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This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kristen Pruett on Thursday May 19, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Psych100 at University of Delaware taught by Kristen Begosh in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Delaware.
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Date Created: 05/19/16
Ch. 13,14,15 Study Guide Chapter 13: Social Psychology Pages 517567 Social Thinking Social psychology: scientific study of how we think about, influence, and relate to each other Fundamental attribution error Attribution theory: explain someone's behavior by crediting either the situation or the person's disposition Hostile child Aggressive personality? disposition Stress or abuse? situation When analyzing another's behavior, underestimate impact of situation and overestimate personal disposition More pronounced in western (individualistic) cultures than easter (collectivistic) culture Observations of self vs. other Effects of attribution personal, political, employment self other Positive attribute Personal disposition situation Negative attribute situation Personal disposition Attitudes and action Attitudes: feelings, often influenced by our beliefs, that predispose out reactions to objects, people, and events Attitudes affect actions Inconvenient truth Central route to persuasion: focus on arguments and respond with favorable thoughts Peripheral route to persuasion: influenced by incidental cues (e.g. speaker’s attractiveness) Social pressures Actions affect attitudes Attitudes follow behavior (i act therefore i believe) Foot in the door phenomenon: the tendency for people who have first agreed to a smaller request to comply later with a larger request Role: set of expectations (norms) norms socal position, defining how those in the position ought to behave Personsituation interaction Cognitive dissonance: relief from tension When our attitudes and actions are opposed, we experience tension Bring attitudes into line with actions Social Influence Conformity: complying with social pressure Automatic mimicry Chameleon effect: mimic the behaviors, dress, feelings, and language of those around us Empathetic people mimic more People who mimic more liked Conformity and social norms Conformity adjusting behavior or thinking towards group standards Most likely to conform when: Feel incompetent/insecure Group has 3 or more people Everyone else in the group agrees give same wrong answer Admire group’s status and attractiveness Haven’t made prior commitment to response Know others in group will observe our behaviors Reasons for conferring Normative social influence avoid rejection/gain social approval Informal social influence resulting from willingness to accept others’ opinions about reality Obedience: following order Milgram experiment Highest when: Person giving orders was in close proximity and perceived to be authority figure Authority figure perceived to be associated with prestigious institution Victim was depersonalized/distant No models for defiance Foot in the door phenomenon Gro p behavior social facilitation: strong responses on simple or welllearned tasks in presence of others Social loafing: people in group exert less effort when pooling efforts toward attaining common goal than they would when individually accountable Deindividuation – loss of selfawareness and self restraint in group situations that foster arousal and anonymity (e.g. “mob mentality”) Group Polarization – enhancement of a group’s prevailing inclinations through discussion within the group Groupthink: tendency for members of a group to think alike and suppress dissent Symptoms Illusions of vulnerability Selfcensorship Pressure on dissenters to conform Illusions of unanimity Minimized if leader Rewards doubt/dissent Protects minority opinions Asks for as many ideas as possible Has group members think of disadvantages of proposed decision Social relations Prejudice Strong unreasonable dislike or hatred of group based on negative stereotype 3 components Beliefs (stereotypes) Emotions Predispositions for action (e.g discrimination negative behavior) Isms (racism, ageism, sexism, heterosexism) How prejudiced are people? Overt vs. covert prejudice Covert is more subtle Social roots of prejudice Social inequalities Justworld phenomenon Good things happen to good people; bad things happen to bad people Us and them: ingroup and outgroup Ingroup heterogeneity Outgroup homogeneity Emotional roots of prejudice Scapegoat theory theory that prejudice offers an outlet for anger by proving someone to blame Cognitive roots of prejudice Forming categories Remembering vivid cases Believing the world is just Altruism Bystander intervention Bystander effect tendency for any given bystander to be less likely to give aid if other bystanders Diffusion of responsibility responsibility is shared among individuals The norms for helping Social exchange theory theory that our social behavior is an exchange process, the aim of