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PSYC 13,14,15

by: Kristen Pruett

PSYC 13,14,15 Psych100

Kristen Pruett

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About this Document

Bundle of the last section of notes from after exam 2. For final exam use this and my exam 1 and 2 study guides. Good luck!
General Psychology
Kristen Begosh
Study Guide
Intro to Psychology, Psychology
50 ?




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This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kristen Pruett on Thursday May 19, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Psych100 at University of Delaware taught by Kristen Begosh in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Delaware.


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Date Created: 05/19/16
Ch. 13,14,15 Study Guide    Chapter 13: Social Psychology  Pages 517­567  Social Thinking  ­ Social psychology: scientific study of how we think about, influence, and relate to each  other  ­ Fundamental attribution error  ­ Attribution theory: explain someone's behavior by crediting either the situation or  the person's disposition    ­ Hostile child   ­ Aggressive personality? ­ disposition  ­ Stress or abuse? ­ situation  ­ When analyzing another's behavior, underestimate impact of situation and  overestimate personal disposition  ­ More pronounced in western (individualistic) cultures than easter (collectivistic)  culture   ­ Observations of self vs. other  ­ Effects of attribution ­ personal, political, employment       self  other  Positive attribute  Personal disposition  situation  Negative attribute  situation  Personal disposition    ­ Attitudes and action  ­ Attitudes: feelings, often influenced by our beliefs, that predispose out reactions  to objects, people, and events  ­ Attitudes affect actions  ­ Inconvenient truth   ­ Central route to persuasion: focus on arguments and respond with  favorable thoughts  ­ Peripheral route to persuasion: influenced by incidental cues (e.g.  speaker’s attractiveness)   ­ Social pressures   ­ Actions affect attitudes  ­ Attitudes follow behavior (i act therefore i believe)   ­ Foot in the door phenomenon: the tendency for people who have first  agreed to a smaller request to comply later with a larger request  ­ Role: set of expectations (norms) norms socal position, defining how  those in the position ought to behave   ­ Person­situation interaction  ­ Cognitive dissonance: relief from tension  ­ When our attitudes and actions are opposed, we experience  tension  ­ Bring attitudes into line with actions  Social Influence  ­ Conformity: complying with social pressure  ­ Automatic mimicry  ­ Chameleon effect: mimic the behaviors, dress, feelings, and language of  those around us   ­ Empathetic people mimic more  ­ People who mimic more liked  ­ Conformity and social norms  ­ Conformity ­ adjusting behavior or thinking towards group standards  ­ Most likely to conform when:  ­ Feel incompetent/insecure  ­ Group has 3 or more people   ­ Everyone else in the group agrees ­ give same wrong answer   ­ Admire group’s status and attractiveness  ­ Haven’t made prior commitment to response  ­ Know others in group will observe our behaviors  ­ Reasons for conferring  ­ Normative social influence ­ avoid rejection/gain social approval  ­ Informal social influence ­ resulting from willingness to accept others’  opinions about reality  ­ Obedience: following order  ­ Milgram experiment    ­ Highest when:  ­ Person giving orders was in close proximity and perceived to be authority  figure  ­ Authority figure perceived to be associated with prestigious institution  ­ Victim was depersonalized/distant  ­ No models for defiance  ­ Foot in the door phenomenon    ­ Gro ​p behavior  ­ social facilitation: strong responses on simple or well­learned tasks in presence of  others  ­ Social loafing: people in group exert less effort when pooling efforts toward  attaining common goal than they would when individually accountable   ­ Deindividuation – loss of self­awareness and self­ restraint in group situations that  foster arousal and anonymity (e.g. “mob mentality”)  ­ Group Polarization – enhancement of a group’s prevailing inclinations through  discussion within the group   ­ Groupthink: tendency for members of a group to think alike and suppress dissent   ­ Symptoms  ­ Illusions of vulnerability  ­ Self­censorship  ­ Pressure on dissenters to conform  ­ Illusions of unanimity   ­ Minimized if leader  ­ Rewards doubt/dissent  ­ Protects minority opinions  ­ Asks for as many ideas as possible  ­ Has group members think of disadvantages of proposed decision  Social relations  ­ Prejudice  ­ Strong unreasonable dislike or hatred of group based on negative stereotype  ­ 3 components  ­ Beliefs (stereotypes)   ­ Emotions   ­ Predispositions for action (e.g discrimination ­ negative behavior)  ­ Isms (racism, ageism, sexism, heterosexism)  ­ How prejudiced are people?  ­ Overt vs. covert prejudice  ­ Covert is more subtle  ­ Social roots of prejudice  ­ Social inequalities  ­ Just­world phenomenon  ­ Good things happen to good people; bad things happen to  bad people  ­ Us and them: ingroup and outgroup  ­ Ingroup heterogeneity  ­ Outgroup homogeneity  ­ Emotional roots of prejudice  ­ Scapegoat theory ­ theory that prejudice offers an outlet for anger by  proving someone to blame  ­ Cognitive roots of prejudice   ­ Forming categories   ­ Remembering vivid cases  ­ Believing the world is just   ­ Altruism  ­ Bystander intervention  ­ Bystander effect ­ tendency for any given bystander to be less likely to  give aid if other bystanders  ­ Diffusion of responsibility ­ responsibility is shared among individuals  ­ The norms for helping  ­ Social exchange theory ­ theory that our social behavior is an exchange  process, the aim of which is to maximize benefits and minimize costs  ­ Reciprocity norm ­ expectation that people will help, not hurt, those who  have helped them  ­ social ­responsibility norm ­ expectation that people will help those  dependent on them         Chapter 14: Personality  Pages 571­605  Personality ­ a person’s characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting    Psychodynamic theories  ­ Psychodynamic theories ­ focus on the unconscious and the importance of childhood  experience  ­ Freud’s psychoanalytic perspective  ­ Physician from vienna specialising disorders with neurological basis  ­ Glove anesthesia  ­ Used techniques of dream analysis and free association  ­ Psychoanalysis ­ freud’s personality theory that attributes thoughts and actions to  unconscious motives and conflicts  ­ Personality development  ­ Personality arises from conflict among interacting systems   ­ Id ­ pleasure principle  ­ Ego ­ reality principle  ­ Superego ­ consider real and ideal    ­ Oedipus complex ­ during phallic stage, boy's sexual desires towards  mother; jealousy and hatred towards other; castration anxiety  ­ Electra complex ­girls development of penis envy; attachment to father;  fear of mother  ­ Resolve oedipus or electra complex, identity it same­sex parent, and  develop gender identity   ­ Fixation ­ lingering focus of pleasure­seeking energies in earlier  psychosexual stage, in which conflicts are unresolved   ­ Defense mechanisms  ­ Ego’s protective methods of reducing anxiety by unconsciously  distorting reality  ­ Repression underlies all others    ­ Neo­Freudian and psychodynamic theories  ­ Agreement with freud  ­ Presence of id, ego, and superego  ­ Importance of unconscious  ­ Shaping of personality during childhood  ­ Use of defense mechanisms to deal with anxiety  ­ Disagreement with freud  ­ Importance of consciousness  ­ Sex and aggression aren't everything  ­  Evaluating freud's psychodynamic perspective  ­ Modern research contradicts many of freud's ideas  ­ Development doesn't stop in childhood  ­ Underestimated peer influence   ­ Gender identity develops before age 5­6  ­ Alternative explanations for dreams and slips of tongue   ­   No evidence that suppressed sexuality causes psychological disorders   ­ Modern research challenges the idea of repression  ­ People more often remember,and remember vividly, traumatic events that  freud predicted should be repressed   Humanistic Theories  ­ Focus on healthy people's drive for self­determination and self­realization  ­ Self­concept: thoughts and feelings about who we are  ­ Hierarchy of needs  ­ Studied healthy people to determine common traits of self­actualization    ­ Rogers’ person­centered perspective  ­ Three characteristics of growth­promoting climate  ­ Genuineness ­ transparency with feelings  ­ Acceptance ­ offer unconditional positive regard ­ total acceptance of  another person  ­ Empathy ­ share and mirror others’ feelings  ­ Bias in maslow’s conceptualization of what self­actualization is   ­ Heavy emphasis on individualism, which may lead to self­indulgence, etc.  ­ Underemphasized the bad in people and situations  Trait Theories  ­ Trait ­ characteristic pattern of behavior or disposition to feel and act  ­ Trait theories first described by Gordon Allport  ­ More concerned with describing behaviors than explaining them  ­ Exploring traits  ­ Factor analysis: statistical analysis used to identify clusters of traits  ­ Eysenck’s major personality factors  ­ extraversion : e.g. sociable, lively, active, assertive, etc.  ­ Neuroticism: e.g. anxious, depressed, moody, tense  ­ Psychoticism: e.g aggressive, egocentric, creative, cold      ­ The big five factors: spells out CANOE  ­ Stability  ­ Emotional instability, extraversion, and openness decrease in early and  middle adulthood  ­ Heritability  ­ About 50%  ­ Predictive of other behavioral attributes    ­ Evaluating trait theories  ­ Person­situation controversy  ­ Behavior is interaction of inner disposition and environment   ­ Traits are relatively stable but specific behaviors often change  ­ To get better sense of personality, average over many situations  ­ Personality tests are weak predictors of behaviors  ­ Formal vs. informal situation   Social­Cognitive Theories  ­ Social­cognitive perspective: behavior is influenced by interactions between traits  (including thinking) and social context   ­ First proposed by albert bandura   ­ Reciprocal determinism: interacting influences of behavior, internal cognition, and  environment  ­ Different people choose different environments  ­ Personalities shape how we interpret and react to events  ­ Personalities create situations to which we react   ­ Personal control: extent to which we perceive control over our environment  ­ Internal vs. external locus of control  ­ External locus of control: perception that our fate is controlled by chance or  outside forces that are beyond our personal control   ­ Internal locus of control: perception that we control our own fate  ­ Achieve more in school, act independently, feel less depressed, lower  hypertension, and less obesity   ­ Depleting and strengthening self­control  ­ Self control ­ ability to control impulses and delay short term gratification  for greater, long term rewards  ­ Predict good judgement, better grades, social success  ­ Practicing self control can make you tired and make it harder to  practice self control again before a rest period   ­ Learned helplessness vs. personal control  ­ Learned helplessness: hopelessness and passive resignation an animal or  human learns when unable to avoid repeated aversive events  ­ Lack of control leads to lower morale and higher stress  ­ Too much choice can have negative consequences  ­ Optimism vs. pessimism  ­ Optimists generally believe they can accomplish things and have a higher  perception of self control  ­ Excessive optimism  ­ Some pessimism helps motivate people to plan for negative events    ­ Blindness to one’s own incompetence   ­ Don’t know what we don’t know until someone points it out to us  ­ Until then we are confident in what we do know      Chapter 15: Psychological Disorders  Pages 619­653  Perspective on psychological disorders  ­ Defining psychological disorders  ­ Psychological disorders: syndrome with significant disturbance in an individual's  cognitions, emotion regulation or behavior  ­ Variation over place and time  ­ Classifying psychological disorders  ­ Diagnose in order to describe disorder, predict progression, apply appropriate  treatment  ­ Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM­5)  ­ Published in