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Final Exam Guide

by: Michael Notetaker

Final Exam Guide BISC207

Michael Notetaker
GPA 3.895

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Topics 10, 11, 12, 16, and 17
Study Guide
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Michael Notetaker on Sunday May 15, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BISC207 at University of Delaware taught by JaneNoble-Harvey in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 36 views. For similar materials see Biology in Biological Sciences at University of Delaware.


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Date Created: 05/15/16
BISC 207 5/12/16 Topic 10-Cell Function • Tissue-a collection of cells that work together to perform a specific function • Organs-two or more tissues combine and function together (usually made of all four types of tissue) • Cytoskeleton o Microtubules-a hollow tube formed from tubular dimers (tubular dimer= alpha tubulin + beta tubulin), start from centrosome or microtubule organizing center § Cilia-short hairs/fibers that cover the cell and allow it to move, propel mucus in lungs § Flagella-longer than cilia, are small in number on cell that propel it (on unicellular organisms and sperm) § Cilia collects dust, bacteria, viruses, etc. in nose and lungs and don’t allow it to get in lungs and produce mucus (sweep particles with mucus to the throat to be swallowed-mucusiliary escalator) o Microfilaments-double-helix of actin monomers, surround microvilli § Microvilli are stabilized by microfilaments in intestines o Intermediate filaments-strong fibers composed of intermediate filaments protein, hold everything in place and where it should be (nucleus and ribosomes are attached & held) § Composed of keratins in cytoplasm and composed of lamins in nucleus • Microtubules and microfilament o Dynamic instability-can assemble and disassemble (cell changes them with need) o Positive end assembles while negative end disassembles • Cell movement o Cell moves itself (sperm with flagella) o Cells can change shape to fit needs (white blood cells) o Movement of organelles and molecules within the cell o Movement of materials past cell (cilia with mucus) o Movement that changes shape of muscle cells-microfilaments made of actin is linked with myosin and when powered by ATP, the myosin bends and moves the actin closer together causing the muscle to contract) o Movement of vesicles by myosin along actin (microfilaments) and kinesin (microtubules)-attaches and unwinds then rewinds and moves along Topic 11-Cell Division • Prokaryotic cells divide by binary fission while eukaryotic cells divide by mitosis and cytokinesis • Cell Cycle-repetitive pattern in cells that are reproducing o M phase (mitosis and cytokinesis) à G1 phase à S phase (DNA synthesis) à G2 phase o Stem cells and bone marrow cells go through this cycle all the time o Other cells (heart muscle cells) don’t reproduce and only perform their function (G0 phase-cells not actively dividing) o Other cells can be used from G0 phase to reproduce • 23 pairs of chromosomes in the human body o Centromere-special place on chromosome that other proteins can latch on o During S phase, sister chromatid is created • Mitosis o Prophase à Metaphase à Anaphase à Telophase o Prophase-chromosomes condense, centrosomes radiate microtubules and migrate to opposite poles, nuclear membrane starts to break down, microtubules of mitotic spindle attach to chromosomes o Metaphase-chromosomes line up in the center (metaphase plate) o Anaphase-sister chromatids (which become individual chromosomes when centromere splits) separate and travel towards spindles one to each side of the cell o Telophase-nuclear envelope reforms, cell splits, chromosomes condense, opposite of prophase o Cytokinesis-end of division § Animal cells-actin microfilaments contract and break the plasma membrane into two parts (two cells) § Plant cells-vesicles in cytoplasm collect cellulose (cell wall material) and move to the center to form cell plate but there are holes that allow material to move from one cell to the other plasmodesmata • Meiotic division-reproductive cells o Starts with one diploid cell which has two of each type of chromosomes (homologous pair) o Results in four daughter cells containing ½ the chromosomes of the parents o Meiosis I § Starts with duplicated chromosomes for both parents § Prophase-the two sister chromatids cross over and exchange part of each chromosome leading to genetic recombination where part of the crossed over chromatids switch genetic information, recombinant chromatids-chromosomes that contain