FINAL STUDY GUIDE
FINAL STUDY GUIDE History 110A
Cal State Fullerton
Popular in World Civilization to 16th Century
verified elite notetaker
Popular in History
This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Veronica Barragan on Sunday May 15, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to History 110A at California State University - Fullerton taught by Stefan Chrissanthos in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 164 views. For similar materials see World Civilization to 16th Century in History at California State University - Fullerton.
Reviews for FINAL STUDY GUIDE
So much better than office hours. Needed something I could understand, and I got it. Will be turning back to StudySoup in the future
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 05/15/16
1. Holy Wars A. Alexius I a. He was Byzantine emperor from 1081-1118 b. Wants to reconquer all the lands the Seljuk Turks had taken c. He knew the Byzantine Empire was too weak to attack the Seljuk Turks on their own and decided that they would need military aid. d. He decides to ask his fellow Christians in Western Europe for help. e. He asked the pope to recruit soldiers in Western Europe and send them East t help the Byzantines f. He sends a letter to the pope whose name was Urban II B. Urban II a. The pope, religious leader of the Western Christians. b. He received a letter from Alexius II c. In this letter he sees an incredible opportunity, so he makes a big announcement. d. He calls for a meeting in Cleremont in France and tells everyone that he is going to announce something that is really big e. Since he is the pope a lot of people show up in Cleremont f. At Cleremont, the pope calls for a great crusade, a military campaign to help the Byzantines and free the holy lands from Muslim rule. g. Everybody in the audience is so fired and they yell out GOD WILLS IT. h. This marks the beginning of the crusades i. They were incredibly successful in the sense that there were many and thousands of people signed up j. They were popular for three reasons i. Piety 1. Everyone in Europe was very religious and they truly believed in god and believed that heaven and hell were real. 2. The pope tells them that if they go on the crusade and are killed they will go straight to heaven ii. Pugnaciousness 1. The love of fighting, this was the era of the European Knight 2. They spent all of their time either training or fighting iii. Greed 1. The pope promised that any lands that they conquered would be theirs. C. 1 Crusade a. Lasted from 1096-1099 b. Only crusade that was a success in the sense that they actually got a hold of land c. The crusader states were conquered d. We know so much about what happened because many of the soldiers that went wrote accounts of what happened e. They wrote what happened what happened when they captured Jerusalem f. Eventually the Muslims recaptured the holy lands, so they had to go on more crusades D. 2 Crusade a. The fall of one of the Latin Kingdoms in 1144 led to renewed calls for another crusade. b. Bernard managed to enlist two powerful rulers, but the Second Crusade proved to be a total failure. E. 3 Crusade a. The Third Crusade was a reaction to the fall of the Holy City of Jerusalem in 1187 to the Muslim forces under Saladin. b. Three major monarchs agreed to lead their forces in person. Eventually, only one remained, Richard the Lionhearted and he negotiated a settlement whereby Saladin agreed to allow Christian pilgrims free access to Jerusalem. F. Saladin a. In 1169, Sunni Muslims under the leadership of Saladin, vizier to the last caliph, brought an end to the Fatimid dynasty. b. Saladin proclaimed himself sultan and succeeded in establishing his control over both Egypt and Syria, thereby confronting the Christian states in the area with Muslim power on two fronts. G. Innocent III a. In 1215, Pope Innocent III called for a new crusade to destroy Muslim rule in Southern Spain b. He launched the Fourth Crusade after the death of Saladin in 1193. 2. Fall of Civilizations/Dark Ages a. 3. polis 4. Persian War 499-479BC a. 5. Roman Revolution, 133-31BC Persia attacked Greece in an attempt to conquer them and make Greece part of their empire A. Ionia a. Cyrus conquers Ionia in 540 BC b. Ionia was populated by Greeks i. This means that Greeks became subjects of Persians ii. Greeks didn’t like Persians and wanted their independence back c. Ionian Revolt i. Lasted from 499-494BC ii. When the Ionians revolted from Persia they were aware of the Persian power and knew that they would need help. Specifically Military Aid iii. They sent messengers across the sea to Greece and they begged their fellow Greeks for help. iv. The problem was that everyone in Greece knew how powerful the Persians were and almost no one wanted to mess with Persia 1. Almost every Polis said no v. There was exception though, the polis of Athens, who agreed to send military aid. 1. They sent hoplites and ships to help the Ionian revolt 2. The revolt fails 3. The Ionians are defeated and the ring leaders of the revolt are executed. 