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OU / Chemistry / CHEM 3053 / How do you determine electron density?

How do you determine electron density?

How do you determine electron density?

Description

School: University of Oklahoma
Department: Chemistry
Course: Organic Chemistry: Biological Emphasis I
Professor: J garrett
Term: Spring 2016
Tags: Organic Chemistry and Organic Chem
Cost: 25
Name: Organic Chemistry I: Biological Emphasis - Chapter 3 Notes
Description: These are my notes taken during class that are my take on Professor Garrett's lectures. Much of my notes are direct quotes or paraphrasing of what he lectures and I include my own thoughts and drawings on the information. These are the notes for Chapter 3.
Uploaded: 05/23/2016
10 Pages 35 Views 1 Unlocks
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Acids and Bases If you want to learn more check out What are the disciplines of anthropology?

  • Bronsted-Lowry Acids/Bases

We also discuss several other topics like What stage of sleep do parasomnias occur?

B.L Acid - proton donor

B.L Base- proton acceptor

If you want to learn more check out State and explain the doctrine of double effect (dde). on what distinction is it based?

  • Protons do not exist by themselves (they must be bonded to something)
  • They transfer between molecules or ions during a reaction
  • Electrons from a base attract the protons from an acid

Don't forget about the age old question of What are the barriers to turn off media?

We also discuss several other topics like What are the types of verbs?

Don't forget about the age old question of What is the principal energy of electron configuration?

Flow of Electron Density

  • All reaction (RxN means reaction)  are accomplished by the flow of electrons density (motion of electrons)

  • Arrows show the reaction mechanisms (now the reaction occurs in terms of electron movements)

Protons can be more or less acidic which is represented by their pKa

  • Remember: Base + Acid = Water + Salt

Using pKa to compare acidity

  • Ka is an equilibrium constant

  • Ka measures the strength of an acid

           

 The stronger the acid is, the weaker its conjugate base will be

           

Small pKa - strong acid- weak base

Large pKa- weak acid- strong base

This means we can also use pKa to compare basicity

Acidity just means how easily (or not) a molecule is willing to give up a proton (H+)

Which means Basicity is just how much a molecule wants to bond with a proton

Using pKa to compare equilibrium (can decide if a reaction will proceed forward or reversed)

This reaction wants to proceed to the right, which means its equilibrium lies to the right

Because carboxylic acid wants to get rid of its proton more than water does (lower pKa= stronger acid vs water’s higher pKa= weaker acid)

Qualitative Perspective

  • Comparing acidity to protons
  • Compare the stability of their conjugate bases

4 factors to determine stability of a negative charge.

  1. Which atom is the negative charge on?

       

Oxygen holds a negative change better than carbon because it is more electron (we also know oxygen like to be negative to have all 4 bonds)

     

H.S is more stable than OH even though oxygen is more electronegative than sulfur because sulfur is much larger than oxygen, and therefore is able to spread out its electron density

This means the electrons are delocalized in sulfur’s larger orbitals. This can be called polarization

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