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Wiki Project Study Guide for Part 2 of Exam

by: Monique Magpayo

Wiki Project Study Guide for Part 2 of Exam Biol360

Marketplace > California State University - Fullerton > Biology > Biol360 > Wiki Project Study Guide for Part 2 of Exam
Monique Magpayo
Cal State Fullerton
GPA 3.52

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This is the study guide for the wiki pages on part 2 of the exam. the notes of part 1 and 3 of the exam are included in weeks 12-15 notes.
Biology of Human Sex
Maryanne Menvielle
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Biology, sexuality, study, guide, wiki, pages
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This 20 page Study Guide was uploaded by Monique Magpayo on Sunday May 15, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Biol360 at California State University - Fullerton taught by Maryanne Menvielle in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see Biology of Human Sex in Biology at California State University - Fullerton.

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Date Created: 05/15/16
This week you are asked to create practice test questions for the wikis that you will be tested on. You will need to: • Write at least 5 potential exam questions (at least 1 for each wiki topic) • You should have at least 3 different types of questions (multiple choice, fill-in, matching, short answer, etc.). Some helpful tips can be found here. • Your questions should address at least three levels of thinking (knowledge, comprehension, application, etc.). Some explanation and tips can be found here and here. ◦       Your questions need to be labeled with withe the thinking level. Example: (Knowledge) True/False: Male's have and XY chromosome combination. After posting your questions to the discussion forum, fell free to answer the questions that others have posted to help you prepare for the last exam. If you do not agree with the answer that someone else has posted - start a conversation as to why you think it is something different. This dialogue will benefit students since it requires you to explain your reasoning and hopefully gain a meaningful understanding of topic. ON FINAL EXAM Reading: Read the class wikis for the following topics. Information from these wikis will be on the final exam. You can read these wikis by clicking into the wiki link, and choosing the group by name (topic) from the drop-down menu on the right. • Common Paraphilia's • HPV Vaccine for Males • Pregnancy Risks/Rewards • Sexual Pain Disorders Obesity's Effect on Sex COMMON PARAPHILIA   PARAPHILIA is a pattern of recurring sexually arousing behavior or imagery that involves unusual and  especially socially unacceptable sexual practices.    These behaviors may be necessary for the individual to function sexually    However it may lead to social, personal, career problems, and could lead to serious legal repercussions    May also be called KINKY or PERVERTED    FETISHISM is defined as sexual urges and excitement associated with non­living objects that are not  typically sexual such as shoes.    PARTIALISM is a disorder related to fetishism but involves becoming aroused by a body part such as feet    Fetishism and partialism are common in men    BOTH are not categorized as disorders, but can reach such a level if it causes extreme anxiety    MASOCHISM is the act of being verbally and or physically humiliated, beaten, bound, and gagged,  spanked, simulated rape, or made to suffer in other ways in order to be sexually aroused and or reach climax    Some individuals may also inflict such feelings on themselves by piercing, cutting,  or burning themselves    Autoerotic partial asphyxiation is common with masochistic activity    This involves using ropes or other means to interrupt the breathing of an individual at the point of orgasm    SADISM  is described as continuous fantasies where sexual excitement is achieved from inflicting  psychological, but mostly physical, pain and suffering on a sexual partner    SADIST find joy in inflicting pain    MASHOCHIST enjoy having pain inflicted upon themselves    SADISM is not a disorder    TRANSVESTISM is also referred to as transvestic fetishism    This paraphilia typically involves heterosexual males dressing in female clothing to enhance sexual arousal    VOYERUISM, commonly referred to as “peeping tom” is the act of achieving sexual pleasure by observing  an unaware and non consenting individual who is undressing, naked, or engaged in sexual activity    EXHIBITIONISM is also known as flashing. This is the act of an individual exposing their genitals to an  unsuspecting stranger    People who flash enjoy surprising, shocking, or impressing their victims    