which is to maximize benefits and minimize costs Reciprocity norm expectation that people will help, not hurt, those who have helped them social responsibility norm expectation that people will help those dependent on them Chapter 14: Personality Pages 571605 Personality a person’s characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting Psychodynamic theories Psychodynamic theories focus on the unconscious and the importance of childhood experience Freud’s psychoanalytic perspective Physician from vienna specialising disorders with neurological basis Glove anesthesia Used techniques of dream analysis and free association Psychoanalysis freud’s personality theory that attributes thoughts and actions to unconscious motives and conflicts Personality development Personality arises from conflict among interacting systems Id pleasure principle Ego reality principle Superego consider real and ideal Oedipus complex during phallic stage, boy's sexual desires towards mother; jealousy and hatred towards other; castration anxiety Electra complex girls development of penis envy; attachment to father; fear of mother Resolve oedipus or electra complex, identity it samesex parent, and develop gender identity Fixation lingering focus of pleasureseeking energies in earlier psychosexual stage, in which conflicts are unresolved Defense mechanisms Ego’s protective methods of reducing anxiety by unconsciously distorting reality Repression underlies all others NeoFreudian and psychodynamic theories Agreement with freud Presence of id, ego, and superego Importance of unconscious Shaping of personality during childhood Use of defense mechanisms to deal with anxiety Disagreement with freud Importance of consciousness Sex and aggression aren't everything Evaluating freud's psychodynamic perspective Modern research contradicts many of freud's ideas Development doesn't stop in childhood Underestimated peer influence Gender identity develops before age 56 Alternative explanations for dreams and slips of tongue No evidence that suppressed sexuality causes psychological disorders Modern research challenges the idea of repression People more often remember,and remember vividly, traumatic events that freud predicted should be repressed Humanistic Theories Focus on healthy people's drive for selfdetermination and selfrealization Selfconcept: thoughts and feelings about who we are Hierarchy of needs Studied healthy people to determine common traits of selfactualization Rogers’ personcentered perspective Three characteristics of growthpromoting climate Genuineness transparency with feelings Acceptance offer unconditional positive regard total acceptance of another person Empathy share and mirror others’ feelings Bias in maslow’s conceptualization of what selfactualization is Heavy emphasis on individualism, which may lead to selfindulgence, etc. Underemphasized the bad in people and situations Trait Theories Trait characteristic pattern of behavior or disposition to feel and act Trait theories first described by Gordon Allport More concerned with describing behaviors than explaining them Exploring traits Factor analysis: statistical analysis used to identify clusters of traits Eysenck’s major personality factors extraversion : e.g. sociable, lively, active, assertive, etc. Neuroticism: e.g. anxious, depressed, moody, tense Psychoticism: e.g aggressive, egocentric, creative, cold The big five factors: spells out CANOE Stability Emotional instability, extraversion, and openness decrease in early and middle adulthood Heritability About 50% Predictive of other behavioral attributes Evaluating trait theories Personsituation controversy Behavior is interaction of inner disposition and environment Traits are relatively stable but specific behaviors often change To get better sense of personality, average over many situations Personality tests are weak predictors of behaviors Formal vs. informal situation SocialCognitive Theories Socialcognitive perspective: behavior is influenced by interactions between traits (including thinking) and social context First proposed by albert bandura Reciprocal determinism: interacting influences of behavior, internal cognition, and environment Different people choose different environments Personalities shape how we interpret and react to events Personalities create situations to which we react Personal control: extent to which we perceive control over our environment Internal vs. external locus of control External locus of control: perception that our fate is controlled by chance or outside forces that are beyond our personal control Internal locus of control: perception that we control our own fate Achieve more in school, act independently, feel less depressed, lower hypertension, and less obesity Depleting and strengthening selfcontrol Self control ability to control impulses and delay short term gratification for greater, long term rewards Predict good judgement, better grades, social success Practicing self control can make you tired and make it harder to