4. Ionia is again forced to be a subject of Persia vi. Darius 1. Darius decides to punish the Ionians, but he also decided that he will punish Athens. 2. In 490 BC Darius gathers 20,000 soldiers and sends them across the sea and arrive at Athenian territory at a place called Marathon, it was 26.2 miles away from Athens. 3. The Persians send a message that says resistance is futile so they should surrender and become subjects of Persia. 4. The Athenians had to decide if they should surrender or fight. a. Athenian citizens decided b. They decided to fight 5. In a Polis the people who decide to go to war are the same people who go fight. 6. The Athenians ask for help, but everyone says no 7. The Athenians march out to marathon with about 10,000 soldiers vii. The battle of marathon takes place and in a huge the Athenians defeat the Persians. Athenians lost 192 men and the Persians lost 7,000 men. B. Athenians beating the Persians a. They were fighting to protect their homes and families b. They had home field advantage c. They used hoplite armor (Iron armor) d. The Persians did not use armor in battle C. Darius was very upset so he decides he will take his time for a proper invasion of Greece, not just Athens anymore. a. The Persians did not return for 10 years b. The Greeks were fortunate it took the Persians this long because i. Darius dies and is replaced by his son Xerxes, who wasn’t a great military leader like his father. ii. Xerxes makes a number of mistakes that helps Greeks c. In 480 BC Xerxes is ready and gathers an army of 200,000 men largest ever seen at the time. i. Also a navy of 600 triremes, 200 per trireme ii. By September of 480 the Persians are in Greece iii. The Greeks know the Persians are coming iv. The Greeks join together and form a band/union known as the Hellenic League 1. Included in this were League were Athens, greatest navy army and Spartans, who had the best army. 2. Total of 31 polis were united 3. Altogether there were 40,000 hoplites and 400 triremes v. The Greeks decide to try and stop the Persians at a place named Thermopylae 1. They tried to stop them there because it is a very narrow pass between the mountains and the sea and the hoplites could have an advantage there. 2. Leonidas led the Spartans 3. The Persians arrive and for two days they are unable to break through. 4. A Greek traitor appears and tells Xerxes that there is a secret trail through the mountains 5. The Greeks realize what is happening and are able to get away 6. Leonidas and his soldiers stay and fight to the death. 7. There was a prophecy that the Greeks could only win of Sparta lost a king. 8. The Greeks lose the battle at Thermopylae 9. The Athens flee and Persians capture Athens without a fight a. Xerxes burns Athens to the ground as revenge b. Xerxes decides to send his fleet into the channel to destroy the Greek Navy. c. This was a mistake because the Persians had faster and more boats so they should have fought in the open sea. d. In a narrow channel the Greeks have the advantage d. The battle of Salamis i. The stronger Greek Navy defeats the Persian Navy ii. As a result to this battle Xerxes panics. iii. He no longer has a navy and is afraid he will be trapped in Greece iv. Xerxes takes most of his army and flees back to Persia. v. He leaves 70,000 soldiers in Greece e. The battle of Platea i. 40,000 Greek hoplites faced 70,000 Persians ii. The Greeks defeat the Persians and the surviving Persians flee back to Persia. iii. They won for the same reasons Athens won at Marathon iv. Important because as a result of this victory Persians were forced of Greece and they would never return v. The Persians would never conquer Greece vi. Victory would allow Greeks to develop a unique and independent civilization. vii. The victory gave Greeks a lot of confidence viii. They were the first to beat the Persians which only proved the Polis was superior D. Marks the beginning of the Golden/Classical age of Greece which lasts for the rest of the century. 6. Aztecs a. The story begins in Mexico with the rise of the Aztecs b. The Aztec Origin Myth i. According to the Aztecs early in 110’s AD their ancestors lived on a tiny island in the middle of a lake. The name of the island was Aztlan Island. ii. The Aztecs were living on this tiny island in the middle of a lake when one day in 1111 AD, the Aztecs were visited by their chief god, they had many gods, but this was the most important. iii. The god told the Aztecs they must leave their tiny island and go find a new home. They would know when they were to stop and that they had found their new home because they would see an eagle sitting on a cactus eating a snake. That is the spot the gods had chosen for them iv. If they did this the god told them that their ancestors would establish a great empire. v. The Aztecs pack up and start wandering around central Mexico, it takes a while, but finally in 1168 they wander into the Valley of Mexico. vi. When the Aztecs arrive the people who lived there were not happy and the Aztecs were constantly attacked by their more powerful neighbors. vii. When they were attacked again, rather than fleeing by land, they flee into