This act is usually limited to flashing and does not result in the flasher approaching the victim to make  sexual advances    FROTTEURISIM is the act of an individual rubbing their genitals on an unsuspecting stranger in a crowded  place like a bus or a subway    PEDOPHILIA is when an individual has fantasies, urges or behaviors that involve any sexual activity with  children usually 13 years of age or younger    This can involve undressing the child, touching the child genitals, forcing the child to touch the individuals  genitals, forcefully performing sexual acts on the child, or making the child watch them masturbate o  PARAPHILIA STATISTICS    1973 HOMOSEXUALITY was classified as a paraphilia    inconsistency has to do with the definition of a parhilia, as well as the private nature of the questions asked  in a survey so that can easily skew the results    obtaining information is also difficult because most of the paraphilia’s mentioned are not illegal and stay  between the consenting adults and the privacy of the bedroom    EXHIBITIONISM, VOYEURISM, FROTTEURISM, AND PEDOPHILIA ARE ALL ILLEGAL and would be  found in criminal reports    Paraphilia is 20 times more likely in males than in females    EXAM PRACTICE QUESTION: (Knowledge) Which of the following paraphilias are not illegal    A) EXHIBITIONISM, B) VOYEURISM, C) FROTTEURISM, D) PEDOPHILIA,  E) SADISM Answer= E    EXAM PRACTICE QUESTION: (knowledge)  Paraphilia is 20 times more likely in _______ than in  ________    A) male/female, B) female/male C) homosexual/straight D) straight/Homosexual E) None of the  above Answer = A o  TREATMENTS AND MISCONCEPTIONS    FETISHISM: To treat fetish, the most popular form of treatment are cognitive behavior therapy and  pharmacotherapy  the prescriptions given in pharmacotherapy are used to decrease the amount of compulsive thinking  which will allow the patient to have more concentration on the counseling without distractions  another form of therapy used is AVERSIVE THERAPY with a negative stimulus to reduce the  unwanted behavior  AVERSIVE THERAPY is when the patient is exposed to their stimulus along with some sort of  unpleasant sensation to condition the brain to react a certain way to the original stimulus   TRANSVETISM: is not as common because it is not seen as a disorder like the other that were  discussed   Many choose not to undergo any form of therapy at all  Good results with COGNITIVE BEHAVIOR THERAPY or even HYPNOTHERAPY  The HYPNOTHERAPY is used to make changes in the subconscious mind like cognitive behavior  therapy which focuses on changing thoughts which will eventually change the patients behavior  Sadism & Masochism:  Sadism is often treated by some sort of behavior therapy or pharmacotherapy. The patient is given anti-androgen drugs to try and balance the testosterone levels within the patient’s body and reduce the unwanted sexual behavior. The success of the treatment heavily depends on the patient's motivation to better themselves.  Usually those that are diagnosed with sadism are only treated if it becomes a life threatening issue   Masochists also undergo similar treatment with the option of getting psychotherapy  In these sessions, the primary concern for the physician is to search for the initial cause of their behavior and try to change the patients thinking or give them another outlet to satisfy their sexual pleasure.  There is no known cause for these paraphilias; some researchers believe they were brought on by other mental disorders the patient may have and others believe that they are brought on by biological factors.  Even though some sadist do come from homes of abuse, not all sadist become sadist because of a poor upbringing in their childhood  Voyeurism & Exhibitionism  For those with Voyeurism, long term therapy and monitoring is the most effective type of treatment and necessary since these acts are considered to be illegal. The typical therapy done during this time would be a form of behavioral therapy where the patient would learn to control and correct their impulses by finding another way to satisfy themselves.  People with Exhibitionism are also treated similarly using therapy and in some cases are also put into a social skills training program.  Here, they would learn how to properly form relationships with people without feeling the need to expose themselves.  Within the program they may encounter reconditioning techniques to enforce appropriate behaviors. There have also been twelve-step program specifically for patients with exhibitionism who feel guilty about their behavior.  Acts of Voyeurism and Exhibitionism have both become much easier to do with the use of technology such as cell phones and/or video cameras  That is why the treatments tend to be more long term to try and correct the behavior as quickly and efficiently as possible.  