Exam Review Guide #2 (Updated)
Exam Review Guide #2 (Updated) PSY 290
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This 19 page Study Guide was uploaded by Elliana on Saturday March 21, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 290 at University of Miami taught by Rick Stuetzle in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 826 views. For similar materials see Intro to Research Methods in Psychlogy at University of Miami.
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Exam 2 Review Guide PSY 290 Stuetzle PSY 290 Exam 2 Review Guide Validity Single Factor Designs amp Factorial Designs Validity Threats to internal validity Prepost design History IlIaturation Regression Testing Instrumentation llIost susceptible to time Participant problems Participant characteristics can affect the internal validity of a study Subject selection Attrition As time goes on you lose subjects Especially when studies span a long amt of time participants don39t always complete the experiment they begin Need to know who drops out of the study how are they similar or diff from ppl who continued w the study Certain ppl could have been offended by studies too sensitive to measures impatient for retesting this makes the sample less randomrepresentative of the population Bias preconceived expectation about what should happen in an experiment Experimenter bias Experimenters might inadvertently interact with participants in a way that makes them behave in a way that con rms your hypothesis Can be communicated through Ways in which instructions are given Describing anchors on scale Facia expressionsbody language when answers given Participant changes response to try to get quotpositivequot reaction from experiment Personaity characteristics Preschoolers perform better on cognitive tasks with quotcaringquot vs quotindi erentquot caregivers Minimizing experimenter bias Minimize contact between experimenter amp participant Computerize assessment Doubebind procedures Participant bias Knowing that you39re in an experiment can make you change your normal behavior not always consciously Demand characteristics s part of your experiment revealing your hypothesis More of a problem in withinsubjects design bc they can identify changes in conditions multiple exposures to the IV Efforts to present self as a good subject Evauation apprehension Minimizing participant bias Minimize demand characteristics Use of deception to get participants to behave more neutrally Use of placebo control group Everything the same except content of treatment As much special attention etc Manipuation check Ask participant what they think the hypothesis is Exam 2 Review Guide Experimenter bias Study Rosenthal amp Fode 1963 Rosenthal Effect Designed to study experimenter bias using picture perception amp experimenter expectancy Rosenthal had experimenters ask groups of ppl to rate how successful they believed people would be based on their photographs Rosenthal effect The Pygmalion effectthe phenomenon whereby the greater the expectation placed upon people the better they perform Tod one group of experimenters to expect many positive ratings Expectancy resulted in many positive scores Tod the second group to expect many negative ratings Expectancy resulted in many negative scores Designed a study for animal subjects as well Randomly assigned groups of rats to 2 experiment groups to learn mazes Tod one group of experimenters their rats were quotmazebrightquot Tod the second group of experimenters their rats were quotmazedullquot Outcome Group of quotmazebrightquot rats learned more quickly because the experimenters unconsciously handled them more a factor known to affect learning Ethical violations Omitted reports of contradicting results Fudged data misrecorded maze errors Merikle amp Skanes 1992 PSY 290 Stuetzle Participant bias Study Hawthorne Effect 1927 Conducted at Chicago s Western Electric Plant Hawthorne effect Participant s belief that they are part of a special group amp focus of attention thus the tendency for performance to be affected bc ppl know they are being studied l E Regardless of whether changes in l V are positive or negative participants produce positive outcomes Group of 6 female workers selected to be studied while producing telephone relays IV of hours worked break hours bonuses offered pay etc DV productivity Outcome Believed that workers remained productive because they felt quotspecialquot for participating in the group of interest Confounds Issues w internal validity Sometimes changed more than 1 IV at once Did not use a consistent measure operational de nition for productivity 2 workers dropped out 1 new recruit was especially talented amp became a leader contributing to productivity Output per week was recorded rather than per hour thus not counting in extra hours giving workers time to produce more relays Combined placebo amp waitlist control doubleblind procedure 47 adult female participants 3 groups Experimental group given subliminal weightloss tape Pacebo control group given subliminal dental anxiety tape Waitist group told they39d be given weightloss tape at the end Outcome All 3 groups lost same amt of weight over the course of the study Waitlist group lost weight before even