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ECU / Child Development / CHD 3306 / What did friedrich froebel believe in?

What did friedrich froebel believe in?

What did friedrich froebel believe in?


Exam One Study Guide

Friedrich forebel, believed what?

Review and understand the influence of various theorists on the concept of  disciplining and guidance  

John Locke – Child as a “Tabula Rasa” – Blank Slate

 Children begin with nothing, its experiences that shape their personality and  behavior

 Parents can mold children’s behavior according to their wishes

 He thought hard discipline was not necessary for children. One can mold  children’s behavior in a positive fashion based on rewards

 “The child is a small letter, yet the best copy of ADAM… His soul is yet a  while paper unscribbled with observations… and he knows no evil”

 IMPLICATIONS: Outlook towards children was changed from harshness to  kindness, environment had a powerful role to play in children’s development, children as a passive being was emphasized

Who is rudolph dreikurs?

Jean Jacques Rousseau

 They are not blank slates waiting to be written upon or filled with adult  instruction

 Instead they are “Nobel Savages”

 Naturally endowed with a sense of right and wrong and have an  innate plan for orderly and healthy growth  

 Unlike Locke, Rousseau believed that children do have a built in  sense of morality, and this unique way of morality would be  

hampered if adults keep on training them  

 This was the beginning to the child centered philosophy We also discuss several other topics like What is a polar aprotic?

 Implications: Children were viewed as active, organisms, built in  the belief that children unfold at every stage of development:  infancy, childhood, late childhood, and adolescence in a  

Heteronomy is being governed or?

genetically predetermined way. Thus adults have to be  

supportive towards children’s development  

Friedrich Forebel

 Believed early years are the most critical in shaping children’s future  Further, he thought that nature of the child was essentially good and the  “faults” (behaviors) were the product of particular experiences  “There are many faults… Which arise through carelessness. When  children act on impulse which in itself may be harmless or ever  

praiseworthy, they can become so entirely absorbed that they  

have no thought for the consequences, and indeed from their own limited experience can have no knowledge of them” Don't forget about the age old question of In biology, ultrastructure refers to what?

 “Moreover, it is certainly trust that has a rule the child is first made  bad by some other person, often by the educator himself. This  can happen when everything which the child does out of  

ignorance or thoughtlessness or even from a keen sense of  right and wrong is attributed to an intention to do evil.  

Unhappily there are among teachers those who always see children as  mischievous, spiteful… whereas others seen at most overexuberant  sense of life or a situation which has got out of hand”

John Dewey

 “If you have the end in view of forty or fifty children learning certain set of  lessons, to be recited to the teacher you discipline must be devoted to  securing that result. But if the end in view is the development of the spirit of  social cooperation and community life…” T

 Then “BE IT” – We have to prepare citizens for democratic society  Rudolph Dreikurs

 He is the first who talked about positive classroom management or  positive discipline for children

 He believed that one should be working with children rather than in  opposition to children

 Teachers need to be “leaders rather than bosses” in their work with children  He believed that every behavior of the child is goal directed and the most  preeminent goal of behavior is “SOCIAL ACCEPTANCE” We also discuss several other topics like What is a hydroxide?

 “Behavior is Purposive or goal directed… humans are social  beings which the overriding goal of belonging or finding a place in the  society… the child’s behavior indicates the ways and means by  which he tries to be significant. If these ways and means are  If you want to learn more check out Why did the ming need the europeans?

antisocial and disrupting, then the child did not develop the right  idea about how to find his place. The antisocial ways or mistaken goals  reflects an error in the child’s judgment and his comprehension of life  and the necessities of social living”

 “To understand the child we need to understand the purpose” Haim Ginott

 Helped us articulate the understanding of guidance

 “Where do we start if we want to improve life in a classroom? Be examining  how we respond to children. How a teacher communicates is a decisive  importance. It affects a child’s life for good or bad. Unusually we are not  overly concerned about whether one’s response conveys acceptance or rejection. Yet to a child this difference is fateful, if not fatal”

Understand the true meaning of discipline and guidance

Guidance: is usually associated with helping kids deal with problems (as in guidance  counselor)

Discipline: helping children learn personal responsibility for their behavior and the ability  to judge between right and wrong for themselves If you want to learn more check out What did theodosius dobzhansky founded?

