Exam One Study Guide CDFR 3306
Exam One Study Guide CDFR 3306 CDFR 3306
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CDFR 3150 Introduction to Early Childhood Intervention
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This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Victoria Baumann on Monday May 23, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to CDFR 3306 at East Carolina University taught by Dr. Hedge in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 105 views. For similar materials see Guiding Children's Behavior in Child Development at East Carolina University.
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Date Created: 05/23/16
Exam One Study Guide Review and understand the influence of various theorists on the concept of disciplining and guidance John Locke – Child as a “Tabula Rasa” – Blank Slate Children begin with nothing, its experiences that shape their personality and behavior Parents can mold children’s behavior according to their wishes He thought hard discipline was not necessary for children. One can mold children’s behavior in a positive fashion based on rewards “The child is a small letter, yet the best copy of ADAM… His soul is yet a while paper unscribbled with observations… and he knows no evil” IMPLICATIONS: Outlook towards children was changed from harshness to kindness, environment had a powerful role to play in children’s development, children as a passive being was emphasized Jean Jacques Rousseau They are not blank slates waiting to be written upon or filled with adult instruction Instead they are “Nobel Savages” Naturally endowed with a sense of right and wrong and have an innate plan for orderly and healthy growth Unlike Locke, Rousseau believed that children do have a built in sense of morality, and this unique way of morality would be hampered if adults keep on training them This was the beginning to the child centered philosophy Implications: Children were viewed as active, organisms, built in the belief that children unfold at every stage of development: infancy, childhood, late childhood, and adolescence in a genetically predetermined way. Thus adults have to be supportive towards children’s development Friedrich Forebel Believed early years are the most critical in shaping children’s future Further, he thought that nature of the child was essentially good and the “faults” (behaviors) were the product of particular experiences “There are many faults… Which arise through carelessness. When children act on impulse which in itself may be harmless or ever praiseworthy, they can become so entirely absorbed that they have no thought for the consequences, and indeed from their own limited experience can have no knowledge of them” “Moreover, it is certainly trust that has a rule the child is first made bad by some other person, often by the educator himself. This can happen when everything which the child does out of ignorance or thoughtlessness or even from a keen sense of right and wrong is attributed to an intention to do evil. Unhappily there are among teachers those who always see children as mischievous, spiteful… whereas others seen at most overexuberant sense of life or a situation which has got out of hand” John Dewey “If you have the end in view of forty or fifty children learning certain set of lessons, to be recited to the teacher you discipline must be devoted to securing that result. But if the end in view is the development of the spirit of social cooperation and community life…” T Then “BE IT” – We have to prepare citizens for democratic society Rudolph Dreikurs He is the first who talked about positive classroom management or positive discipline for children He believed that one should be working with children rather than in opposition to children Teachers need to be “leaders rather than bosses” in their work with children He believed that every behavior of the child is goal directed and the most preeminent goal of behavior is “SOCIAL ACCEPTANCE” “Behavior is Purposive or goal directed… humans are social beings which the overriding goal of belonging or finding a place in the society… the child’s behavior indicates the ways and means by which he tries to be significant. If these ways and means are antisocial and disrupting, then the child did not develop the right idea about how to find his place. The antisocial ways or mistaken goals reflects an error in the child’s judgment and his comprehension of life and the necessities of social living” “To understand the child we need to understand the purpose” Haim Ginott Helped us articulate the understanding of guidance “Where do we start if we want to improve life in a classroom? Be examining how we respond to children. How a teacher communicates is a decisive importance. It affects a child’s life for good or bad. Unusually we are not overly concerned about whether one’s response conveys acceptance or rejection. Yet to a child this difference is fateful, if not fatal” Understand the true meaning of discipline and guidance Guidance: is usually associated with helping kids deal with problems (as in guidance counselor) Discipline: helping children learn personal responsibility for their behavior and the ability to judge between right and wrong for themselves We want to help children learn to make wise choices about what they should do Advocating approaches that help children understand why certain behaviors are better than others, and that help children choose to act in a desirable manner, whether or not an adult is there to “catch” them at it – individualized to the needs and abilities of each child Key element in the process is determining the cause of undesirable behaviors and working to eliminate that cause Know what discipline is and what it is not What it is Help children learn personal responsibility for the behavior and judge between what is right and wrong (e.g. food eating) Helping children make wise choices about what they should do