Europe 1914-1949/ Book: To Hell and Back
Europe 1914-1949/ Book: To Hell and Back History 214
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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Daniel Perez on Friday May 20, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to History 214 at University of Illinois at Chicago taught by Abbott in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see World war 1 through World war 2 in History at University of Illinois at Chicago.
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Date Created: 05/20/16
A) “We must not calculate on a directly communist transition. We must build on the basis of the peasant’s personal incentive. We are told, ‘The personal incentive of the peasant means restoring private property.’ But we have never interfered with the private ownership of articles of consumption and of tools as far as the peasant is concerned. We abolished the private ownership of land; the peasant has carried on husbandry without the private ownership of land, for example, on rented land. This system has existed in many countries. There is nothing economically impossible about it. The difficulty lies in creating personal incentive. We must give every specialist an incentive to become interested in the development of production.” Answer: Lenin ● Lenin’s call for revolution in 1917 was based on the notion of a revolutionary alliance between Russia’s workers and the peasant majority. ● New Economic Policies of limited economic liberation ● Soviet peasants were allowed to trade about 90% of their harvest on the market and allowed to operate freely. B.) So tell me one thing. If I were to put a British beer here in front of you and here a good old Pils[ner; a type of beer] which one would you drink? – Well, the Pils, of course. And where is the Pils made? – Where is the Pils made? Berlin. In Berlin, yes. And where is Berlin located? – Where is Berlin located? On the Spree, of course. Yeah, that’s what I said. On the Spree, yes. But where is the Spree located? – The Spree...it’s located in Germany. That’s right. In Germany. In our Germany. Think about it. Answer: joseph Goebbels Meaning of the excerpt ● The beer was originally made in the Czechoslovakia ● Germany has taken a model of beer of the Czechs. C.) “Let me be more precise. One fact, but that one of radical importance, differentiates our contemporary civilization from any of those that preceded it. Since the beginning of the twentieth century the whole idea of distance has changed. This alteration in its spatial values came about in little more than a single generation.” Answer: Mark Bloch Meaning of Excerpt: ● French collapse was due to Germans speed of attack ● Leaders were incapable of thinking in terms of a new war ● Germany triumph was essentially, a triumph of intellect. D) “The German racial community comprised over 85 million people and, by reason of their number and the narrow limits of habitable space in Europe, it constituted a tightly packed racial core such as not to be found in any other country and such as implied the right to a greater living space than in the case of other peoples. . . . Germany’s future was therefore wholly conditional upon the solving of the need for space, and such a solution could be sought, of course, only for a foreseeable period of about one to three generations.” Answer: Hitler Meaning of the excerpt: ● National selfdetermination for ethnic Germans in the East ● The aim of German Policy is the security and preservation of the race and to enlarge it. That is, consequently, a problem of space.” E) “Several years ago a little peasant was brought to me to be crossexamined. It was in the provinces, at the time when we still believed in the flowergarden theory, as you call it. Cross examinations were conducted in a very gentlemanly way. The peasant had buried his crops; it was at the beginning of the collectivization of the land. I kept strictly to the prescribed etiquette. I explained to him in a friendly way that we needed the corn to feed the growing city population and for export, in order to build up our industries; so would he please tell me where he had hidden his crops. The peasant had his head drawn into his shoulders when he was brought into my room, expecting a beating. I knew his kind; I am myself countryborn. When, instead of beating him, I began to reason with him, to talk to him as an equal and call him ‘citizen,’ he took me for a halfwit. I saw it in his eyes.” Answer: Gletkin Meaning of the excerpt: ● The campaign of forced collectivism of agriculture was launched in 1929 ● By March of 1930, some 4050 percent of all peasant household had been forced into collective farm. ● By 1936, about 90 percent of Russia’s family had been combined into 250,00 collectives. F) “When high officials of the SS and the police call for atrocities and brutalities and publicly praise them, then within the shortest spell of time only the brutal will rule. With astonishing speed men of the same sick leanings and character will come together, in order to give full vent to their beastly and pathological