genetic information from mother and father (after cross-over) § Metaphase-pairs of chromosomes lined up in the middle of the cells by spindles § Anaphase-the two pairs of chromosomes are pulled apart from each other § Telophase-two cells break apart o Meiosis II § Starts with one sister chromosome § Metaphase-the chromosomes line up along center § Anaphase-sister chromosomes are pulled apart § Telophase-cells split § Results in four daughter cells with ½ of a sister chromosome (haploid) • Regulation of cell cycle o At the G1 phase, cyclin binds to inactive cyclin dependent kinase (CDK) to allow binding of phosphorylated target protein o Cyclin is degraded through this process and is lost o G1/S cyclin-CDK prepares cell for DNA replication o Seyclin-CDK-cyclin lasts all S phase and helps initiate DNA synthesis o M cycle-CDK helps prepare for mitosis o DNA damage checkpoint-most important checkpoint in G1 phase makes sure DNA is correct or cell will shut down (apoptosis-cell death) or repair DNA damage o Checkpoint at G2 phase-DNA replication checkpoint, is DNA all replicated o Spindle assembly checkpoint-before anaphase, are all chromosomes attached to spindles o Apoptosis-genetic material is broken up • DNA damage checkpoint o P53 protein goes in nucleus and checks for DNA damage à no damage comes out and breaks down o P53 is phosphorylated if there is DNA damage and the p53 phosphorylated protein can’t leave and will inhibit (by transcription) the cell cycle o Stopping cell cycle gives the cell time to correct DNA damage • Sarcoma removed from chickens can be injected in other chickens to create tumors • Oncogene-cancer causing gene • Proto-oncogene-normal genes that promote cell division and can become oncogenes if mutated (prototypical gene that can become oncogene) • Tumor suppressors-encode proteins whose normal activities inhibit cell division (can be mutated to not recognize the bad mutations, similar to losing breaks in a car) • Malignant-unable to control reproduction as well as lose of location of cancer cells Topic 12-DNA Replication and Manipulation • H-bonding-charge to charge interaction between base pairs • Semiconservative DNA replication o Both halves are split and pieces of each of the original DNA is is part of the two new DNA o Conservative-old pieces remain intact after replication o DNA polymerase adds to 3’ group with phosphate replacing OH group • Continuous/Discontinuous replication o RNA primer starts replication after unwinding (done by helicase) of DNA duplex, resulting in replication fork o DNA synthesis is elongated and leading strand is the start of DNA o Okazaki found that the top part of the DNA is replicated by ligation (one strand with the opening coming at the 5’ prime end meaning the new strand starts with the 3’ end and it can only add to that end) o The other strand is continuous o DNA ligase brings together the disconnected strand and forms the lagging strand o RNA primase lays down the RNA primer o DNA polymerase extends RNA primer o A different DNA polymerase removes the primer and replaces it with base pairs (DNA subunits) o DNA polymerase has to bring in complementary pair and polymerase can remove any base that is incorrect (occurs right away) o Topoisomerase II relieves the stress of the unwinding (can be inhibited in cancer cells) o Toxic compounds in plants can be used to inhibit the topoisomerase II in cancer cells o Number of replication origins that are connected for linear DNA o In circular DNA, replication moves around in both ways until they meet o New strand is shorter than template strand because the end remains unreplicated and RNA primer leaves and after many generations of reproduction the strand becomes too short and it can cause damage to DNA o Telomere is repeating segments at the end of DNA that codes for a protein o Haflic limit-limit to number of times a cell can reproduce and the end becomes unstable and will react with each other and destruction of coding area will occur o Chromosomes then goes into synesance (cell death) o Telomerase can replace repeating DNA sequence lost in replication, carries its own RNA primer and will make telomeres and extend the life of the cell and can allow cells to continue to replicate (can cells have telomerase) and ligase connects the chains Topic 16-Mendelian Inheritance • Blending inheritance-former belief about genetics that traits from the father and mother were blended in offspring • Gregor Mendel-Monk that did genetic experiments o Worked with garden peas o Applied math (probability) to science o To cross plant, must cover plant after fertilizing ovules o True-breeding parental