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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Emily Mason on Monday May 23, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to COMM 2010 at Clemson University taught by Marilyn Pugh in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Communications Studies in Communication at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 05/23/16
Communicating to Understand the Self and Others Chapter 3 Identity- who a person is; a person’s uniqueness, represented by descriptions, a self-concept, inner thoughts, and performances, that is symbolized in interactions with other people and presented for their assessment and moral evaluation The Core Self o People do not possess a core self o The Onion model suggests that getting to know someone is like working their way toward the core, cutting through the outer layers one after the other in order to reach the central “truth.” But this is not true. o People may have developed and possess core values and beliefs, However, people construct multiple, sometimes contradictory, identities through communication with others. o Evidence the onion model is untrue: Mood: fluctuations in mood are a problem for anyone who sees identity as fixed or layered like an onion. Different Situations: People transact multiple identities given different situations and different areas of their lives. Different Relationships: People also transact multiple identities given the many different relationships shared with others. Different Evaluations: If every person had just one identity at the core of his or her personality, everyone would perceive it identically. o Like an urban myth, this way of looking at identity, which has no basis in research and has been abandoned by the theorists who proposed it, still feels like it ought to be right and is repeated unscientifically in many communication textbooks.Perhaps itis something we would like to believe, but as shown during the chapter it is basically a worthless idea, even when placed up against common sense. Identities, communication, and relationships are interconnected o Itis theuseofsymbols through which theseidentities and relationships are being transacted, or created. o Your identities influence your communication, while communication influences your identities. Society provides you with ways to describe and evaluate identities and personalities. People perform their identities with others. o Rather than having an identity, people are doing an identity. Perception- processofactivelyselecting,organizing,andevaluatinginformation, activities, situations, people, and essentially all the things that makeup yourworld o Selective exposure- the idea that you are more likely to expose yourself tothatwhichsupportsyourvaluesandattitudes,thatyou willbemorelikely to pick up on activities that support your views of the world, and that you will pay less attention to those that do not o Schemata- mental structures that areused to organize information in part by clustering or linking associated material o Personal constructs- bipolar dimensions used to measure and evaluate things; prescribe the way you tend to see or do things and selectively categorize and attend to them. Identities as Symbolic Constructs o Master Identities- identities involving biological sex, race, sexual orientation, and national or regional origin, which are relatively stable and unchanging A person may choose to not conform to these symbolic activities or may choose to emphasize or disregard these identities when communicating with others. So, Whilemasteridentities arethoseaperson maybeborn with,theyare ultimately socially and symbolically created and performed. o Identities are symbolic creations and performances are transacted though interactions with others Transacting personal identities includes communicating and behaving in ways culturally understood to represent those characteristics. o Symbolic Self- the self that is transacted in interaction with other people; that arises out of social interaction, not vice versa; and hence that does not just “belong to you” o Symbolic interactionism-howbroadsocialforcesaffectoreventransact an individual person’s view of who he or she is o Attitude of Reflection- thinking about how you look in other people’s eyes, or reflecting on the fact that other peoplecan see you as a social object from their point of view o Self-description- description that involves information about self that is obvious to others through appearance and behavior o Self-disclosure: the revelation of personal information that others could not know unless the person made it known Closeness generally develops only if the information is revealed in a way that indicates it is privileged information that other people do not know. Part of your identity is the skill with which you reveal or conceal information about yourself and your feelings, as any good poker player knows. 