practice self control again before a rest period Learned helplessness vs. personal control Learned helplessness: hopelessness and passive resignation an animal or human learns when unable to avoid repeated aversive events Lack of control leads to lower morale and higher stress Too much choice can have negative consequences Optimism vs. pessimism Optimists generally believe they can accomplish things and have a higher perception of self control Excessive optimism Some pessimism helps motivate people to plan for negative events Blindness to one’s own incompetence Don’t know what we don’t know until someone points it out to us Until then we are confident in what we do know Chapter 15: Psychological Disorders Pages 619653 Perspective on psychological disorders Defining psychological disorders Psychological disorders: syndrome with significant disturbance in an individual's cognitions, emotion regulation or behavior Variation over place and time Classifying psychological disorders Diagnose in order to describe disorder, predict progression, apply appropriate treatment Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM5) Published in may 2013 Allow for consistency of diagnosis between clinicians Criticism of overdiagnosis; too many disorders Warns to be careful that symptoms don't have “organic” cause (e.g. hypothyroidism can cause depressive symptoms) Gives prevalence rates for disorders Anxiety disorders Anxiety: general state of apprehension or tension Anxiety disorder: psychological disorder characterized by distressing, persistent anxiety maladaptive behaviors that reduce anxiety Generalized anxiety disorder: continuous state of anxiety marked by feeling of worry, dread, apprehension, difficulty concentrating, and motor tension No physical causes (drugs, coffee) Genes amygdala abnormalities and prefrontal cortex Historical inability to control environment Panic disorder Recurring panic attacks, periods of intense fear, and feelings of impending doom or death Physiological symptoms Rapid heart rate; dizziness Usually occur after stressful or frightening event (although not always immediately after” Fears and phobias Phobia: exaggerated, unrealistic fear of specific situation, activity, or object Obsessivecompulsive disorder Obsessivecompulsive disorder (OCD): recurrent, persistent, unwishedfor thoughts or images (obsessions) and repetitive, ritualized behaviors to avoid disaster (compulsions Most often present teenagers and young adults Posttraumatic stress disorder Posttraumatic stress disorder Symptoms: Haunting memories Nightmares Social withdrawal Jumpy anxiety Insomnia Factors impacting PTSD Frequency of assault Sensitive limbic system floods boyd with stress hormones Genetic predisposition Most people do not get PTSD after a trauma Posttraumatic growth: positive psychological changes as a result of struggling with challenging circumstances and life crises Mood disorders Major depressive disorder Major depressive disorder: signs of depression last two weeks or more and are not caused by drugs or medical conditions 1) lethargy and fatigue 2) feelings of worthlessness 3) loss of interest in family and friends 4) loss of interest in activities 5) changes in sleep and appetite 6) difficulty thinking or concentrating 7) thoughts of death or suicide Major depression Link to suicide In a year, 5.8% of men and 9.5% of women report depression worldwide Bipolar disorder (formerly manicdepressive disorder) Alteration between depression and mania Cyclothymia: milder form of bipolar disorder with less severe mood swings Often misdiagnosed as depression Schizophrenia Schizophrenia: group of severe disorders characterized by disorganized and delusional thinking, disturbed perceptions, and inappropriate emotions and behaviors A type of psychosis: psychological disorder in which a person loses contact with reality, experiencing irrational ideas and distorted perceptions Symptoms Bizarre delusions Hallucinations Disorganized, incoherent speech (word salad) Grossly disorganized, inappropriate behavior Impaired cognitive abilities Positive symptoms the presence of inappropriate behaviors (hallucinations, disorganized or delusions talking) Negative symptoms: the absence of appropriate behaviors (expressionless faces, rigid bodies) Origins Early symptoms but full blown psychosis in late adolescence/early adulthood 1) genetic predisposition 2) prenatal problems 3) biological events in adolescence Dissociative identity disorder Formerly multiple personality disorder Apparent appearance within one person of 2 or more distinct personalities, each with own name and traits Personality disorder Personality disorder: Inflexible and enduring behavior patterns that impair social functioning; usually without anxiety, depression, or delusions Antisocial personality disorder (formerly psychopathy): lack of remorse, empathy, anxiety or lack social emotions Deceitful and manipulative Impulsive thrill seeking Irresponsible Lifetime pattern
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