∙ We want to help children learn to make wise choices about what they should do  ∙ Advocating approaches that help children understand why certain behaviors are  better than others, and that help children choose to act in a desirable manner,  whether or not an adult is there to “catch” them at it – individualized to the needs  and abilities of each child

∙ Key element in the process is determining the cause of undesirable behaviors and  working to eliminate that cause  

Know what discipline is and what it is not  

What it is

∙ Help children learn personal responsibility for the behavior and judge between  what is right and wrong (e.g. food eating)

∙ Helping children make wise choices about what they should do and why (e.g. share or cooperate, e.g. Hailey)

∙ Reason out with the child (e.g. Jamie)

∙ Gain internal control

∙ Try to eliminate the cause (Diagnostic teaching) If you want to learn more check out In cell theory, all organisms are composed of?

What it is not

∙ Merely stopping unproductive actions

∙ Just enforcing rules

∙ Just punish or reward the child

∙ Just have external controls in life

∙ Just believe what you see  

Understand the concepts of moral autonomy and heteronomy  Moral Autonomy  

∙ Guided and governed by their own beliefs and understanding (Reason, Understand  and Apply that rule to their own life)

∙ Heteronomy – being governed or ruled by somebody else (Blind Conformity to  Rules)

∙ A person is kind to others because of their personal feelings of respect for others  (You don’t respect somebody because you have to)

∙ AUTONOMY DOES NOT MEAN LACK OF CONTROL. IT MEANS SOURCE OF CONTROL. ∙ Autonomy does not mean right to make decisions, but that ability to make  decisions

∙ In a morally autonomous person, SOURCE OF CONTROL LIES WITHIN  HIMSELF/HERSELF

Know the different parenting styles and their association with different  theories  


Behaviorist Molds behavior via rewards  and punishment

Constructivist Helps children learn from  experience and reasoning

Maturationist Believes time is the best  teacher


Moral Autonomy

Individual Development  

Authoritarian model – obedience is the target behavior; prefers unquestioning and  immediate obedience  

∙ Reward and punishment  

∙ Associated with anger and depression, low self-esteem and the inability to make  self-directed choices  

Permissive Model – emphasizes individual freedom, although it can also be a result of  neglect

∙ Lack of discipline  

∙ Low self-esteem and difficulty getting along with others

Constructivist Model – works towards moral autonomy: self-determined and responsible  behavior, showing concern for the good of others and for oneself as well

∙ Acknowledges the complexity of the ever-changing world; therefore, it teaches  children to think for themselves about desirable and undesirable actions rather  than telling them predetermined answers to current dilemmas

∙ Instructive Discipline: aimed at helping children construct socially productive  behavior rules and values for themselves  

∙ High self-esteem, good social skills, general competence, and self-discipline  ∙ Help most children quickly learn to negotiate solutions to problems, to resolve their own conflicts and to self-direct their learning activity  

Understand physical and emotional needs of children and how discipline  problems can arise if they are not met

Physical play helps children gain skills for preventing and solving discipline problems

∙ Learn to communicate and cooperate

∙ Manage their own behaviors and emotions

∙ Self-awareness, empathy, self-restraint, problem solving skills, and assertiveness  ∙ Build confidence and peer relationships  

∙ Negotiate rules, take turns, and lead (or follow) = developing critical skills they will use  

throughout their lifetimes  

∙ Having good agility, balance, coordination, power, and speed can promote social  interaction and peer acceptance  

Movement affects brain chemistry in humans and can be an effective tool for managing  emotional stress

∙ Boys typically need a longer period of time to process their emotions o Boys may need the experience of a physical release to recover from  uncomfortable or difficult emotional experiences  

∙ Girls are often able to use their verbal skills to work through an emotional  experience  

