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UMD / History / HIST 289 / What is alexis de tocqueville known work?

What is alexis de tocqueville known work?

What is alexis de tocqueville known work?

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School: University of Maryland - College Park
Department: History
Course: What Does It Mean to Be an American?
Professor: Howard smead
Term: Winter 2016
Tags: history
Cost: 50
Name: Final Exam Outline
Description: Comprehensive outline of everything that's going to be on the Final Exam. Good luck!
Uploaded: 05/17/2016
23 Pages 142 Views 4 Unlocks
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Important People and Figures and their Significance to the Course


What is alexis de tocqueville known work?



 Alexis de Tocqueville

 Upheld the sense of American Exceptionalism  

 Known for his famous piece “Democracy in America”  Coins the term “individualism” when examining America  Showed the pronounced emphasis on the rights of the  individual while still having a sense of communitarianism  ∙ Different from common man of Western Europe, who had a  high value of the self, but didn’t share same commitment  to the common good

 His problems with American Democracy

 Too much power invested in the legislative branch, both  federal and state

 Abuse of freedom, or disrespect of another’s freedom, or lack  of concern for it

∙ Abusing the freedom of minorities/lack of freedom for  minorities


What are alexis de tocqueville's problems with american democracy?



 Excessive individualism, materialism

 Josef Stalin  

 Mocked the idea of American Exceptionalism

 Thomas Jefferson  

 Virginia planter elite, highly educated, owned hundreds of slaves  Views on African-Americans

 Conceded Negroes were equal to whites in a moral sense,  however had doubt about the intellectual abilities of blacks ∙ Thought that much of blacks’ ability was centralized in the  body, as opposed to the mind Don't forget about the age old question of What does a small pka value mean?

 Subscribed to the idea that blacks had a “Sambo” personality ∙ Sambo: Childish or savage

 He owned slaves of his own and had no problem with severely punishing slaves or selling them to the South

 He stated that slavery corrupted the morals of slaveholding  society, but he was not one to attempt to end it at all


What is thomas jefferson known work?



 Jefferson on Native Americans

 Realized that the Revolution was a disaster for the Native  Americans

∙ Tribes began to ally with the British because they provided  at least a slim chance of protecting their land, which  

antagonized the Americans’ view of Indians even more so

 Allowed Indians to be removed or assimilated, but would not  allow them to stand in the way of American expansion ∙ Believed that they could be civilized and assimilated into  their culture

 Jefferson on Government  We also discuss several other topics like What is the holistic approach in anthropology?

 Saw America as a nation of small farmers Don't forget about the age old question of How does having a sleep disorder affect your quality of life?

∙ Entertained the lifestyle of owning enough land to  guarantee self-sufficiency and personal independence  Supported a weak central government and strong state  governments, essentially republicanism in its purest form  Operated under strict constructionism: a literal interpretation  of the Constitution

 Big supporter of the individual rights granted to citizens  Believed that power should reside in the hands of common  people

∙ Feared the permanent political class that Hamilton  envisioned

 Jefferson on Economics

 Entailed limiting the government support of trade, finance and manufacturing sectors We also discuss several other topics like State and explain the doctrine of double effect (dde). on what distinction is it based?

∙ No central bank, no internal taxes

 Thought the government should pay off the national debt  following the Revolutionary War, supported a balanced budget  Jefferson’s ideas caught on well with the nation since they  were so relatable to the people

 Jeffersonian Republicanism

 Supported the common man, but also believed that the best  would rise to the upper tiers of power in society – a “natural  aristocracy” We also discuss several other topics like Is there independent confirmation of the source's claims?

∙ These men would be the representatives of the People,  acting in correspondence to the opinion of their People  Distrusted the elitist system in place in Hamilton’s view of  Republicanism If you want to learn more check out What are the types of verbs?