Frotteurism  Frotteurism is treated through behavior therapy to teach the patient how to manage their impulse to touch unsuspecting people. Also, anti androgen drugs may be administered during therapy to decrease testosterone levels and sexual desire. Monitoring and long-term therapy are essential in treatment as well since this is considered a form of sexual assault and could result in serious negative consequences.  Pedophilia  Pedophilia is usually treated with anti androgens to try and suppress the hormones and the sexual urges that are causing their desires.  Alongside taking the medications, pedophiles need to also go through with therapy sessions where they can be taught to empathize with their victims and how to take control of their sexual impulses.  After the treatments are completed, they will continue to visit with their doctors to "check in" with them for the remainder of their lives  These people are labeled as pedophiles for the rest of their lives but they may not continue satisfying those urges if their treatment was successful.  The behavior is never completely gone but instead the patients learn how to suppress and not act on their urges.  Occasionally, pedophiles can also be hospitalized if they are in high stress situations that could trigger them to continue acting on their urges. o HPV VACCINE FOR MALES  o According to WebMD (n.d), HPV is the most common sexually transmitted disease here in the United States. o 0While some HPV caused infections don't have any symptoms, it can also cause some cancers. o The most popular cancer that HPV causes is cervical cancer; which is found in women. This is why this vaccine is mainly geared toward women. OTHER CANCERS HPV CAUSES: -Oral cancers -Anal cancers -Penile cancers -Vaginal cancers -Vulvar cancers (very rare) -Genital warts o The HPV vaccine is a vaccine that aims to protect against the 4 major types of HPV (Human Papilloma Virus). o This vaccine is given out in three doses, which includes Gardasil, Gardisal 9, and Cervarix. o This is done over a 6 month period and it is recommended for people to receive the full vaccine before one's first sexual encounter. o For boys, the vaccine is approved starting at 9 years of age.  How the HPV vaccine works:  It stimulates a persons body to create antibodies that in the future will bind to the virus and in turn prevent the virus from infecting other cells. The HPV vaccine gets administered in 3 doses.  1. The first vaccine Gardasil aims to protect against HPV-16 and 18. These types are correlated to the development of cervical cancer in women. Gardasil also protects against HPV-6 and 11, which are known to causes genital warts.  2. The second vaccine Gardasil 9 which helps protect against HPV 6,11,16,18 along with HPV 31, 33, 54, 52, and 58. These types of HPV are linked to vulvar cancers, vaginal, cancers, cervical cancer, and anal cancers.  3. The last vaccine, Cervarix, also protects against HPV-16, 18, 6 and 11.  HPV has long been known to cause genital warts in both men and women. About 50-75% of males and females who are sexually active will test positive for the virus at some point in their lives Often times, there are no symptoms before, during, or after transmission. While there are many different strains of the virus, only types 6 & 11 are known to cause the visible, symptomatic warts found in the genital regions. Though found to be the cause of some discomfort and tend to be visually present and taboo, warts are generally non-threatening to a man's health. o more serious conditions tied to HPV involve several types of cancers including cervical, anal, penile, as well as head-neck-throat (HNT) cancers. o Though men cannot be directly affected by the more dangerous cervical cancer, they can be carriers, and therefore still transmit the HPV strains 16 & 18, which are known to cause these cancers in women. o Men can also fall vulnerable to anal, penile, and HNT cancers which are cause by these two types. o Homosexual men, bisexual men, and those participating in anal sex are more at risk because of the thinner more easily permeated tissues located in the anal cavity o Transmission through blood occurs more often this way. Rates tend to increase in those with weakened immune systems as well, especially those with serious immune disorders like HIV/AIDS. The Argument for men to receive the HPV vaccine: According to Kimberly Leonard (2015), an average of 9,300 men a year are effected by HPV caused cancers. This sparks up a controversial question: Should men receive the HPV vaccine as commonly as women? The "Yes" side: There are many advocates that suggest that men receive