instincts, as is the case in Poland. There is hardly any way to hold them in rein; for they must rightly feel themselves officially authorized and entitled to any atrocity.” Answer: Blaskowitz Meaning of the excerpt ● Complaining of the problems created by the indiscriminate slaughter of ten of thousands ● of poles and jews by SS Einsatzgruppen units. ● His argument was that, in strictly military terms, these actions were counterproductive. Mainly, he said they forge solidarity among polish gentiles and jews, as two peoples found themselves victimized by a common enemy G) “The middle classes were still talking about ‘lazy idle loafers on the dole’ and saying that ‘these men could all find work if they wanted to,’ and naturally these opinions percolated to the working class themselves. I remember the shock of astonishment it gave me, when I first mingled with tramps and beggars, to find that a fair proportion, perhaps a quarter, of these beings whom I had been taught to regard as cynical parasites, were decent young miners and cotton workers gazing at their destiny with the same sort of dumb amazement as an animal in a trap. . . But there is no doubt about the deadening, debilitating effect of unemployment upon everybody, married or single, and upon men more than upon women. The best intellects will not stand up against it.” Answer: George Orwell Meaning of the excerpted texts: ● New York stock market crashed and Great depression in England ● Northern England the heart of British heavy industry strength, were unemployed and soon reach to one third mark ● British Politician were not able to adopt measure that would have dealt humanely ● Many intellectual have lost faith of the political parties of the day. Turned into socialism and marxism for cure to their country’s economic melodies. ● Intellectual who believe that they had no prejudice and who thought that they could solve all the world's problems were out of touch with the reality that was the Great Depression. H) “This war is not like past wars. He whose army controls matters on the ground, is free to impose his own social system. It cannot be otherwise.” Answer: Joseph Stalin Meaning of the excerpted text: ● Red Army was influencing Eastern Europe to their Ideology ● It cannot be otherwise. If now there is not a communist government in Paris, this is only because Russia has no an army which can reach Paris in 1945 50 points Questions B.) Were Stalin and Hitler more different or similar in their approach to foreign policy and war? However you choose to address this, please identify specific similarities and/or differences in policy and decisionmaking. Contrast of Stalin ( Soviet Union) and Hitler ( Germany) Foreign Policy ● Germany wanted to expand east annexing weaker countries ● Hitler was about going on the offensive and defensive ● In Contrast stalin was working on industrializing the Soviet Union. Hitler's foreign policy of the 1930s ● Equality of rights meant above revising the term of the versailles treaty ● Treaty of Versailles was a reminder of Germany's lost in WW1 and Hitler did not want accept. o Allowing for rearmament and storing sovereignty over German Territory ● Anti Bolshevik and Hostility towards soviet union o Jews were behind Bolshevism/communism and Marxism o Jewish Marxism were democracy o Jewish defended the Weimar republic ● National selfdetermination for ethnic Germans in the East o The Germans policy is security and preservation of the race o Moving East to Czechoslovakia o Many Sudeten Germans identified with Hitler’s Third Reich, and when Hitler called upon them to raise impossible demands of the Czechoslovakian government, many enthusiastically complied, helping create the crisis that paved the way for German invasion. o Though a national minority within Czechoslovakiaconstituting some 20% of the populationethnic Germans dominated in the sueden regions, where they made up 2.8 million of a combined population of 3.5 million. o A pretext for this invasion came in march 1939, when conflict arose between Czechs and Slovak. o On March 14, 1939 under pressure from Hitler, Slovak leaders declare their people’s National Independence and requested German against their Czech opponents. o German invasion came the next day. o AntiBolshevism and Appeal to German Minority o Next in Line were the polish o Danzig was more than 90% Germans and it angered German Nationalist o In 1919, Danzig was established by Treaty of Versailles as an autonomous city state. This city now became central issue as Hitler fabricated a rationale invading Poland in 1939. o Appeasement in Action: The Munich conference o Munich Agreement was a settlement permitting Nazi Germany’s annexation of portions of Czechoslovakia along the country border mainly inhabited by German speakers Stalin Soviet Union Foreign policy ● Stalin interested in industrializing the Soviet Union o Fiveyear plan marked a major step in Soviet Industrializationproduction of coal, oil, iron ore and pig iron doubles between 1929 and 1932. o First Five Year Plan was forced collectivization of agriculture. o Stalin had argued