 Alexander Hamilton

 Grew up extremely intelligent and well educated

 Hamilton on Slavery

 Grew up in a slaveholding environment, but eventually  associated with abolitionist John Jay, who could have  

influenced his ideas

 Believed that slavery relaxes/debases society

∙ Also believed that slavery was detrimental to the slave  owning population due to its association with power and  lust

 Became a member of Society for the Promotion of the  Manumission of Slaves in New York

 Hamilton on Government  

 Had a distrust for pure republicanism/common people; was  more of a monarchist

 Pushed for a strong central government run by the wealthy  and well-educated folk of the nation

 Adopted a “loose” interpretation of the Constitution ∙ Supported the “implied powers” of the federal government  to use when necessary

∙ Also adopted the “checks and balances” system to restrain power

♦ Founded on the 3-branch system of government that  the U.S. employs (executive, legislative, judicial)

 Hamilton on Economics  

 Supported a diverse economy of agriculture, trade, finance,  and manufacturing

 Pushed for a national bank to control monetary policy and a  national debt system to establish credit

∙ Provided citizens with the opportunity to borrow money  from the government

 “Report on Manufactures”

∙ Put tariffs on foreign goods

∙ Supported giving subsidies to domestic manufacturing ∙ Government should support business and commerce  Crevecoeur  

 Believed Americans were unlike any other people  

 Crevecoeur’s “New American”

 Based off of analysis done in Nantucket, MA

 The New American was free, independent, resourceful, owned  property

 “Animated by the spirit of industry”

 All had equal chance at success  

 A communitarian, not ruggedly individualistic

 Americans transformed the European man

∙ The European man became liberated when he arrived in  the open, new land of America

 Noted that the nation was a land of “rough equality,” enjoyed  the idea of low taxes, equal opportunity, and the absence of  powerful royalty  

∙ Enjoyed the opportunity to change oneself that America  provided

 Crevecoeur’s “American Hell”

 Based off of Charleston, SC

∙ That society was characterized by:

♦ Greed, inequality, self-indulgence  

♦ Slavery completely influenced the morals and  

characteristics of the society

 Also concluded that the American Frontier invited selfishness  that damaged society

∙ A haven for drunkenness, indolence, and indulgence in the  unlawful land of the woods

 Crevecoeur’s Stance on the Revolution

 Was turned off by America’s initiation of the Revolution  Viewed Patriots as too pushy and that they provoked  unnecessary conflict

 Benjamin Franklin

 Quoted saying that nation would be featuring a “Republic, if you  can keep it”

 Meant that there is no blueprint for it

∙ It was almost like an experiment at the time

 The government form also put a lot of trust in the people,  which the framers were reluctant to do

 James Madison, George Washington, John Adams, Alexander  Hamilton

 Key members of the Federalist movement in the early years of  the USA

 Thomas Jefferson, James Madison (on both sides), Aaron Burr, John  Randolph of Roanoke

 Key members of the Anti-Federalist movement in early years of  USA

 Eli Whitney

 Invented the Cotton Gin in 1794

 Revolutionized the cotton industry in the American South, and therefore put an increased importance on the institution of  slavery

 Henry Clay, Daniel Webster, and John Calhoun

 Formed the Compromise of 1850

 Dred Scott

 Focal point of landmark Supreme Court case in 1857 that  sparked more tension before the start of secession

 Case declares that the federal government is unable to block the  expansion of slavery, but the states are able to decide on their  own

 John Brown

 Famous for his raid of Harper’s Ferry in 1859, which is referred to  as a proximate cause of the Civil War

 Abraham Lincoln  

 Relatively unknown at the time of his election

 It was not Lincoln who caused the southern states to secede, it  was the fact that the Republican party won

 Frederick Jackson Turner  

 Founder of the Turner Thesis

 “The frontier is the line of most rapid Americanization.”  Stated that coarseness and strength combined with acuteness and acquisitiveness, practical inventive turn of mind, and  masterful grasp of material could all be attributed to the  influence of the West

∙ The epitome of the U.S.