the HPV vaccine and not just only limit the access to women. Reason 1: HPV is transmitted sexually. Therefore, if a man who is not vaccinated has sex with a woman who also did not receive the vaccination, there is no protection. A man who has the vaccine would be able to protect himself despite if his partner is vaccinated or not. Reason 2: The men who are vaccinated will help protect the women who are not vaccinated because it limits the chance that the men unknowingly will contract HPV and pass it on (Benaroch, 2011). Reason 3: HPV effects men who are homosexual as well. Therefore, men should get vaccinated so they can protect themselves and their partner (Leonard, 2015). The "No" side: Reason 1: Boys who receive this vaccine at an early age may be more interested in experimenting with sexual behaviors at an earlier age. Reason 2: There has not been substantial evidence that the HPV vaccine works in men (Benaroch, 2011). Reason 3: The HPV vaccine could be very costly for men, depending if their insurance covers it. For instance, it could cost about $400 for all three dosages. As a result, so argue that because HPV caused cancers are rarer in men than women, it may not be worth it to spend that money getting vaccinated (Benaroch, 2011) o EXAM PRACTICE QUESTION? (COMPREHENSION) : Explain a reason why men should  receive the HPV vaccine? o Explain a reason why men should not receive the HPV vaccine   physicians and medical providers recommend young males receive the vaccine at a young age, prior to becoming sexually active and while their immune system provides a stronger response.  Currently, the government's CDC specifies the ages of 11-12 as the best time to give the vaccine to boys. o EXAM PRACTICE QUESTION (KNOWLEDGE) : At what age does the government’s CDC specify for boys to receive the HPV vaccines?  A) 9-10 B) 8-9 C) Newborn D) 11-12 E) 18-21  Answer- D  PREGNANCY RISKS AND REWARDS  WHAT ARE THE LONG TERM BENEFITS OF CHILDBIRTH? o There is a reduced risk of both breast and gynecological cancers.  o pregnancy allows for maturation changes within breast cells if pregnancy  occurs between the ages of 18 through 25 o  The maturation of the breast cells acts like a barrier if in the future there is any possibility that cancer may occur.     o Secondly, breastfeeding is the body’s natural way of submitting itself for  liposuction, where the mother loses excess weight gained during  pregnancy.  o Both breastfeeding and elevated oxytocin levels shrink the uterus back to  its normal size it was before pregnancy which allows for a lower risk of  ovarian cancer  the case of breastfeeding mothers and the possible link to rheumatoid arthritis.  The production of breast milk has had a misled assumption to many that breastfeeding mothers would loose calcium in the process.  once mothers stop breastfeeding their children, their bone density gains back to how it was before their pregnancy or higher.  In the end, there are no possible links or risks that breastfeeding will lead to rheumatoid arthritis.  Lastly, breast feeding allows for mother and infant to create a bond between each other psychologically.  Infants who are breastfed have a smaller percentage of getting sick with infectious diseases for example pneumonia, bronchitis, and ear infections.  r hand breastfeeding is also cost effective and is more convenient to the mother.  Overall, benefits of childbirth allow for the mother not only to gain defenses within her body but to her infant as well.   What are the RISKS to childbirth?    Many risks can occur depending on how the woman body reacts during pregnancy  If the woman already has health conditions such as diabetes, cancer, or high blood pressure, it puts the pregnancy at a high-risk.  Age can be a factor that leads to risks, a history of multiple miscarriages, and if she is taking certain medications.  The woman might be vulnerable with infections and other birth complications  during pregnancy and childbirth.  INFECTION: Most common complication in childbirth that may also lead to death. Some types of infections are SEPIS and Urinary Tract Infection which are due to poor hygiene  HEMORRHAGE, or uncontrolled bleeding, can result to death due to so much blood loss. This can happen during pregnancy, during childbirth, or after  STROKE: They wrote that older women are more at risk. If the woman is over 35 years of age, she is at risk of having a stoke during pregnancy  Fetus position might change during its lowering in the uterus. Ideally, it should be head down because the head is the most difficult part to exit the birth canal due to its inflexibility and size. If the fetus is poorly positioned, there is a risk in the woman’s uterus and birth canal back labor issues  PRE-ECLAMPSIA (high blood pressure and weight gain) that can lead to eclampsia which leads to kidney failure seizures, coma, or death (  Anemia and Hypertension can also result during or after childbirth.   