Fine motor skills lag behind gross motor coordination for many children  

∙ Placing pressure on children to perform above their current level of development  will result in frustration and feelings of failure  negative behaviors  ∙ Matching your expectations to children’s abilities will avert some potential  discipline struggles  

∙ Fine motor development can be encouraged appropriately (e.g., opportunities for  practice, appropriate tools, adults support)  

o Working with modeling clay and using age appropriate woodworking tools  are other excellent ways to build fine motor skills  

Temperament is a component of personality

∙ Determined by our genetics and how we were nurtured

∙ Determines how we react to stimuli and how we regulate these reactions ∙ Emotional regulation development is dependent on temperament

Temperament effects how others react to the child  

∙ Challenge for adults is how to respond positively to a more difficult child

∙ They need your help and understanding because their difficult temperaments are  making life more difficult for them too  

∙ Individual differences in temperament influence children’s social interactions  throughout their lifetime and can have long-term effects on their mental health ∙ Caregivers must focus their interests on adapting the environment and teaching  styles to accommodate the needs of the children involved – “making the school fit  the child, as opposed to trying to make the child fit the school”  

∙ Temperament must be considered then teachers assess the cause of a discipline  problem to determine the best action to take with the child

Review the slides on emotions and understand what emotions are There are three parts of emotion

1. Physical (heart may beat faster, palms may sweat)

2. Expressive (observable—shoulders slum down, voice is either confident or starts  shaking)

3. Cognitive (interpretable—context of the situation, individual’s own goal, past  experience, thoughts)

Emotions serve different functions

∙ Emotions is a part of communication (provides individuals with information on their well being or state of function)

∙ It demonstrated attachment (e.g., children with autism)


Understand how children’s expression of emotions changed with age

>5 y.o

Children experience one emotion at a time (intense too)

∙ When toddlers and preschoolers are angry they are completely  angry, when they are pleased they are very pleased

∙ One minute they say “No” next minute they want to be in your  lap (rapid fluctuations between emotions)

5-7 y.o

Children can hold more than one feeling within them. However, all the  feelings need to belong to one cluster (opposing feelings are directed  towards different things)

∙ (e.g.) happiness and excitement—joy (they can feel happy and  excited about going to the party) but not happy and sad at the  same time

8-11 y.o

Same event can lead to multiple and contrasting emotions  ∙ (e.g) staying home all by themselves—scared and proud https://www.facebook.com/?sk=h_chr

When children are very young they rely more on facial expressions and looks to tell how  someone else is feeling

∙ seeing tears in a child’s eyes they know a particular child is sad

Gradually children start understanding situational clues in addition to expressive aspects  of emotion

∙ T is sad because her toy is broken and so she is crying

As children mature they realize that the same vent may not lead to similar emotions ∙ Loud music may make one happy, while other angry)

Recognize strategies adults can use to assist children with emotional  expression

Forming a positive and respectful relationship with children

∙ For children to express or learn about emotions, the emotional climate of the  classroom has to be conducive

Integrating discussion about emotions in your curriculum

∙ Conversations about feelings are an important context in which we learn about  emotions and also understand how to manage them

Acknowledging children’s feelings  

∙ Not minimizing children’s feelings—you cannot fear dark, you cannot get angry at  such a small thing

∙ We cannot begin to understand our feelings until we don’t pay attention to them Helping children put their feelings into words

∙ Emotional states can be described

Model appropriate expressions of your own feelings

Observe how children play out emotional scripts dramatically in a home-living or  dramatic play center

Drawing or Art Area

∙ Children might be encouraged to “draw about the time when…”

∙ Borrow this idea from therapist who work with children to come from troubled  backgrounds

Tape recorders and video equipment can be used too

∙ Children might audio tape each other telling stories in which they recreate  emotions – can be followed with discussions

Dealing with children’s conflict on an everyday basis. Reflect on feelings (if children are  small) or urge children to reflect on their feelings (older children) – what they felt during  and after conflict situation. Doing this we do not suppress their feelings