 Turner - The Frontier was the chief influence in shaping these  aspects of American life:

∙ Social equality, growth of political democracy, nationalism,  faith in the future, economic independence, safety valve  for factory workers, invention, individualism

 Code of the West

 Honesty, Humility, courage, loyalty and hard work

 Honor: a man was only as good as his word

 “No Duty to Retreat”: imperative of self-redress

 The Rugged Individualist

 Jesse James, Al Capone

 Criminals that were idolized as heroes in American society  Speaks to America’s fascination with criminality  

 Albert Lasker  

 “Father of Modern Advertising”

 Described advertising as salesmanship in print

 Known for marketing orange juice as the standard breakfast  drink  

 Edward Bernays

 Used psychological manipulation to engineer consent  “Tapping into hidden desires and urges”

 Found most of his success with tobacco products

 “Torches of freedom”

 Started to use athletes to market products – Wheaties  Margaret Sanger, Alice Paul, Florence Kelly

 Key proponents to feminist movement during the early 1900’s  Helped define the “New Woman” – doing constructive and  productive things in society

 Charles and Archibald Hodge

 Opposed Darwin’s ideas and the scientific movement   Bible is “absolutely errorless and binding”

 Billy Sunday  

 Used vibrant preaching tactics to promote the evangelist cause  Clarence Darrow  

 Attorney defending the modernist side in the Scopes Monkey Trial  William Jennings Bryan  

 Attorney defending the fundamentalist side in the Scopes  Monkey Trial

 Jerry Falwell and Pat Robertson  

 Prominent televangelists that possess great power in the  Republican party

 Huey Newton

 Prominent member of the Black Panthers

 Malcolm X, Stokely Carmichael  

 Prominent members of the Black Power Movement, which was  not necessarily a part of the Civil Rights Movement

 Betty Friedan  

 Wrote “The Feminine Mystique”

 Key face of the Women’s Movement in the 1960’s

 Katharine Switzer  

 Ran in the Boston Marathon, attempting to break down the  gender barrier

 Ronald Reagan

 Re-establishes Republican party in the presidency  

 Gained extreme popularity, defeating the incumbent preside in a  landslide election

 Emphasized low taxes, de-regulation and stronger stance against Communism

 “Morning in America” – his campaign brought conservative ideals back to government

Key Events and Legislation to Know

 Boston Tea Party (1773)

 Resistance to Tea Tax

 Pushed for their right to be taxed by their own elected  representatives

 Established the rebellious attitude of Americans that still exists  today

 Articles of Confederation (1781)

 Featured a weak central government

 Influenced by the idea of local government, fear for tyranny  Flirted with bankruptcy

 Shays Rebellion (1786)

 Illustrated how broken the Articles of Confederation were   Government was not able to put down the rebellion  Declaration of Independence (1776)

 Does not possess any force of law, but voices what America  stands for

 Constitution (1787)

 “Fixed” the country and the federal government after the Articles of Confederation

 Largely a product of James Madison

 Constructed at the National Convention  

 Slavery in the Constitution

 3/5th’s Clause: Counted slaves as 3/5th’s of a person in the  eyes of govt.

 Allowed the slave trade to be legal until at least 1808  Fugitive Slave Clause: required all runaway slaves to be  returned to owner

 Bill of Rights (1787)

 Consists of the first 10 Amendments to the US Constitution   Mainly dealt with the rights of the people and their protection  from government

 Market Revolution (Early 1800’s)

 Represented the expansion of trade in agricultural products and  manufactured goods

 Farmers were no longer just supplying for themselves but for  people around the nation and around the world

 Led to a stronger transportation system around the nation (train,  canal)

 Invention of the Cotton Gin (1794)

 Invented by Eli Whitney, the cotton gin made some people  extremely wealthy, but forced an added burden on the slaves of  the South

 Manifest Destiny (1845)

 Term was coined by John O’Sullivan

 Argues that it is America’s God-given destiny to take land   Encourages the expansion of slavery

 Slavery expands to Texas and out into New Mexico territory by 1857

 The First Sectional Crisis

 1820: a time that featured 11 slaves states and 11 free states  Argument exists over the expansion of slavery, not necessarily  the existence of slavery

 There became a political equilibrium in the Senate, however the  House was dominated by free states  

 In 1819, Missouri, a slave state, applied for statehood  This would have offset the balance of slave and free states  The Missouri Compromise/The Compromise of 1820  Engineered by Henry Clay

 Allows Missouri to obtain statehood as a slave state  However, Maine must also be admitted to the union as a free  state to keep the balance  