that collectivization would greatly boost agriculture productivity. The opposite happened, as peasants bitterly resisted the new system, and agriculture output plummeted between 192932 o Grain being carted away from village by collectivization cadre o Policy enforce famine, in which somewhere between 68 million soviet citizens died. The death toll in Ukraine was especially high, numbering perhaps 3 million persons. Ukraine’s Holodomor (Killing by Hunger) ● Defensive at first ● Stalin only agreed in invading Poland along with Nazi in hopes of avoiding war with Germany ● Stalin was forced to fight against Germany for self defense o Germany’s initial invasion owes to Stalin’s complete lack of preparedness. The morning of June 22, some 1200 soviet aircraft were destroyed. The northern army group got within 80 miles of Leningrad within five days, the center army group was within 200 miles of Moscow within month. o German occupied Ukraine, 1941 o By the end of October, Germany’s army had conquered more than a million square miles of Soviet Union territory. o Operation Barbarossa as a quick campaign lasting at most ten weeks, no provision had been made for the Russian winter; by December, German soldier were still without blankets. Germany’s forces literally frozen to a halt. Hitler’s generals pleaded with him, that they retreat back to more defensible lines. Hitler refused demanded another offensive. o Germany retreated due to winter weather. They never reach to Moscow ● Stalin was thinking about spreading communism and creating a buffer zone in post war world 2 ● End of the war Stalin Change the foreign policy ● They hence the creation of the Warsaw pact during the cold war. Poland, Bulgaria, Romania. They all became communist countries and they serve to buffer the zone for the Soviet Union o Stalin sought to protect the Soviet Union by creating a larger buffer zone along its western frontier, in which the countries of eastern Europe would provide a military shield against future invasion from Germany or other European state. C.) Finally, what similarities and/or differences do you see in the dynamics of Soviet and German government during the 1930s? Our discussion of the Party State should provide a solid foundation for considering this question. Alongside the dynamic relationship of party and state, you might also consider the role of the political police and their role in establishing domestic states of terror in both countries Germany In Germany the Nazi party was able to emerge due to the weakness of the German Government, and that people have seen that a democratic Government is weak. Hitler exploited the weakness of the German government and the despair of the German people. A democratic Government had already existed in Germany prior to the emergence of Hitler. ● People in Germany felt that the Democratic government that was in place was weak ○ Even as left-of-center politicians such as Ebert proved unable to acknowledge Germany’s defeat, conservatives and nationalists lost little time in drawing different conclusions: that men such as Ebert, Erzberger and Scheidemann had stabbed the German army “in the back,” thus ensuring defeat at Allied hands. ○ Weaknesses of the Weimar Republic ○ chronic crisis of legitimacy ○ bitterly divided party system ○ Role of the press ○ the Great Depression ○ Article 48 of Weimar constitution (highlighted in Turner’s Hitler’s Thirty Days) ● The German people started to move towards more ultra-nationalistic groups ○ One such party of course was the National Socialist Workers Party in Munich, an organization that featured a young Adolf Hitler as its star orator. ● Hitler concluded that a frontal assault upon the German state and army was doomed to fail ○ From the mid-1920s onwards, he placed greater stress upon cultivating support from among Germany’s political and economic elites. Hitler had always been adept at moving in high social circles; increasingly, however, his aims were not simply to secure financial backing, but to gain political support and credibility ● Early Political Police SA storm troopers, Brown shirts etc. ○ Hitler also pushed to marginalize the Stormtroopers and other rightwing paramilitary squads, subordinating them to the Nazi Party and its essentially political approach to seizing power. ○ On February 22, Göring set up an auxiliary police force of 50,000, composed mainly of SA- and SS-men. ○ “First they came for the communists, ○ and I didn't speak out because I wasn't a communist. ○ “Then they came for the trade unionists, ○ and I didn't speak out because I wasn't a trade unionis ○ “Then they came for the Jews, ○ and I didn't speak out because I wasn't a Jew. ○ “Then they came for me, and there was no one left to speak out for me.” ○ -- Martin Niemöller, German pastor (1946) ○ “Night of the Long Knives” (June 30-July 2, 1934) the bloody purge of the SA and other of Hitler’s political opponents, that ran from June 30 to July 2, 1934. During these days and nights, SS and Gestapo agents arrested and executed hundreds of leaders, most of them SA-men, including Röhm himself. In these