plants always produce offspring with identical to parent when self-fertilizing (plants with yellow seeds would always produce plants with yellow seeds) o Homozygous-two of the same hereditary units (AA or aa) o Heterozygous-two different hereditary units (Aa) o Monohybrids-come from parents who differ in one trait (green and yellow plants) o Phenotype-trait that is expressed that can be seen or measured o Genotype-trait that makes up the chromosomes o Punnett square-predicting offspring o From meiosis, one chromosome is picked from each parent and the pairs line up and separate and one is picked for fertilization o Incomplete dominance-in between phenotype is expressed for heterozygous that is different from both homozygous • Mendel’s Law o Principle of Segregation-two alleles segregate from each other in formation of gametes, half carry one allele while the other half carry the other allele o Independent assortment-genes from different traits assort independently of one another in the formation of gametes • Epistasis-two different genes, where one gene masks the other phenotype of a gene • Human genetics are tough to study because generations are twenty years • Family pedigrees • Huntington’s disease-dominant allele, results in incapacitating “chorea” spastic motion, lack of body control, onset in midlife • Achondroplasia-dwarfism-with short limbs and other abnormalities but regular sized torso • Recessive allele diseases can come from normal (phenotype) parents and show up in offspring • Over 7,000 disorders are from mutations in single gene o Most due to a recessive allele unable to form a specific active protein o Pleiotropy-all disorders, change in single gene may cause many symptoms/affects • Cystic fibrosis-1:20 Caucasians is a carrier, mutated protein can’t transport Cl out of the cell as well and water imbalance occurs and there is a thick mucus over epithelial cells, respiratory and intestinal tracts are affected • Tay-Sachs disease-1 in 3600 births in Ashkenazi Jews, storage disease-due to missing enzyme lysosomes, can’t metabolize lipids so they are stored in the brain leading to mental deterioration at 6 months and death by 4 years • Sickle Cell disease-1 in 10 African Americans are carriers, hemoglobins are sickled and block capillaries • These 3 diseases are specific to those groups because of inbreeding, more variety and diversity from outbreeding • Crispr-gene sequencing, allows genetic sequences to be replaced in the lab in order to remove disordered sequences o Normal alleles lead to the production of functional proteins o Mutated alleles lead to the production of nonfunctional proteins o Production of phenylketonuria proteins leads to major mental deterioration • Incomplete penetrance-individuals with genotype for disorder but due to environment doesn’t show symptoms/affects • Variable expressivity-phenotype is expressed but with different degree of severity in different individuals • Genetic testing-ability to know what disorders you will get Topic 17 • Blood types A A A O o Type A-complete dominance, i i or i i (no difference between the two), has special protein on red blood cell (glycoprotein) o Type B- i i or i i , has glycoprotein B, has complete dominance over Type O O O o Type O-i i , no glycoproteA BA or B, homozygous recessive o Codominance-Type AB-i i , both glycoproteins A and B are on red blood cell, both products of both alleles are shown • Environmental impact of genes o Siamese cats-gene that makes pigment is temperature sensitive, fur is light when warm but dark when cold (only on ears, face, and tail) o Nature vs. nurture-genetic code vs. upbringing (learning and lifestyle) • Pleiotropy-one gene leads many traits expressed, sickle cell disease, all human disorders lead to multiple symptoms • Continuous or quantitative trait (polygenic)-more than one gene leads to a single complex trait has normal distribution (ex. height, weight, IQ, skin color) • Mendel’s work was not understood in his time (because the mathematics behind it was not understood) but was given credit when two researchers discovered the same ideas • Mendel worked with complete dominance and simple genetics and worked with independent assortment • Sex-linked chromosomes o Males have X and Y chromosomes o The types of X and Y chromosomes have a region of homology at the end of the chromosomes o X has 1000 genes while the Y has 50 genes o Thomas Hunt Morgan-white eyed make are mutant (flies) and have 1:1 ratio of white to red while female only have red eyes (white eye is on X allele) o Colored-blindness is a sex linked recessive gene


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