 The 36*30’ Line

∙ Any new state that joins the nation above the line, must be a free state

∙ Likewise, any state that join the nation below the line is a  slave state

∙ Represented by where the Ohio meets the Mississippi ∙ Essentially suspends this “crisis” for a few more decades  Expansion of Slavery (1836-1844)

 The “Gag Rule”

 Bans any petition “praying for the abolition of slavery in the  District of Columbia or any state or territory”

 Also bans petitions against the slave trade between the states and territories of the US

 Compromise of 1850

 Formed by Henry Clay, Daniel Webster, and John Calhoun  Deals with the narrative of what to do when adding new states to the union

 Policies:

 California is established as a free state, upsetting the balance  Utah and New Mexico had no restrictions on slavery at the  time

 Federal Government assumed Texas’ debt before it was  annexed  

 Slave trade was banned in DC

 A new fugitive slave act was passed

∙ It is now the black’s responsibility to prove that he/she was not a slave whenever confronted by a white citizen

 Congress declared that it had no power to regulate interstate  slave commerce

 Dred Scott (1857)

 Declares that the federal government is unable to block the  expansion of slavery, but the states are able to decide on their  own

 Blacks do not have any rights

 Civil War  

 South’s Motives: not necessarily to “win” the war but to  successfully secede

 Didn’t necessarily have to win the war to do so

 Proximate Causes of the war

 Uncle Tom’s Cabin, 1852

 Bleeding Kansas, 1854

 Republican Party, 1854

 John Brown’s raid on Harper’s Ferry, 1859

 Election of Lincoln, 1860

 Secession of South Carolina, one month after Lincoln’s  election in 1860

 Lincoln’s call for troops

 Nadir: 1880-1920

 Legalized discrimination in every southern state by 1910  Blacks and black legislators had helped significantly in setting  the country back on the right track, but were rewarded with  discrimination

 South Carolina had 39 black legislators in 1877, zero in 1900 ∙ Result of Jim Crow Laws

 Shows how whites dominated Reconstruction in almost every  way

 Mississippi Plan  

 Adopted by a state constitutional convention in 1890 in an  attempt to keep blacks from voting

 Attempted to circumvent 14th and 15th Amendments   Established policies like these to keep blacks from voting:  Residency requirement to vote

 Poll tax: $2

 Literacy test

 Understanding test

 Grandfather clause

 Plessy v. Ferguson (1896)

 Validated “Equal and separate”/separate but equal clause  Mississippi v. Williams (1898)

 Validated the Mississippi Plan

 Immigration Laws  

 1790: Naturalization Act

 2 year residency required for all immigrants  

 Foreign-born free and white could become citizens  1795: Naturalization Act

 Immigrants required to live in the U.S. for 5 years   1868: 14th Amendment

 All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and  subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United  States and of the States wherein they reside

 1875: Page Act

 Prohibited the entry of undesirable immigrants

 Excludes all Chinese women (considered prostitutes)  Restrictive Immigration Legislation

 1882: Immigration Act

 Federalized immigration - 50 cent Head tax

 Banned “idiots, lunatics, convicts and person likely become a  public charge.”

 1882: Chinese Exclusion Act

 1885: Contract Labor Law prohibits long term work contracts  1891: Immigration Act

 Excludes communicable diseases, mental disorders   Ellis Island becomes official depot for first arrivals   1894: Immigration Restriction League formed

 Prompted by ideas of Social Darwinism

 Several anti-immigration bills passed in the senate  1903: Excludes radicals (socialists, communists, anarchists)  1903-1916: 13 separate legislative acts passed  

 1907: “Gentlemen’s Agreement”

 1917: Immigration Act  

 1921: Johnson Emergency Quota Act

 Used 1910 Census, 3% quota requirement on 1910 ethnic  population

 1924: National Origins Act (a.k.a. Johnson-Reed Immigration Act)  Lowers quota to 2%

 Based on 1890 census

 Immigration Reform Act of 1965

 “Placed a new emphasis on reuniting families and granting  asylum to refugees, while also favoring immigrants with desired  skills and ending the longstanding preference for Western  Europeans.”