A woman has an increased risk for a few year of getting breast cancer after having a child  In addition women who are over the age of 30 have an increased risk as well. High blood pressure and weight gain are just some health conditions that occur during pregnancy that may stay with the woman even after child birth.  Ways to avoid risks (  ­     ­        Eat healthy        ­       Don’t drink, smoke, or use drugs ­       Keep up with the doctor visits and follow instructions  Symptoms that need immediate care (  ­       Vaginal bleeding ­       Umbilical cord protruding into vagina ­       Sudden swelling ­       Severe back pain, headache ­       Baby has not moved or has not moved as much as it usually does  developing countries have and the highest percentage in childbirth complications and the most childbirth complications that could have been prevented if it were not for the lack of resources  Women in developing countries have a higher risk because they suffer from diseases, Are not assisted by a trained individual during labor, and more females give birth more times than women in developed countries also at a younger age.  Teenage pregnancy only increases the risk of maternal mortality.  Mostly all women, worldwide, who died a maternal death, are due to issues such as severe bleeding, infection and pre-eclampsia. o EXAM PRACTICE QUESTION: Why do women in developing countries have higher risk in childbirth complications? (SHORT ANSWER ) (APPLICATION?)_  This could have been avoided if there were resources such as educating women of risks, having a location for the mother to go to for assistance, and making is affordable for people.  How does having a child affect one's quality of life?  After having a child, it demands responsibility from the parent(s) and it creates both positive and negative out comes.  After childbirth, many mothers take more control of their body and health and submit themselves under regular check-ups for example PAP tests.  In addition, many mothers after giving birth, still follow their healthy eating and exercise habits from when they were pregnant habits from when they were pregnant habits from when they were pregnant  With a newborn baby, it is unknown to how they will be sleeping. It would take quite some time for them to develop a sleeping routine and for the most part it may not match with the parent(s) schedule.  Some positive reasons to becoming a mother or parent over all are:     Healthier diet     Spouse becomes more important     Changing Priorities      New timeline and schedule   Due to the high levels of stress when one has a newborn, it can cause many emotional issues. Many women state that they feel joy, happiness, and relief because they have their baby in their arms but others experience the opposite.  Some parent(s) feel uncomfortable with the new born due to not knowing how to be parents, especially if it is their first child.  Parents also struggle financially, which is another factor adding to parent’s and families stress or pressure.  Taking care of the infant is time consuming and interferes with previous plans and schedules. Many parents have demanding jobs where they are allotted to a certain schedule and are not spending quality time with their children. Sexual Pain Disorders 1) Types of Disorders and Possible Causes Dyspareunia According to Psychology Today, dyspareunia is a broad term that can be defined as pain during or subsequent to coitus.  This pain is centered in the pelvic region, and although more prominent in women, appears in both sexes Causes:  When a woman is in labor, the perineum can be torn by doctors to allow room for the fetus to be released from the birth canal. This tearing procedure is known as an episiotomy, and can form scars that make intercourse painful. Similarly, this type of painful scarring can occur in women that have experienced a hysterectomy, female circumcision, or sexual assault  An older woman, usually in her menopause years, may be diagnosed with vaginal atrophy. Because of the lower levels of estrogen during this age range, women with vaginal atrophy have depleted and arid vaginal walls that may cause dyspareunia  If a younger woman is not adequately stimulated, she may experience a feeling of dryness or lack of lubrication that could cause dyspareunia  Vulvar vestibulitis syndrome poses another problem. Many people also refer to this condition as vestibulodynia and vestibular adenitis. The Centers for Vulvovaginal Disorders state that this makes penetration difficult because of the sensitive vestibule ("Vulvar Vestibulitis," n.d.) The vestibule pain stems from swelling, and straining of the pelvic floor muscles  Pain, swelling, and inflammation are also evident in women with sexually transmitted diseases like chlamydia or gonorrhea which can cause pelvic inflammatory disease. For those with pelvic inflammatory disease, tension from intercourse can create pain in these inflamed areas  Endometriosis is another potential cause for dyspareunia. The condition occurs when endometrial tissue forms outside of its normal location in the uterus, and it is fairly common  Allergic reactions to condom materials, tampons, sex toys, or detergents may be to blame for painful intercourse  Potentially the most common cause for dyspareunia is psychological barriers. This can be sparked in individuals that suffer from depression or anxiety, were victims of domestic violence, or have an abnormal fear of sex Vaginismus While dyspareunia may be evident in both males and females, vaginismus is strictly experienced by women who wish to perform sexually, but cannot. In addition, dyspareunia is pain that occurs during or following sexual intercourse. Vaginismus on the other hand, typically prevents intercourse altogether. Psychology Today claims this prevention is because the vagina begins to tighten as one attempts to insert a penis, finger, dildo, or other object into the vagina  Cause:  Vaginismus occurs because a series of contracting muscles result in an impenetrable vagina. These muscles can include those on the pelvic floor, or those that line the vaginal walls (Levay, Baldwin, and Baldwin, 2012). They have not determined the reason why this occurs but it is most commonly believed to be linked to past sexual trauma 2) Current Statistics and Prevalence  it is difficult to acquire accurate statistics on the prevalence of dyspareunia and vaginismus. According to multiple sources, sexual pain disorder occurs most often in females, and is only seen in less than three percent of males  Surprisingly, it also seems to be more common among younger women than older women  It is said that more than 20% of all women will experience some sort of sexual pain at some point in their life  If we take a closer look at women who experience specifically dyspareunia, it is estimated that approximately 1 out of every 6 women will struggle with the disorder at varying degrees during their life  Research shows that vaginismus on the other hand, is much less common, and affects 1 out of every 500 women. 3) Impact of Sexuality  When one or both partners experience a sexual pain disorder, it can lead to problems in the relationship  some partners experience self doubt, frustration, resentment, and a loss of intimacy which can all have a negative effect on a person's sex life 4) Treatments and Effectiveness Dyspareunia  For women who have recently had a child, coitus is not recommended for approximately three weeks to avoid dyspareunia symptoms ("Sexual Pain Disorder," 2014).  Women who are in menopause and experience vaginal atrophy may receive hormone therapy in order to produce more natural lubricants ("Vaginal Atrophy," 2013).  Increased foreplay and artificial lubricants are often suggested ("Sexual Pain Disorder," 2014).  For endometriosis, oral contraceptives have been shown to help reduce pain along with various medications (Davis, 2010).  A change in non-latex condoms or types of soaps may prevent allergic reactions that cause dyspareunia (Levay, Baldwin, and Baldwin, 2012).  Because vulvar vestibulitis syndrome has many different categories, it is imperative that individuals consult a medical professional for dyspareunia treatment ("Vulvar Vestibulitis," n.d.).  Individuals who have dyspareunia as a result of pelvic inflammatory disease or sexually transmitted diseases should take antibiotics to counteract the bacteria (Obos Common Medical Conditions Contributors, 2011).  For more extreme medical causes, surgery may be performed ("Sexual Pain Disorder," 2014).  Above all, researchers reccommend that the individual undergo sex therapy to uncover the underlying reasons for the alleged pain. Researchers believe the issue is often self-believed, and therapy can help dissipate one's fears regarding sex (Brichford, n.d.) o EXAM PRACTICE QUESTION (SYNTHESIS) : What solutions or treatments would you suggest for individuals who have dyspareunia as a result of PID or an STD? o A) take antibiotics to counteract the bacteria B) hormonal therapy C)increase foreplay D) use more artificial lubricants E) both C and D o Answer= A Vaginismus First off, it is recommended that the treatment for vaginismus be completed with the intimate, significant other involved. Treatment should be administered by a practicing professional and should include