation decreases as income increases o whites and blacks of similar class should live in equivalent neighborhoods this is shown to be untrue preferences for living among others like oneself whites tolerate lower proportions comfort levels vary dramatically has more influence than income differences
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