 Abolishes most restrictions

 170K immigrants in each year from Europe, Asia, Africa  No more than 20K from a single country

 Preference to those whose immediate relatives are American  citizens

 Amnesty Act of 1986

 Adopted under Ronald Reagan’s presidency

 Gave amnesty to the illegal immigrants living in the U.S.  Number of unauthorized immigrants soared

∙ 5 million in 1986 (estimated) to 11.1 million today  (estimated)

 The Great Migration (1910 – 1920)

 Rural to urban population shift  

 Mainly African-Americans

 51% of blacks were outside South by 1950  

 5 million total by 1960

 Sought a “richer and fuller life”

 Two popular destinations for blacks: Harlem, Chicago  The Harlem Renaissance (1910’s – 1930’s)

 Cultural explosion that affects all of America

 A product of a “richer and fuller life”  

 Produces a new awareness of the black population – “The New  Negro”

 Eventually undermined by the Great Depression  

 Great Awakening (1730-40)

 American Revolution was a product of the Great Awakening   Ideas of the puritans  

 Great Revival (1815-40)

 Also known as the Second Great Awakening  

 People had begun to realize how American society had a lot to do with sins, questionable lifestyles  

 Led to a cleansing period

 Sparked the movement to abolish slavery

 Christian Fundamental (1900)

 Interpretation of the bible came into question

 Led to a culture clash

 4th Great Awakening (1980-90)  

 Led to a culture war

 Peaked with the impeachment of Bill Clinton

 Butler Act

 Tennessee Legislature passed a law making it illegal for a public  school to teach any theory that denies the story of Divine  Creation of man as taught in the Bible.”

 Sets up the Scopes Trial

 3 Eras of Welfare

 Progressive Movement (1890-1920)

 Reaction to industrial capitalism

 The New Deal (1933-1943)

 Reaction to the Great Depression

 The Great Society (1964-1968)

 Reaction to reform movements (poverty, discrimination, etc.,  amidst the highest standard of living ever

 New Deal - Franklin D. Roosevelt

 Set up dozens of programs that essentially represent an attempt  to provide relief and jobs to the American people

 Also represented a sharp increase in the role of the federal  government  

 Pros

 Stabilized banking system and an economy that was on brink  of disaster

 Extended relief to millions of citizens through direct payments or public works programs

 Provided means for recovery, regulatory reforms

 Gave government aid to African Americans

 Cons

 New Deal did not end the Great Depression

 Government monetary and fiscal policies under Hoover then  FDR made things worse than they would have been

 High tariff, high interest rates, bad foreign loans

 The spending, high taxes, wage and labor policies all delayed  recovery

 Counter to American tradition and self-image

 Great Society

 The War on Poverty - Idea of the Great Society was to improve  the quality of living for everyone in the nation

 Pros

 Provided much-needed civil rights legislations

 Significantly reduced poverty, especially among the elderly  Provided environmental, workplace, healthcare, consumer  protection legislation, among other things

 Improved quality of life

 Extended Civil Rights to minorities

 Cons

 Created permanent underclass through welfare  

 Created unwieldy federal bureaucracies

 Increased the national debt  

 Brought government into the lives of the people

 Middle class entitlements unnecessary, possibly harmful  Failed in its goals, especially in the war on poverty

 Soaring ‘60’s  

 The decade represented a very prosperous time - unemployment at 3.5%

 If you graduated college, jobs would look for you, rather than you looking for a job, but only 10% graduated college

 The time represented an era of youth

 Points of rebellion

 Racial oppression, Civil Rights

 Protest movements

 Civil Rights Movement, Student Movement/New Left, Anti-War  Movement, Women’s Movement, Gay Rights, among many  other issues

 Societal revolution was sparked by activism within the  government, namely the Supreme Court, as well as activism on  the streets

 Segregation was ended after the Supreme Court ruled that  “separate is inherently unequal,” referencing the “separate  but equal” ruling from Plessy v. Ferguson

∙ Chief Justice Earl Warren led the court that came to this  ruling and would prove to be a quite progressive justice in  the years to come