the lake. They sought refuge on a tiny island in the middle of the lake and that is where they see the sign. They start to build their empire and this would be the capital of the great Aztec Empire, Tenochtitlan. viii. This island was actually a very good place to build the city. The Aztecs would expand through landfill. ix. Being in the middle of a lake meant a lot of water for the growing population as well as an inexhaustible amount of food, especially algae. x. Finally, this also meant they were safe form an outside attack. xi. The Aztecs world eventually leave their island and go on to conquer a vast empire. They conquered the valley of Mexico and lands beyond. xii. Eventually, the Aztec empire took over most of Mexico c. Reasons for success i. Great leaders/great kings ii. Very large and a very good army iii. Very similar to Persians and Spartans because boys were raised from a very young age to fight. They believed gods wanted them to conquer this vast empire. iv. Also religion played a big rule in Aztec success v. The Aztec war was also Holy war to keep the gods happy. vi. They believed that to keep the gods happy, human sacrifice was necessary. vii. This was a major part of the religion because through a period the Aztecs went through a very bad period and they believed that it was not a natural occurrence, but rather a sign from the gods that they were not happy with the Aztecs, so they decided that they would make the gods happy and in order to do that they would sacrifice people. They sacrificed thousands of people and eventually the disasters stopped. viii. This is why they would sacrifice ahead of time so that they wouldn’t wait until they were in a time of disaster again. ix. Military people were considered great if they brought back people captured rather. x. Greatest empire yet seen in North America. a. Lake Texcoco 7. Incas d. Origin i. According to the Incas their ancestors was named Manco. ii. Around 1190, Manco was living on a tiny island on a lake iii. Lake Titicaca was the lake the island was on iv. Manco was no ordinary guy he was the son of the sun v. Manco was visited by the sun. vi. The sun told him to leave the tiny island and go find a new home, Manco would know when he had found the place because the Sun gave a Manco a golden staff. vii. The sun Manco that each night he would take out the Golden Staff and try ad push it into the ground, if the staff goes into the ground and disappears, that is where he should start building. If he does this his descendants would establish a great empire. viii. Packs up and heads northwest and eventually ends up in Cuzco. ix. He puts the staff and it goes right into the ground. He starts to build the city. x. This city would be the capital of the Incan empire and would be known as Cuzco. xi. The Incas were successful for the same reasons as the Aztecs. They had a series of good leaders, good and big army, religion played a big role. Believed gods wanted them to conquer a vast empire xii. Incas forced their subjects to adopt the religion, they also developed a highly efficient administration. xiii. They built thousands of miles of roads as well as a complex system of messaging. xiv. The Incas were convinced they had conquered the whole habitual world. They sent out people in every direction to look for more places to conquer, but found nothing. a. The Incas built the largest empire yet seen in South America and believed they had conquered the world 8. Century of the Ship A. The Century of the Ship a. Many different civilizations, independently of one another, began building navies and sending out voyages of exploration i. They do this separately, but they do it around the same time ii. During this century the Chinese and Europeans sent out great voyages that would have an impact on the world B. China a. The Mongols controlled China for a long time. Kung la khan was a Mongol, but he was a big fan of Chinese civilization. i. He did not rule as a Mongol Khan but instead as a Chinese emperor. b. In 1368, the Chinese rose up in rebellion and overthrew the Mongol Empire. i. The Mongols were driven out of china, china became independent once again, and China’s third great dynasty was established. ii. 1368 marks the beginning of the Ming Dynasty, they ruled China from 1368-1644. c. Yung-lo i. Means “Ever-lasting Joy” ii. Third main emperor, ruled from 1402-1424 iii. When he became emperor, he had a number of ambitious goals 1. First of all, he wanted to demonstrate to the world that the Chinese were back. 2. The Chinese had not been unified and powerful for 700 years, not since the Tang Dynasty. 