and why (e.g. share or cooperate, e.g. Hailey) Reason out with the child (e.g. Jamie) Gain internal control Try to eliminate the cause (Diagnostic teaching) What it is not Merely stopping unproductive actions Just enforcing rules Just punish or reward the child Just have external controls in life Just believe what you see Understand the concepts of moral autonomy and heteronomy Moral Autonomy Guided and governed by their own beliefs and understanding (Reason, Understand and Apply that rule to their own life) Heteronomy – being governed or ruled by somebody else (Blind Conformity to Rules) A person is kind to others because of their personal feelings of respect for others (You don’t respect somebody because you have to) AUTONOMY DOES NOT MEAN LACK OF CONTROL. IT MEANS SOURCE OF CONTROL. Autonomy does not mean right to make decisions, but that ability to make decisions In a morally autonomous person, SOURCE OF CONTROL LIES WITHIN HIMSELF/HERSELF Know the different parenting styles and their association with different theories THEORY PROCESS GOAL Behaviorist Molds behavior via rewards Obedience and punishment Constructivist Helps children learn from Moral Autonomy experience and reasoning Maturationist Believes time is the best Individual Development teacher Authoritarian model – obedience is the target behavior; prefers unquestioning and immediate obedience Reward and punishment Associated with anger and depression, low self-esteem and the inability to make self-directed choices Permissive Model – emphasizes individual freedom, although it can also be a result of neglect Lack of discipline Low self-esteem and difficulty getting along with others Constructivist Model – works towards moral autonomy: self-determined and responsible behavior, showing concern for the good of others and for oneself as well Acknowledges the complexity of the ever-changing world; therefore, it teaches children to think for themselves about desirable and undesirable actions rather than telling them predetermined answers to current dilemmas Instructive Discipline: aimed at helping children construct socially productive behavior rules and values for themselves High self-esteem, good social skills, general competence, and self-discipline Help most children quickly learn to negotiate solutions to problems, to resolve their own conflicts and to self-direct their learning activity Understand physical and emotional needs of children and how discipline problems can arise if they are not met Physical play helps children gain skills for preventing and solving discipline problems Learn to communicate and cooperate Manage their own behaviors and emotions Self-awareness, empathy, self-restraint, problem solving skills, and assertiveness Build confidence and peer relationships Negotiate rules, take turns, and lead (or follow) = developing critical skills they will use throughout their lifetimes Having good agility, balance, coordination, power, and speed can promote social interaction and peer acceptance Movement affects brain chemistry in humans and can be an effective tool for managing emotional stress Boys typically need a longer period of time to process their emotions o Boys may need the experience of a physical release to recover from uncomfortable or difficult emotional experiences Girls are often able to use their verbal skills to work through an emotional experience Fine motor skills lag behind gross motor coordination for many children Placing pressure on children to perform above their current level of development will result in frustration and feelings of failure negative behaviors Matching your expectations to children’s abilities will avert some potential discipline struggles Fine motor development can be encouraged appropriately (e.g., opportunities for practice, appropriate tools, adults support) o Working with modeling clay and using age appropriate woodworking tools are other excellent ways to build fine motor skills Temperament is a component of personality Determined by our genetics and how we were nurtured Determines how we react to stimuli and how we regulate these reactions Emotional regulation development is dependent on temperament Temperament effects how others react to the child Challenge for adults is how to respond positively to a more difficult child They need your help and understanding because their difficult temperaments are making life more difficult for them too Individual differences in temperament influence children’s social interactions throughout their lifetime and can have long-term effects on their mental health Caregivers must focus their interests on adapting the environment and teaching styles to accommodate the needs of the children involved – “making the school fit the child, as opposed to trying to make the child fit the school” Temperament must be considered then teachers assess the cause of a discipline problem to determine the best action to take with the child Review the slides on emotions and understand what emotions are There are three parts of emotion 1. Physical (heart may beat faster, palms may sweat) 2. Expressive (observable—shoulders slum down, voice is either confident or starts shaking) 3. Cognitive (interpretable—context of the situation, individual’s own goal, past experience, thoughts) Emotions serve different functions Emotions is a part of communication (provides individuals with information on their well being or state of function) It demonstrated attachment (e.g., children with autism) ***CHILDREN DO NOT ALWAYS UNDERSTAND THE IMPORTANCE OF EMOTIONS OR UNDERSTAND HOW THEIR EMOTIONAL STATE CAN AFFECT OTHER CHILDREN*** Understand how children’s expression of emotions changed with age >5 y.o Children experience one emotion at a time (intense too) When toddlers and preschoolers are angry they are completely angry, when they are pleased they are very pleased One minute they say “No” next minute they want to be in your lap (rapid fluctuations between