 Citizens also took direct action - Rosa Parks, Sit-ins,  Montgomery Bus Boycott

 Major Legislation during the Civil Rights era

 Civil Rights Act of 1964

 Gave equal access to public accommodations, schools, places  of employment  

 Equality of voter registration

 Officially made blacks citizens

∙ 14th/15th Amendments had flaws to them

 Voting Rights Act of 1965

 Voided literacy and understanding tests

 Designated areas for federal supervision

 Berkley Free Speech Movement

 Clearly influenced by the Civil Rights Movement

 Represented one of many movements that arose on college  campuses

 Gay Rights  

 Movement appears in the summer of 1969

 Fights for gay liberation

 Argues that people should not have to hide their sexual  orientation

 Anti-War Movement  

 Far and away the largest protest in terms of numbers  “Morning in America” – The Reagan Era

 Reagan re-establishes Republican party in the presidency  Forms a revolution against the CounterCulture that had taken  over American society

 Wins presidency in an absolute landslide against an incumbent  president

 “The Reagan Revolution”

 Triumph of the “Southern Strategy” and rise to dominance of  conservatism

 Emphasis in government on low taxes, de-regulation and  stronger stance against Communism

 “Liberal” becomes a dirty word

 But, led to a split between social conservatives, libertarians and  country club conservatives

 Hurricane Katrina - August 2005

 Government was looked upon to provide help for victims   Product of the New Deal

 The Tea Party

 Reaction to ObamaCare (despite S.S., Medicare), stimulus, TARP  bailouts, Auto Industry bailout

 Opposed:

 Health care, tax increase on wealthy, financial reform,  economics, environmental national security

Other Terms/Concepts to Know

 Seeds of future conflict contained in American Revolution  Class, race, religion

 Demographic and economic forces undermined paternalistic  nature of society

 Yeomanry less dependent on aristocratic planters

 Citizens had economic independence  

 Evangelical religion: religious dissent became political dissent  A rebellious sense among the American people existed  Evidenced even as recent as the Obama administration  Boston Tea Party (1773), “Sons of Liberty”

 American Patriots – who were they?

 Citizen soldiers, free men and women

 Solid, hard-working yeomanry

 Enlightened intellectuals who despised slavery

 Essentially, people of all types

 Why did the colonists rebel?

 People were already in the process of unrest

 “Anger rather than enlightened debate defined the political  movement.”

 Localism and self-government and relative isolation bred  Colonists With Attitudes

 Violence characterized colonial society - Rebellions, riots, tarring  and feathering, mobbing, religious violence, Indian massacres,  slavery

 “Mobocracy”

 Referred to the undisciplined, immoral American society at time  of Revolution

 Feared by the Founding Fathers  

 Constitution was conservatively written as a result

 Possessed a fear for government run by the undisciplined  people

 Why did Britain lose the Revolutionary War

 Distance

 US was decentralized, couldn’t pinpoint where to attack  Size (territorially) of the US was massive compared to Great  Britain

 Changes after the Revolution

 Demographic

 Problem of slavery  

 Loyalists went either to Canada or back to Britain

 Westward expansion

∙ Led to the Indian problem, higher populated areas in places like Kentucky

 Freedom became the main dynamic

 Economic  

 North vs. South dichotomy

 Political  

 Articles of Confederation  

∙ States own the majority of the power

∙ Power to tax is with the states

∙ The republic is weak  

 National Convention

∙ Formed the Constitution

 Republicanism

 Highlights liberty and inalienable rights as central values  Is able to support an activist government  

 Prohibits inherited power

 Expects citizens to exercise individual power

 Factions over Federalism

 An argument about where the power should lie in America  Federalist

 Supported a stronger national government, more connected  union

 Included Madison, Washington, John Adams, Hamilton  Formed into the Federalist Political Party, but dissipated by the Election of 1820 and turned into the Whig party

 Much later, it would form into the Republican Party

 Anti-Federalist

 Opposed national/consolidated principles, supported states  rights over national power

 Supported the principle of the Articles of Confederation  Included Jefferson, Madison, Burr, John Randolph of Roanoke,  Jeffersonians,  

 Became known as the Jeffersonian Republicans, then the  Democratic Republicans, then finally the Democratic Party  Why slavery increased in the South and decreased in the North  South  