3. He wanted to demonstrate that he was the most powerful ruler on Earth and in the history of the world 4. As part of that, he wanted to demonstrate to everyone that China was the most powerful country in the word iv. There were a number ways he was going to this, one way was that he came up with the tribute system v. Two way to expand the Tribute system 1. The first was by land 2. The other way to expand was by sea vi. He expanded the army until there were 2 million men. He would first send out ambassadors and they were always polite and friendly. They would request that the rulers participate in the tribute system. If the rulers agreed they would have to go to Beijing in person and they would have to take tribute to Yung-lo. It could be anything that Yung-lo asked for. They would have to get down on their knees in front of Yung-lo and they would have to kow tow, which means bang head, this was a way of submission. If they said know to the tribute system, Yung-lo would send in his army and the rulers would be defeated, dragged to Beijing, and forced to kow tow and then they would be killed and a knew native ruler would be appointed vii. During the reign of Yung-lo, for the first time ever, the Chinese built a large navy 1. It was a navy consisting of more than 300 ships making it the biggest. Chinese technology was the most advanced, which means they were the most advanced. 2. They had the compass, rudimentary cannons, and more. 3. They had the biggest wooden ships ever built 4. Ships were not only bigger, but faster, they could carry a large army viii. All together the Chinese sent out 7 explorations, all were led by the Chinese admiral Cheng Ho. They occurred from 1405-1433. 6 were during the reign of Yung-lo and one was after his death. ix. Wherever the Chinese they went they politely asked to join the tribute system x. In Africa, the Chinese saw an animal, which resembled an animal from Chinese mythology. This animal only appeared when heaven was happy. The animal was a giraffe. xi. After the death of Yung-lo they voluntarily gave up naval supremacy. The government tried to destroy the records of the naval voyages, but some still survived. C. Europe a. A few year later the Europeans started to send out voyages, the country that led the way was Portugal. i. They were a part of a trade network, they like spices the most because they helped food taste better and helped preserve food. The goods were very expensive. ii. The Portuguese built ships and sent out ships. They wanted an east route to get goods by sea rather than Land. iii. Each year they would send out voyages and each time they would a little bit more south. b. Dias i. In 1487 he became the sail across the tip of Africa and into the Indian Ocean. ii. He does not go further, but proves that it can be done c. Da Gamma i. First Europe to sail around Africa to India and back. ii. Took 2 years, it was dangerous, he lost ¾ ships and 75% of his men, but he brings home a cargo of spices, which were worth 60 times what the voyage cost. iii. Because the profits were so great, these voyages would continue d. Other Europeans knew what Portugal was doing and wanted to get involved, Ferdinand and Isabella, the King and Queen of Spain i. They were willing to listen to an Italian, his name was Christopher Columbus, and he told them that the world is round, he also tells them the world is relatively small. Ferdinand and Isabella give three ships ii. He goes west trying to get east. He sells for two months and they see nothing. His men grow more and more afraid. They tell Columbus that if they don’t see land in three days they will turn back. Luckily for Columbus they find a tiny island two days later its name is San Salvador. iii. Columbus is in the Caribbean, but things he is in the Indies. He then finds Cuba and though it was Japan and tells everyone the good news. iv. Ferdinand and Isabella give him three more voyages, which means four total. v. Columbus eventually finds South America, Central America, and he dies convinced that he had found the East. vi. It was only a little while later that it was discovered that he found was not the Asias, but a new world. Columbus discoveries had a huge impact. vii. When Columbus got off his boat in San Salvador was a major turning point in history. viii. Within a century of Columbus arrival in the Americas, 90% of the native population died off. 9. Japan, 1551-1616 A. Japan a. Has always had an emperor b. The emperor was figure head, they exercised no real military or political power i. The shogun had a lot of power and it was a hereditary position c. The shogun of 1551 had no real power i. There were 120 little states who were constantly in a civil war. This was called the Ag of Warring States d. Eventually they would be reunified and would be known as modern day Japan B. Oda Nobunaga a. In 1551, he takes over half of a province. During this time there were 66 provinces. There were 119 other guys just like Oda b. During 1551-1582, Odaconquers almost half of Japan. He had power of 31 provinces c. He was successful because he took advantage of new military technology. d. During this time the first Europeans arrived in Japan and they brought with them the latest military technology, specifically guns and cannons. e. The Japanese did not have guns or canons, but they did have steel and gunpowder, so when they saw these weapons it was not difficult to figure out how they worked and started to manufacture. f. However, the Samurai did not want to use these new weapons because they believed it was a wimpy way to fight. Odadid not care he would use whatever worked. g. Another