ways, the SS – founded initially as Hitler’s elite bodyguard – evolved into a powerful state within a state, in charge of the concentration camp and death camp networks. During WWII, the SS was chiefly responsible for the genocidal campaigns against Jews and other racial “undesirables the SS attracted a- higher-class membership than the SA; educated, upwardly mobile ● One party System ○ summer 1933, Germany’s party system had been destroyed: the communists were formally outlawed, as were the Socialists. The German Nationalists (DNVP), Liberals (DVP and DStP) had been forced to disband, and the Catholic Center Party voluntarily disbanded at the beginning of July. ○ •On 14 July 1933, a new law banned the founding of any new parties, in effect turning Germany into a one-party state. ● German Military ○ Among the army’s commanders, Blomberg (1878-1946) stood out for his early and enthusiastic support for Hitler. Appointed as Defense Minister in early 1933, he used his position to purge the military of officers still loyal to Kurt von Schleicher, replacing them with people who, like himself, saw Hitler’s government as the best hope for German remilitarization. Soviet Union The Soviet Government mostly focused on internal matters, such as rebuilding the Soviet Industry. Communist Revolutions in neighboring countries had failed. democratic councils of popular decision-making that had flourished in 1917 – had given way to the top-down discipline of the Red Army and the one-party Bolshevik state. ● Even as civil war came to an end in early 1921, strikes, food riots and mutinies broke out across the land; the continued existence of the Soviet regime appeared doubtful. ○ Lenin and other leaders recognized that repression was not enough. The Kronstadt sailors, stationed adjacent to Petrograd, had played a leading role in the 1917 Revolutions; the regime could ill-afford enemies such as these. ○ A radical change of course was required, and a new approach, the New Economic Policy, was launched just weeks after the uprising. ○ The New economic policy, gave incentive for peasants to produce enough grains etc. turned out to be quite successful. ○ ) Beyond smaller-scale businesses, the Soviet state retained control over larger-scale enterprises – those at the “commanding heights” of the economy. ○ 2) Politically, the party’s top-down style of leadership became even more pronounced; at the same time the NEP was implemented, for example, party factions were banned, even as the Central Committee claimed new powers for itself. ○ Starting in 1927, Soviet policies increasingly turned against private enterprise: taxes on profits were increased, while personal taxes on better-off peasants (the so-called kulaks) were raised ○ As Stalin consolidated his rule from 1928 onwards, the NEP was progressively gutted, to be replaced by Stalin’s first five-year plan, announced in 1928, Collectivization- destroyed Kulaks, but was largely a failure, production plummeted 1) forced collectivization of the Soviet peasantry; 2) rapid industrialization, pushed through by a hugely ambitious Five Year Plan (the first of several); 3) a breathtakingly cynical foreign policy, which repeatedly sacrificed foreign communists and “fellow travelers” to the expediency of Soviet national interests 4) Party purges, widespread repression and terror, climaxing in the Great Terror of the 1930s. Stalin's Great Terror and the NKVD. ● Stalin’s campaigns of internal repression were generally directed against isolated groups and individuals, and as a rule enjoyed broad support from the population at large. ● In December 1934, Sergei Kirov was assassinated by a disgruntled job- seeker. Stalin seized the opportunity to declare a state of emergency, launching mass arrests while sharply revising the Soviet criminal code. Henceforth, the fight against terror required a suspension of due process: no defense lawyers for the accused, and no right to appeal. ● As Stalin’s terror began to target former party leaders, they too were accused of monstrous terrorist conspiracies against the Soviet Union. In the show trials of 1936, ● Originally, “purges” referred to the expulsion of Communist Party members. In 1933, ● •Starting in 1936, “purge” acquired new meanings, as being expelled increasingly also meant arrest, imprisonment, forced labor and/or execution. Dissent, in other words, had become a capital offense against the state. ● No one was safe from the purge, even the NKVD, military, and members of Stalin's government. ● The fiveyear plan or Industrialization and production of coal, oil, iron ore, and pig iron ore. ● The fiveyear plan was forced collectivism of agriculture. ● Stalin has argued that collectivization would boost agriculture productivity. The opposite happen as peasant resisted the new system. ● Resistance was common in Ukraine. They were label kulaks. ● Policy enforced famine to Ukraine, ● Ukraine was being starved to death and the death toll was about 3 million. ● All grains were carved out of Ukraine and borders were close for no excess of food.
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