 Slavery was a massive element to the economy

 Slave trade was cut off, making slaves more expensive  Had an agrarian economy, which was more labor intensive   North

 Industrial economy

 Labor was done by machine mainly

 Manifest Destiny

 Term was coined by John O’Sullivan in 1845

 Argues that it is America’s God-given destiny to take land

 Encourages the expansion of slavery

 Slavery expands to Texas and out into New Mexico territory by 1857

 States rights, as viewed by the South  

 Fundamental to the Southern point of view

 Acts as the central rationale for secession  

 South thought these rights were being swallowed up by central  power

 Supported by the 10th Amendment of the Constitution  ∙ Any power not specifically given to the federal government is given to the states

 States rights as viewed by the North

 Also embraced States Rights

 Refused to enforce Fugitive Slave Act

∙ Support of the Underground Railroad

 Moral issues at hand

 South was apologetically calling slavery a “Peculiar institution”  The view changed from a “necessary evil” to a “positive good”  Three Elements of Reconstruction

 Economic  

 Political  

 Racial

 Growing abolitionist sentiment  

 White Supremacy Factors  

 Scientific racism

 Phrenology, Crainometry, Intelligence = IQ tests

∙ These tests were often extremely biased

 Social Darwinism: “Survival of the fittest”

 Laissez-faire: economics and government: allows natural order of things

 Self-reliance

 “Rugged individualism”

 Localism

 Tradition and violence flourish

 New Creed of the South  

 Progress through uniformity

 Savage Ideal

 The mindset to maintain white supremacy by any means  necessary

 Southern Rape Complex

 African-Americans were viewed as a sexual threat to white  women

∙ This notion was not necessarily backed up by much  evidence

 Edgefield Policy

 Savage ideal in action - Gave white men the responsibility to  do whatever is necessary to maintain control in the black  population

 Racial Violence Lynching

 Killing off black elected officials

 Occurred once every two and a half days

 Iron Age of American history

 Spurred by the Civil War

 Post-Civil War

 Exports 3x, Population 2x , Standard of living 2x

 Railroads were a key factor

 Industries based in or near cities, or industrial towns became  common place

 Led to large corporations and monopolies

 Industrial capitalism rises to absolute power

 Industry is developed in Urban Centers

 Centrifugal force of industrialization expanded industrialism and  the power of businessmen everywhere

 Centripetal force brought more people into centers from which  power radiated – cities

 Urban America

 Industrialization created cities and gave them a new and alien  character, fueled by immigration

 A small percentage of the population became extremely wealthy  Population went from 6 million to 44 million

 Chaos, crime, consumption

 Huge foreign-born population

 Immigration  

 The immigration era in America was the greatest voluntary  migration in human history

 Pre-Civil War Immigration  

 British, western European, Northern European, African,  Hispanic, Asia

 New Immigrant stock

 Central Europe, Southern Europe, Eastern Europe/Russia, Asia  Religion among immigrant shifted from protestant to Roman  Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, Jewish, Buddhist, Confuscian  Motives for migration

 Push factors

∙ Land consolidation

∙ Commercial farming

∙ Industrialization

∙ Religious and political persecution

∙ Often applied to Russian Jews

 Pull Factors

∙ Higher wages  

∙ Higher standard of living  

∙ Better Opportunity

∙ More freedom

∙ Often considered to be temporary migration  

 Xenophobia

 Fear, dislike of foreigners; often irrational  

 Nativism

 Policy or ideology of protecting native inhabitants, indigenous  culture, etc., against immigrants and foreign influence  Every wave of immigration has produced nativism  Africans in the 1770s

 Germans in the 1780s and 1830s  

 Irish in the 1840s

 Code of the West

 Honesty, Humility, courage, loyalty and hard work  Honor: a man was only as good as his word

 A man is loyal to his friends and those he rides with   “No Duty to Retreat”: imperative of self-redress

 Duty to Retreat”

 A command to avoid physical conflict between individuals   Intended to produce civility  

 Adopted in England

 Not in America

∙ “A man is not born to run away”

∙ Right to kill in self-defense is a modern concept

∙ “One of the most important transformations in American  social history”