emotions) 5-7 y.o Children can hold more than one feeling within them. However, all the feelings need to belong to one cluster (opposing feelings are directed towards different things) (e.g.) happiness and excitement—joy (they can feel happy and excited about going to the party) but not happy and sad at the same time 8-11 y.o Same event can lead to multiple and contrasting emotions (e.g) staying home all by themselves—scared and proud https://www.facebook.com/?sk=h_chr When children are very young they rely more on facial expressions and looks to tell how someone else is feeling seeing tears in a child’s eyes they know a particular child is sad Gradually children start understanding situational clues in addition to expressive aspects of emotion T is sad because her toy is broken and so she is crying As children mature they realize that the same vent may not lead to similar emotions Loud music may make one happy, while other angry) Recognize strategies adults can use to assist children with emotional expression Forming a positive and respectful relationship with children For children to express or learn about emotions, the emotional climate of the classroom has to be conducive Integrating discussion about emotions in your curriculum Conversations about feelings are an important context in which we learn about emotions and also understand how to manage them Acknowledging children’s feelings Not minimizing children’s feelings—you cannot fear dark, you cannot get angry at such a small thing We cannot begin to understand our feelings until we don’t pay attention to them Helping children put their feelings into words Emotional states can be described Model appropriate expressions of your own feelings Observe how children play out emotional scripts dramatically in a home-living or dramatic play center Drawing or Art Area Children might be encouraged to “draw about the time when…” Borrow this idea from therapist who work with children to come from troubled backgrounds Tape recorders and video equipment can be used too Children might audio tape each other telling stories in which they recreate emotions – can be followed with discussions Dealing with children’s conflict on an everyday basis. Reflect on feelings (if children are small) or urge children to reflect on their feelings (older children) – what they felt during and after conflict situation. Doing this we do not suppress their feelings Understand the friendship process and what factors influence children’s friendships Making contact How to make an approach – help get a response Maintaining positive relationships Help children communicate in a positive fashion Express interest, cooperate, express acceptance, express affection Negotiate conflict How children can use constructive ways of resolving differences Ending relationships/friendships Children should be helped to cope up with ending relationships Verbal goodbyes, acknowledge separation, looking for alternatives Level Zero Momentary playmates: (3-6y.o) friends are defined by proximity, possessions, visible physical skills. Children are good at initiating contacts but may not be able to respond Children are egocentric so they only thing from their side “what they want” (they fail to understand that they too have some duty towards the relationship) Assume that friends think just the way they do (feel frustrated very fast) 0= Do not understand that other’s feelings may be different than their own (preschoolers and few kindergarteners) Once children have started playing together, they find it difficult to accommodate somebody in between their play situation COGNITIVE DILEMMA RATHER THAN AN ACT OF CRUELTY Level One One-way assistance: (6-9y.o) chooses those age mates as friends whose behavior pleases them (like people who give them gum, turn to ride, seat on the bus – the other people maybe happy because the first person accepted whatever was given to them – still they are thinking from their own perspective) Friends are extremely imp, they do anything to have friends Sometimes they will act strange – comedy works “they might start acting very silly” 1= Know that others have feelings of their own, but can’t consider others feelings while thinking of their own (kindergarteners and primary grade children) Level 2 Two-Way, Fair weather Cooperation (7-12y.o) Friends are expected to be nice to each other They understand that it is a give and take relationship “You helped me yesterday, I will help you today” each should benefit from this relationship Friends are concerns about what each things of the other and they evaluate their own actions based on how others would evaluate them Friends are also possessive about each other 2= Can consider each others point of view (upper elementary) Level Three Intimate, Mutually shared relationships (older children and adults) They believe friendship is an ongoing relationship with shared goals They don’t believe in tit for tat, as in the previous stage Ready to make compromises not just cooperate Friendships are both exclusive and possessive (cannot make friends with people one of them doesn’t like) 3= Can coordinate each other perspectives Be able to identify some of the problems children face within a friendship relationship Neglected children: typically, shy and passive children These children perceive themselves as not welcoming (they don’t lack social skills). They believe they can’t enter a play situation Rejected children Rejected Withdrawn: these children are socially awkward – they are immature and are insensitive towards their peer group expectations. They know that they are not liked by other children and will be rebutted. These children are lonely. These children possess low self-esteem and depression (sometimes) Rejected Aggressive: these children alienate from others by force (bullies). Typically these children are uncooperative; they perceive themselves to be socially acceptable Review the sides on how to facilitate friendships