may 2013  ­ Allow for consistency of diagnosis between clinicians  ­ Criticism of overdiagnosis; too many disorders  ­ Warns to be careful that symptoms don't have “organic” cause (e.g.  hypothyroidism can cause depressive symptoms)  ­ Gives prevalence rates for disorders   Anxiety disorders  ­ Anxiety: general state of apprehension or tension  ­ Anxiety disorder: psychological disorder characterized by distressing, persistent anxiety  maladaptive behaviors that reduce anxiety  ­ Generalized anxiety disorder: continuous state of anxiety marked by feeling of worry,  dread, apprehension, difficulty concentrating, and motor tension  ­ No physical causes (drugs, coffee)  ­ Genes ­ amygdala abnormalities and prefrontal cortex  ­ Historical inability to control environment  ­ Panic disorder  ­ Recurring panic attacks, periods of intense fear, and feelings of impending doom  or death  ­ Physiological symptoms  ­ Rapid heart rate; dizziness  ­ Usually occur after stressful or frightening event (although not always  immediately after”  ­ Fears and phobias  ­ Phobia: exaggerated, unrealistic fear of specific situation, activity, or object   Obsessive­compulsive disorder   ­ Obsessive­compulsive disorder (OCD): recurrent, persistent, unwished­for thoughts or  images (obsessions) and repetitive, ritualized behaviors to avoid disaster (compulsions  ­ Most often present teenagers and young adults  Post­traumatic stress disorder  ­ Post­traumatic stress disorder  ­ Symptoms:  ­ Haunting memories  ­ Nightmares  ­ Social withdrawal  ­ Jumpy anxiety  ­ Insomnia  ­ Factors impacting PTSD  ­ Frequency of assault  ­ Sensitive limbic system ­ floods boyd with stress hormones  ­ Genetic predisposition  ­ Most people do not get PTSD after a trauma  ­ Post­traumatic growth: positive psychological changes as a result of struggling  with challenging circumstances and life crises  Mood disorders  ­ Major depressive disorder  ­ Major depressive disorder: signs of depression last two weeks or more and are  not caused by drugs or medical conditions  ­ 1) lethargy and fatigue  ­ 2) feelings of worthlessness  ­ 3) loss of interest in family and friends  ­ 4) loss of interest in activities  ­ 5) changes in sleep and appetite  ­ 6) difficulty thinking or concentrating  ­ 7) thoughts of death or suicide   ­ Major depression  ­ Link to suicide  ­ In a year, 5.8% of men and 9.5% of women report depression worldwide  ­ Bipolar disorder (formerly manic­depressive disorder)  ­ Alteration between depression and mania    ­ Cyclothymia: milder form of bipolar disorder with less severe mood swings   ­ Often misdiagnosed as depression  Schizophrenia  ­ Schizophrenia: group of severe disorders characterized by disorganized and delusional  thinking, disturbed perceptions, and inappropriate emotions and behaviors  ­ A type of psychosis: psychological disorder in which a person loses contact with  reality, experiencing irrational ideas and distorted perceptions   ­ Symptoms  ­ Bizarre delusions  ­ Hallucinations  ­ Disorganized, incoherent speech (word salad)  ­ Grossly disorganized, inappropriate behavior  ­ Impaired cognitive abilities  ­ Positive symptoms the presence of inappropriate behaviors (hallucinations, disorganized  or delusions talking)   ­ Negative symptoms: the absence of appropriate behaviors (expressionless faces, rigid  bodies)   ­ Origins  ­ Early symptoms but full blown psychosis in late adolescence/early adulthood  ­ 1) genetic predisposition  ­ 2) prenatal problems  ­ 3) biological events in adolescence  Dissociative identity disorder  ­ Formerly multiple personality disorder  ­ Apparent appearance within one person of 2 or more distinct personalities, each with  own name and traits   Personality disorder  ­ Personality disorder: Inflexible and enduring behavior patterns that impair social  functioning; usually without anxiety, depression, or delusions  ­ Antisocial personality disorder (formerly psychopathy): lack of remorse, empathy, anxiety  or lack social emotions  ­ Deceitful and manipulative  ­ Impulsive thrill seeking  ­ Irresponsible  ­ Lifetime pattern   


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