 Modern Advertising

 Coca-Cola was the first to start advertising

 Prior to 1920’s, ads were dry and dull

∙ Designed to make people aware of new products

∙ Emphasized functionality

∙ Tools like manipulation started to be used

 The New Woman

 Wore dresses that were a radical shift from their parents

 Led to the nickname “flappers”

 Represented the people “flaunting the new times”

 Received with much backlash by the media

 Changed the ground rules for college

 Women college attendance began to rapidly increase  Traditionalism  

 Reaction to changing circumstances

 Upholding “tradition”

 Concrete, long-existing standards  

 Change not always good

 Veneration of institutions

 Past sets the pattern

 Modernism

 Reaction to changing circumstances

 New conditions require new standards

 Change is positive

 But old standards are not always good

 Looks to the future

 Threats to traditional values

 Prayer in schools

 Engel v. Vitale (1960)

 Sex Education in Schools/pornography

 Feminism

 50% of marriages end in divorce

 Destruction of the nuclear family

 Abortion  

 Roe V. Wade

 Catholics, Protestants, Jews unite

 Gay Rights  

 Fundamentalism  

 Denotes someone who is serious about their religion  A fundamentalist is unwaveringly attached to a core set of beliefs  Conservative, but also modern

 Sought to preserve traditional values in a new scientific  landscape

 Rejected biology, physics, explanations for the origin of life,  etc.

 Possessed a priority of mythos over logos

 Mythos: myth, mythology

 Logos: a pragmatic mode of thought

 The Welfare state

 Concept of government in which the state plays a key role in the  protection and promotion of the economic and social well-being  of its citizens

 “Cradle-to-grave” protection

 Rejects laissez-faire economics  

 “Every American deserves a Square Deal from his government” – Theodore Roosevelt  

 Pushes for equality of opportunity

 The “Liberal” Welfare State

 A means-tested assistance

 Compared to the rest of the world it is a modest social welfare   Benefits cater to a clientele of low-income

 Entitlement rights  

 Benefits are kept at a modest level to minimize the entitlements  that are given to citizens

 “Social democratic” Welfare State

 Promotes equality of the highest standards, not of minimal  needs

 High de-commodification (entitlements), universal programs  One universal insurance system

 All benefit, all are dependent, and all will have an incentive to  pay their taxes, which are usually extremely high to gain so  many benefits

 Basic Welfare in the United States

 Provides temporary relief

 Programs to assist the unemployed or underemployed poor  Programs

 TANF – Temporary assistance for needy families  

 Medicaid

 WIC – Women, Infants, and Childran Program

 SNAP – Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program  AFDC – Aid to Families with Dependent Children, 1935-96  Section 8 housing

 3 Stages of Welfare

 Progressive Movement (1890-1920)

 Reaction to industrial capitalism

 The New Deal (1933-1943)

 Reaction to the Great Depression

 The Great Society (1964-1968)

 Reaction to reform movements (poverty, discrimination, etc.,  amidst the highest standard of living ever

 Progressivism

 Featured three presidents: Teddy Roosevelt, Taft, Woodrow Wilson  Produced the Pure Food and Drug Act (FDA), Meat Inspection Act, ICC (Interstate Commerce Commission), Department of  Commerce and Labor, FTC (Federal Trade Commission),  Labor/Child Labor Laws

 Also led to:

 Direct election of U.S. Senators, Women’s Suffrage, Federal  Income Tax, Conservation areas/national parks

 Results of the Progressive Movement

 Curtailment of laissez-faire capitalism

 Widespread social reform movements (Mostly private)  Challenged Social Darwinism

 Rise of regulatory/bureaucratic government (positive state)  Most problems solved or at least reduced in severity  The Great Depression

 9,000 Banks failed, industrial production fell 47%, GDP fell 30%,  wholesale price index fell 33%, money supply shrank by 1/3, 15  million unemployed

 Lasted roughly 11 years  

 Civil Rights

 Literally, they are the “rights of a citizen”

 Six Principles of Conservatism

 Deep suspicion of the power of the state

 Preference for liberty over equality

 Patriotism

 Belief in established institutions and hierarchies

 Skepticism about the idea of progress

 Elitism

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