Understand the friendship process and what factors influence children’s  friendships  

Making contact

∙ How to make an approach – help get a response

Maintaining positive relationships

∙ Help children communicate in a positive fashion

∙ Express interest, cooperate, express acceptance, express affection Negotiate conflict

∙ How children can use constructive ways of resolving differences

Ending relationships/friendships

∙ Children should be helped to cope up with ending relationships

∙ Verbal goodbyes, acknowledge separation, looking for alternatives

Level Zero

Momentary playmates: (3-6y.o) friends are defined by proximity,  possessions, visible physical skills. Children are good at initiating  contacts but may not be able to respond

∙ Children are egocentric so they only thing from their side  “what they want” (they fail to understand that they too have  some duty towards the relationship)

∙ Assume that friends think just the way they do (feel frustrated  very fast)

0= Do not understand that other’s feelings may be different than  their own (preschoolers and few kindergarteners)

∙ Once children have started playing together, they find it  difficult to accommodate somebody in between their play  situation


Level One

One-way assistance: (6-9y.o) chooses those age mates as friends  whose behavior pleases them (like people who give them gum, turn  to ride, seat on the bus – the other people maybe happy because  the first person accepted whatever was given to them – still they are thinking from their own perspective)

∙ Friends are extremely imp, they do anything to have friends ∙ Sometimes they will act strange – comedy works “they might  start acting very silly”

1= Know that others have feelings of their own, but can’t consider  others feelings while thinking of their own (kindergarteners and  primary grade children)

Level 2

Two-Way, Fair weather Cooperation (7-12y.o)

∙ Friends are expected to be nice to each other

∙ They understand that it is a give and take relationship ∙ “You helped me yesterday, I will help you today”

∙ each should benefit from this relationship

∙ Friends are concerns about what each things of the other and  they evaluate their own actions based on how others would  evaluate them

∙ Friends are also possessive about each other

2= Can consider each others point of view (upper elementary)

Level Three

Intimate, Mutually shared relationships (older children and adults) ∙ They believe friendship is an ongoing relationship with shared  goals

∙ They don’t believe in tit for tat, as in the previous stage ∙ Ready to make compromises not just cooperate ∙ Friendships are both exclusive and possessive (cannot make  friends with people one of them doesn’t like)

3= Can coordinate each other perspectives

Be able to identify some of the problems children face within a friendship  relationship

Neglected children: typically, shy and passive children  

∙ These children perceive themselves as not welcoming (they don’t lack social skills). They believe they can’t enter a play situation

Rejected children

∙ Rejected Withdrawn: these children are socially awkward – they are immature  and are insensitive towards their peer group expectations. They know that they are not liked by other children and will be rebutted. These children are lonely. These  children possess low self-esteem and depression (sometimes)

∙ Rejected Aggressive: these children alienate from others by force (bullies).  Typically these children are uncooperative; they perceive themselves to be socially  acceptable  

Review the sides on how to facilitate friendships within children as a teacher Shaping

∙ Encouraging children’s appropriate response

∙ Any appropriate move of the child is encouraged


∙ Typically coaching occurs on a one-on-one basis. A coaching session involves  discussion, demonstration of a skill, practice and evaluation

Peer teaching

∙ Paring a less able child with a more friendly child

Encouraging cooperative activity and place

∙ Allow and encourage children to have group activities in the classroom (children need opportunities to make friendships)

∙ Have materials that encourages cooperation

∙ Develop group friendship activities in the classroom and in the process model  the appropriate move (having friendship skits is helpful)

Activity/Material List

High Social Value

Low Social Value




Dress up clothes






Pull toys


Group friendship activities

∙ If you’re happy and you know it – incorporate affectionate actions. For ex. “If you  app and you know it hug your friend (Modeling/role play)

∙ If you’re happy and you know it: what will you do – ask children to repeat the  behavior or let the child think critically and come up with an appropriate response  (depending on the situation)