therapy programs. Therapy programs emphasize women empowerment by giving patients knowledge about human sexuality and physiology. Programs also educate individuals on the importance of Kegal exercises. The process of compressing and releasing muscles permits a woman with vaginismus the opportunity to better manage these muscles. Better management allows for penetration and proves to be highly effective in reducing vaginismus's symptoms EXAM PRACTICE QUESTION (COMPREHENSION): Explain why Kegal exercises are suggested for women with Vaginismus? (short answer) : The process of compressing and releasing muscles permits a woman with vaginismus the opportunity to better manage these muscles. Better management allows for penetration and proves to be highly effective in reducing vaginismus's symptoms Obesity's Effect on Sex Effect of Obesity on the Body  The state of being normal, overweight, obese, or extremely obese is determined by Body Mass Index (BMI).  BMI is calculated by using a person's height, weight, and age to arrive at a specific number that calculates for overall mass and health status.  Though BMI is a great indicator a person's health status, it can also be really inaccurate. BMI doesn't take into consideration that some people have a lot of muscle, and as we all know muscle weighs more than fat.  The effects of obesity on the body are many,  ranging from cardiac problems all the way to excessive strain on joints and soles of the feet  . The biggest complications are Type 2 Diabetes, High Blood Pressure, and Heart Disease.  Type 2 Diabetes (DM-2) is a disease where blood glucose is found in high amounts, this is not to be confused with type 1 diabetes (DM-1) where little to no insulin is produced by the pancreas (a genetic problem, not life choices).  In DM-2 patients cells are resistant to insulin, it is hypothesized that it is due to the overexposure of insulin since blood glucose is maintained high.  Like most receptors, if overexerted, they start to become dull and less sensitive to hormones and neurotransmitters.  Obese people have a high risk of developing DM-2 and if not properly monitored it could prove fatal to them and augment other complications such as heart disease, strokes, and blindness. In some cases, it can even call for amputations of certain limbs.  High blood pressure (hypertension) is due to vasoconstriction, causing the cardiac output to increase and thus mean arterial pressure (MAP) increases.  Hypertension is classified when blood pressure is higher than 140/90 mm Hg. In the fraction, the top number is systolic blood pressure, when the heart is contracting and the arteries are full of blood.  The bottom number in the fraction is diastolic pressure, this is in the interim time where the heart is between contractions  Overweight and obese have more fat so thus, the heart works harder to pump blood throughout the body. Hypertension if not addressed will cause cardiac problems, strokes, and kidney failure.  Heart Disease is the number one cause of deaths in the United States, this is not only due to overweight and obesity but also stressful lifestyles and overall unhealthy habits.  Overweight and obese people are more prone to cardiac problems due to hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and high blood glucose. These factors have the propensity to increase cardiac attacks, blockages of arteries, chest pains, and arrhythmia.  All of these problems are easily resolved, though, that is by losing weight and engaging in a healthy lifestyle.  With a normal BMI, all of these problems have a lower percentage of occurring and will also increase the quality of life. Most people say that they are comfortable with their body being overweight or obese, but what they don't understand is that their own body is not comfortable in that state. o EXAM PRACTICE QUESTION: (EVALUATION) If a woman is obese but very happy with her body, why is she still advised to change the way she looks? o what are some health risks she might encounter? The Impact of Obesity on Sex  Having a high BMI that exceeds the recommended number for your age leads to hormonal changes that affect your "libido" or sex-drive.  This greatly affects males because the erectile function is inversely proportional to age.  As men grow older, their erectile function decreases leading to a natural decline in libido.  When this is paired with an increased BMI, there is little to no sex drive when compared to an adult male who maintains a healthy diet.  This is caused by the effect of adipose tissue, or fat cells, on testosterone.  When there is a higher amount of adipose tissue that is found within the body, especially in the pelvic and abdominal regions, testosterone may be converted into estrogen.  