reason why he was successful is because he was incredibly ruthless i. It was Odawho killed the last shogun and since he did not care about titles he did not take the title ii. In 1582, the rebellion of one of his generals forced Oda to commit suicide. This led to another civil war, which was won by one of Oda’s general’s Hideyoshi C. Hideyoshi a. Moved quickly after Oda’s death to gain power b. Within 2 years he controlled almost half the country and moved quickly to conquer the rest of Japan c. In 1590 he conquered the rest of Japan d. He was a commoner, so he could not be shogun so he comes up with Taiko, which means Regent e. One major problem he faced was that he needed to find a successor, so that when he dies there could be a peaceful transition of power. f. He did not have children, so he did not have heirs g. At first he decided that his nephew would be his successor, but then to the shock of everyone one of Hideyoshi’s girlfriends gave birth to a boy, his name was Hideyori. h. Hideyoshi was excited because he now had a son. In order to insure that his son had no rivals he ordered his nephew and nephew’s family to commit suicide and they did. i. Unfortunately for Hideyoshi and Hideyori in 1598, Hideyoshi becomes very sick and it is clear that he is dying so he becomes terrified because Hideyori was only 5. j. He knew Hideyori was in trouble, so he set up a very elaborate system, which would govern Japan until Hideyori was old enough to govern himself. k. In 1598 Hideyoshi died l. Unfortunately, almost immediately the system he established broke down because of Tokugawa Ieyasu. Now that Hideyoshi was dead he was the most powerful ruler and he wanted to conquer Japan and get rid of Hideyori. m. However, there were a lot of rulers who wanted to stop him, these leaders opposed Tokugawa either because they were loyal to Hideyoshi and Hideyori, or because they wanted to take over for himself. n. The opponents of Tokugawa were led by Ishida Mitsunari. By 1600, Japan was divided into two hostile groups. Onone side there was Tokugawa and his allies and on the other side there was Ishida and his allies. D. Sekigahara a. In 1600, the battle of Sekigahara was fought b. Ishida had a plan on how he was going to win this battle, Ishida his some men in the hills so Tokugawa would think that he has a numerical advantage. When they attack Ishida would call the other who would attack from the side and behind. c. Hopefully Ishida’s plan catches them by surprise and he wins the battle. d. This was a very good plan, but the guys in yellow were secretly in league with Tokugawa. e. The guys in the hills attacks Ishida’s army instead of Tokugawa’s and Ishida is killed while fleeing. f. This battle is important because it gives Tokugawa control over Japan and in 1603 he proclaims himself shogun. This begins the Tokugawa Shogunate, which would last from 1603-1868 g. Tokugawa needs to do something about Hideyori, because the older he gets the more he reminds people of Hideyoshi, so it was too dangerous to let him live, so he starts to look or an excuse to kill Hideyori. h. In 1615, Hideyori was living in Osaka, he had a big bell made and in this bell he inscribed all the important leaders in Japan name, including Tokugawa. Tokugawa’s name is misspelled, so he declares war on Hideyori. This is a war Hideyori knows he can’t win so he begs for mercy on his life and family’s life, but Tokugawa says no. With Hideyori the last Japanese threat to Tokugawa was gone. E. During this time the Europeans first arrived in this land, specifically the Spanish. However, in Japan they did not enjoy the same advantages as in the Americas a. The Japanese had steel weapons, the horse, and they had the same diseases as the Europeans, so the Spanish realized that they would not be able to conquer japan militarily, so they try to do it religiously. b. They send out Christian missionaries and eventually some of the Japanese do convert to Christianity. c. Tokugawa decides that something must be done in order to stop the spread of Christianity, because of Will Adams d. He was shipwrecked in Japan and becomes very god friend with Tokugawa. At this time the British and Spanish were bitter enemies, so Adams tells Tokugawa all about the things that the Spanish did in the Americas. This confirms Tokugawa’s suspicions e. Tokugawa outlaws Christianity. Those who refuse to forget about Christianity are executed. He kicks out all foreigners, with a few exceptions. Japanese were not allowed to travel abroad. f. Japan would be closed for most of the Tokugawa Shogunate until they are forced to ope up by the US There will be 8 multi-part essay questions on the test derived from the topics listed above: you must do 5 and only 5. Each will be worth 20 points for a total of 100. You do not need to bring either a scantron or a bluebook. Paper will be provided for you. You will have 7 pages to write 5 essays=c.1 page/essay. If you have any questions about the format or the material do not hesitate to ask the professor during office hours, after class or by email.
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'