∙ New animal in the forest: let the children pretend to be new animals in the forest  who friend a friend. Have them act out how they feel when they find a friend ∙ Posing like picture: look for pictures of people showing affection and talk about  them. Have children pose together as in the picture

∙ Greeting: talk about how exciting it is to see someone you haven’t seen in a long  time. Demonstrate and practice showing your feelings to others

∙ Art activity: make pictures that express feelings for a friend, parent, etc. talk about  caring for others and expressing friendly feelings

Pitfalls to avoid

∙ Barging too quickly: though it is tempting to enter the situation and diffuse the  problem, wait and watching, allow the children to resolve their friendship issues if  they can on their own

∙ Requiring everyone together all of the time: opportunities should be allowed for  both solitary as well as group activities. The balance is important. Constant  companionships does not promise stronger friendships

∙ Breaking up children’s friendships: sometimes when children are forming  friendships, they might go overboard – they want to so the same things together  all the time – understand the situation, explain and then take the next logical step  (observe and understand) (controversial)

Encouraging Friendships

∙ Help children to know each other

∙ Talk about how friends treat each other

∙ Talk about the importance of having many different types of friends ∙ Allow for opportunities where children can interact with each other

Understand the components of a classroom environment (will post more in depth notes for chapter 4 asap)

Physical Environment

∙ Ideas for specific ages

∙ Designing spaces

∙ Spaces for instruction, experimenting, and reflection

Intellectual Environment

∙ Materials  

∙ Open-ended activities

∙ Resources

Emotional Environment

∙ Relationships

∙ Recognition

∙ Competition

∙ Success

∙ Positive teacher expectations

∙ Family-school relationships

Social Environment

∙ Children’s relationships with peers

∙ Friendship

∙ Including children with special needs  

∙ Mutual respect

∙ Respectful communication

∙ Respecting children’s decisions  

∙ Respecting differences

Review how to arrange physical environment of the classroom and how  good arrangements help to alleviate discipline problems

Separate quiet and active areas

∙ Both serve different purposes (book areas, adjacent to dramatic play area not a  good idea)

∙ Few areas can be kept permeable (block area adjacent to house keeping) – high  quality center


∙ Furnishings and low room dividers are helpful in forming boundaries rather then  just verbal directions

∙ Floor tapes are not a good idea; floor tapes with dividers is a good idea

∙ Use of carpets to distinguish is also a good idea


∙ How do children move from one area to the other (30-36’’ indoors is ideal, outside  the pathways have to be broader)

∙ One activity intended and results in something else (inhibits running, burbs  intrusions and interruptions)


∙ Space of the room – teachers should be able to supervise the room in the best way  possible

Arrangement of furnishings

∙ Place cubbies/lockers near the doorway, electrical equipment near the outlets,  paints near the water source

∙ Place messy activities on hard surface floors and potentially noisy activities on  carpets

∙ Attach fabric to the open shelve units with Velcro fasteners so that the shelves may be close during group time

∙ Put seating in areas to the number of children who are to use the area Kinds of space available for children

∙ Private space – reading area, book area – not used for punishment or time out ∙ Small group space – fewer than 8 children; there should be an area for sitting as  well as working

∙ Large group space – all children can be accommodated at once; helps children see  themselves as a part of the larger group

∙ In the center of the classroom, you can accommodate both high and low activity  level centers and materials





Impact on Children



∙ Hot and stuffy  room

∙ Draft or  

unusually cool  


∙ Open windows ∙ Press towels  

against windows  until permanent  

insulators as  


∙ Children  

experience less  

stress and  

greater comfort


The latch of the  

play yard gate  

leading to the  

playground is  


Verbal instructions  futile (tie a rope  

around the gate  

post and keep the  gate closed/stand at the ate to let  

children know that  one cannot move  beyond that point

Prevents children  from dashing into  the fate, understand it is unsafe to go  there

Interior design  


Walls are plain and  dull

Mount children’s  paintings (have  

good combination of commercial goods  and their own work) —young children  (family portraits)

Children are proud  to see their work,  feelings of safety  seeps in for young  children

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