3 Things can happen when you self-disclose: First, it is possible that you will feel honored that someone trusts you with his or her secrets. Another possibility is that you do not like whatpeople are telling you or they disclose too much information. The third possibility is that you simply do not care about what you are being told. Disclosure itself does not make a difference to a relationship; the relationship makes a difference to the value of disclosure. dialectic tension-occurswheneveroneisintwominds aboutsomethingbecause one feels a simultaneous pull in two directions Narratives o A report about your identity characterizes you by means of a memory or history in its narrative or a typical or an amusing instance that involves character (your identity), plot, motives, scenes, and other actors. o Narratives can be: An ontology (how I came to be who I am) An epistemology (how I think about the world) An individual construction, or a relational process, such as when romantic partners tell the story about how they first met. o Origin Stories: These can be personal, cultural, or species o Stories about you must fit with what your societal audience believes to be coherent and acceptable. Transacting identities o Altercasting: how language can impose a certain identity on people, and how language can support or reject the identity of another person o How people perceive themselves and their attempts to construct identities are influenced by the ways in which they are treated by others. o Performativeself:aselfthatisacreativeperformancebasedonthesocial demands and norms of a given situation o Facework: This ideais abouttheperformanceofone’s identity in public,the presentation of the self to people in a way that is intended to make the self look good. o Front region: a frame where a social interaction is regarded as under public scrutiny, so people have to be on their best behavior or acting out their professional roles or intended “face” (contrast with back region) o Back region: a frame where a social interaction is regarded as not under public scrutiny, so people do not have to present their public face (contrast with front region) Chapter 6 (Pages 117- 126) Recognizing and Overcoming Listening Obstacles o Types of Distractions: o environmental distraction: obstacle to listening that results from the physical location where listening takes place and competing sources o medium distraction: obstacle to listening that results from limitations or problems inherent in certain media and technology, such as mobile phones or Internet connections o source distraction: obstacle to listening that results from auditory and visual characteristics of the message source o factual diversion: obstacle to listening that occurs when so much emphasis is placed on attending to every detail of a message that the main point becomes lost o semantic diversion: obstacle to listening that occurs when people are distracted bywords orphrasesusedin amessagethroughnegativeresponse or unfamiliarity o Obstacles of Listening: o content (representational) listening: obstacle to listening when peoplefocus on thecontentlevelofmeaning,orliteralmeaning,ratherthan the social or relational level of meaning o selective listening: obstacle to listening when people focus on the points of a message that correspond with their views and interests and pay less attention to those that do not o egocentric listening: obstacle to listening when people focus more on theirmessageandself-presentationthanonthemessageoftheotherperson involved in an interaction o wandering thoughts: obstacle to listening involving daydreams or thoughts about things other than the message being presented o experiential superiority: obstacle to listening when people fail to fully listen to someone else because they believe that they possess more or superior knowledge and experience than the other person o message complexity: obstacleto listeningwhenapersonfinds amessage so complex or confusing that he or she stops listening o past experience with the source: obstacle to listening when previous encounters with a person lead people to dismiss or fail to critically examine a message because the person has generally been right (or wrong) in the past Critical Listening: the process of analyzing and evaluating the accuracy, legitimacy, and value of messages o Elements of Critical Listening o plausibility: the extent to which a message seems legitimate o status of the source: obstacle to listening when a person’s rank, reputation, or social position leads people to dismiss or fail to critically examine a message o consistency: a message is free of internal contradiction and is in harmony with information known to be true o verifiability: an indication that the material being provided can be confirmed by other sources or means Fallacious argument: an argumentthatappears legitimate butis actually based on faulty reasoning or insufficient evidence o Types: o Argument against the source: when the source of a message, rather than the message itself, is attacked (also called ad hominem argument) o appeal to authority: when a person’s authority or credibility in one area is used to support another area o appeal to people: claims that something is good or beneficial because everyone else agrees with this evaluation (also called bandwagon appeal) o appeal to relationships: when relationships are used to justify certain behaviors and to convince others of their appropriateness o posthoc ergo propterhoc:arguesthatsomethingiscausedbywhatever happens before it; Latin for “after this; therefore, because of this” o cum hoc ergo propter hoc: argues that ifone thinghappens at thesame timeas another, itwas caused by thethingwith which itcoincides; Latin for “with this; therefore, because of this” o hasty generalization: when a conclusion is based on a single occurrence or insufficient data or sample size o redherring:theuseofanotherissueto divertattention away fromthereal issue o false alternatives: occurs when only two options are provided, one of which is generally presented as the poor choice or one that should be avoided o composition fallacy: argues that the parts are the same as the whole o division fallacy: argues the whole is the same as its parts o equivocation: relies on the ambiguousness of language to make an argument
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