within children as a teacher Shaping Encouraging children’s appropriate response Any appropriate move of the child is encouraged Coaching/Modeling Typically coaching occurs on a one-on-one basis. A coaching session involves discussion, demonstration of a skill, practice and evaluation Peer teaching Paring a less able child with a more friendly child Encouraging cooperative activity and place Allow and encourage children to have group activities in the classroom (children need opportunities to make friendships) Have materials that encourages cooperation Develop group friendship activities in the classroom and in the process model the appropriate move (having friendship skits is helpful) Activity/Material List High Social Value Low Social Value Balls Books Blocks Beads Dishes Clay Dress up clothes Crayons Puppets Pull toys Puzzles Group friendship activities If you’re happy and you know it – incorporate affectionate actions. For ex. “If you app and you know it hug your friend (Modeling/role play) If you’re happy and you know it: what will you do – ask children to repeat the behavior or let the child think critically and come up with an appropriate response (depending on the situation) New animal in the forest: let the children pretend to be new animals in the forest who friend a friend. Have them act out how they feel when they find a friend Posing like picture: look for pictures of people showing affection and talk about them. Have children pose together as in the picture Greeting: talk about how exciting it is to see someone you haven’t seen in a long time. Demonstrate and practice showing your feelings to others Art activity: make pictures that express feelings for a friend, parent, etc. talk about caring for others and expressing friendly feelings Pitfalls to avoid Barging too quickly: though it is tempting to enter the situation and diffuse the problem, wait and watching, allow the children to resolve their friendship issues if they can on their own Requiring everyone together all of the time: opportunities should be allowed for both solitary as well as group activities. The balance is important. Constant companionships does not promise stronger friendships Breaking up children’s friendships: sometimes when children are forming friendships, they might go overboard – they want to so the same things together all the time – understand the situation, explain and then take the next logical step (observe and understand) (controversial) Encouraging Friendships Help children to know each other Talk about how friends treat each other Talk about the importance of having many different types of friends Allow for opportunities where children can interact with each other Understand the components of a classroom environment (will post more in- depth notes for chapter 4 asap) Physical Environment Ideas for specific ages Designing spaces Spaces for instruction, experimenting, and reflection Intellectual Environment Materials Open-ended activities Resources Emotional Environment Relationships Recognition Competition Success Positive teacher expectations Family-school relationships Social Environment Children’s relationships with peers Friendship Including children with special needs Mutual respect Respectful communication Respecting children’s decisions Respecting differences Review how to arrange physical environment of the classroom and how good arrangements help to alleviate discipline problems Separate quiet and active areas Both serve different purposes (book areas, adjacent to dramatic play area not a good idea) Few areas can be kept permeable (block area adjacent to house keeping) – high quality center Boundaries Furnishings and low room dividers are helpful in forming boundaries rather then just verbal directions Floor tapes are not a good idea; floor tapes with dividers is a good idea Use of carpets to distinguish is also a good idea Pathways How do children move from one area to the other (30-36’’ indoors is ideal, outside the pathways have to be broader) One activity intended and results in something else (inhibits running, burbs intrusions and interruptions) Supervision Space of the room – teachers should be able to supervise the room in the best way possible Arrangement of furnishings Place cubbies/lockers near the doorway, electrical equipment near the outlets, paints near the water source Place messy activities on hard surface floors and potentially noisy activities on carpets Attach fabric to the open shelve units with Velcro fasteners so that the shelves may be close during group time Put seating in areas to the number of children who are to use the area Kinds of space available for children Private space – reading area, book area – not used for punishment or time out Small group space – fewer than 8 children; there should be an area for sitting as well as working Large group space – all children can be accommodated at once; helps children see themselves as a part of the larger group In the center of the classroom, you can accommodate both high and low activity level centers and materials Dimensions Conditions Adjustment Impact on Children Observed Safety Hot and stuffy Open windows Children (temperature) room experience less Press towels Draft or against windows stress and unusually cool until permanent greater comfort room insulators as available Equipment The latch of the Verbal instructions Prevents children play yard gate futile (tie a rope from dashing into leading to the around the gate the fate, understand playground is post and keep the it is unsafe to go broken gate closed/stand at there the ate to let children know that one cannot move beyond that point Interior design Walls are plain and Mount children’s Children are proud (walls) dull paintings (have to see their work, good combination of feelings of safety commercial goods seeps in for young and their own work) children —young children (family portraits)
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