The enzyme that is responsible for the conversion of testosterone into estrogen is known as aromatase which is found in body fat.  This means that an increased amount of body fat leads to an increased number of aromatase enzymes in the body. The increased number of aromatase enzyme lowers the amount of testosterone in the body resulting in a significant decrease in sex drive.  A common factor that affects the majority of obese individuals is an elevated level of cholesterol.  Higher levels of cholesterol in the bloodstream cause clots to form in veins leading to the pelvic area which makes it more difficult for sexual stimulation to occur in men and women.  The clots that form can potentially damage the blood vessels in the pelvic area due to hypertension and the presence of free radicals within the body which cause a cascade of uncontrollable reactions to occur. These reactions lead to tissue damage throughout the body making it even more difficult for blood to travel to the correct area of the body.  There are also a significant number of mental issues that affect an obese individual in addition to the physical factors.  Obesity may cause an individual to feel inferior due to the stigma that larger individuals are unattractive which may cause depression, anxiety, and a distortion of body image.  These factors greatly affect performance during sex because of the burden these issues place on males and erectile function  If a male is under a large amount of stress and anxiety, they are less likely to have an erection  This anxiety may discourage a male from engaging in sexual activity out of a lack of interest or even a fear or being unable to have an erection. This effect is further amplified in obese men due to a lack of self-confidence in their bodies. o EXAM PRACTICE QUESTION (application) Give an example of a mental issue an obese person might experience during coitus.  (short answer)  Women with obesity are also affected by a lack of self-confidence which results in a significantly lower amount of sex when compared to women with normal BMI. This lowered amount of sex means that there is a lower amount of preparedness in terms of safe sex. Due to inexperience, women who are affected by obesity have a considerably higher amount of unplanned pregnancies when compared to women who have a normal BMI. This is because women who are obese are less likely to take birth control or utilize contraceptive services. Fortunately for women, conversion of testosterone to estrogen has little to no effect on the sexual drive of women. This is because the estrogen is abundant in a female's body so the conversion of testosterone into estrogen via aromatase is irrelevant. What Does Current Research Say About This Condition? There isn't enough research being done on obesity's effect on sex, most of the research is concentrated on studying what happens when a person is obese in regards to their heart health, blood pressure, and high blood glucose levels. obese people have a higher rate of sexual dysfunction, though it could be either due to physical or physiological aspects. It was noted that BMI did not increase sexual dysfunction but is increased with waist to hip ratio. Common Misconception of Condition and Sex  These misconceptions include but are not limited to its frequency, sex drive, difficulty finding partners, the preference of partners ,the effort it takes to have sex, the pleasure of having sex, the size of genitals in obese people, and of course the fears of being crushed by partners.  The first misconception is the low frequency of sex with obese individuals due to the thought that obese people are considered "unattractive" based on social standards.  Another common misconception about obesity and sex is that obese individuals lack the sex drive to seek a sexual partner.  This is untrue because this situation does not only apply to those who are obese. The main argument of the misconception is the lack of energy that affects obese individuals.  Common misconceptions in the bedroom focus mainly on the efforts of the obese individual. These include the lack of effort due to difficulty in moving, the possibility of crushing your partner, and the size of genitals due to weight.  Some people believe that individuals who are obese have "bigger" vaginas, which is not the case. The tightness of vagina is based on the strength of muscles that make up the pelvic floor. A vagina begins to lose its tightness when an individual goes through childbirth, menopause or old age meaning that all women begin to have "bigger" vaginas when they go through one of these events. In order to reverse these effects, kegel exercises can be completed on a daily basis.


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