receiving tape Similar to Hawthorne e ect Control problems in developmental research When IV is age 2 types of designs to consider 2 Exam 2 Review Guide PSY 290 Stuetzle Cross sectional design Btwn subjects design 3 4 amp 5 yr olds compared in language performance Problem of cohort e ects Children of di ages have been exposed to di information Longitudinal design Within subjects design Comparing language performance of the same kids at 3 4 amp 5 yrs old Attrition can be a problem Feasibility of collecting data for 3 yrs Testing e ects over time Issue of time length Will study conductor live long enough to see end of the study Info collected over time can get lost Cohort Effects Cohort a group of ppl that share characteristics same age environment etc Also share experiences Big concern during cross sectional amp longitudinal studies between subjects study Schaie Seattle Longitudinal Study 1956 Designed to examine agerelated changes in mental abilities nitia cohort of 500 participants ranging from early 205 to late 605 Added new cohorts at 7yearintervals from the start Total of 6000 participants were involved By 2005 only 38 participants were still in the study Outcome Found that overall performance was progressively better for participants born more recently These participants had on average advantages of better education nutrition etc Aso found that performance in mental tasks declines slightly with age amp losses can be reduced by good physical health amp brain exercises like crossword puzzles Brady s Executive Monkeysquot 1958 Investigated relationship btwn stress amp physical consequences Subject selection effect when groups are not made equivalent thru random assignment Procedure Paced pairs of monkeys in adjoining restraint chairs Executive monkey could avoid shocks by pressing a lever Control monkey s lever didn t work experienced shocks every time the executive monkey failed to pull the level Outcomes Executive monkeys developed stomach ulcers Contro monkeys did not develop them Confounds Did not randomly assign monkeys to groups the more quickly learning monkeys were placed in the quotexecutivequot group no longer random grouping these monkeys were more highly emotional lIore laidback monkeys fell into the control group Statistics Statisticians view ppl as sources of data samples are representatives of scores nterested in the difference btwn mean scores Exam 2 Review Guide PSY 290 Stuetzle lnferential statistics Hypothesis testing tells you whether the difference in scores is larger than you expect due to chance alone Testing is backwards Want to find evidence against the negation of your hypothesis lIeasures probability of whether your obtained results are due to chance or an actual ejj ect occurring 3 steps 1 Predict what should happen under certain circumstances if we know what the null is we know what the outcome should be assume null is true quotInnocent until proven guilty 2 Collect data nd out what actually happened 3 Compare the two make a conclusion results due to chance or actual IV in uence TTests Compare means also try to nd a difference in initial amp nal scores Control Group Designs There are more than 1 kind of control group Placebo Control Group Placebo Substance that appears to have a speci c effect but in fact is pharmacologically inactive Placebo control group Participants led to believe they are receiving a treatment when they actually aren39t Waiting List Control Group Used in treatment outcome studies Those in waitlist control group always get the treatment at the end of the study Random control groups not su icient bc of anticipatory ejj ect Yoked Control Group Participants in experimental group exposed to varying number of events or for a variable amt of time Each member of control group is quotyokedquot matched to a member of the experimental group Pairs controlled for exposures to stimulus exactly the same Participants are matched on subject variables amp of exposures to stimuli Similar to giving an entire group 1 same grade for a project Result for groups as a whole time spent participating or types of events encountered are kept constant FALSE TRUE Reject HOchance Correct Type 1 Error false 1 beta 2 power positive alpha Fail to reject HO Type 2 Error false Correct chance negative 1 alpha beta Exam 2 Review Guide PSY 290 Stuetzle 2 general types of experimental designs Betweensubjects independent groups design 1 Different groups of participants contribute data for different levels of the IV 2 Participants only exposed to 1 level of the IV Depending on your question may be the only way to design the study If IV is a subject variable introverts vs extroverts males vs females etc Or if experience of participating at 1 level of the IV makes it impossible to participate in other levels bias in uence etc Need to create equivalent groups groups that are the same as each other in all important ways except for the levels of IV Strengths Participants don39t know about other levels of IV or IV itself Hard to guess purpose of the study each participant equally na39ive about procedures Cons Need a large of individuals to fill all IV conditions Even more difficult if conditions call for a very speci c type of participant 9th born child etc Difference btwn conditions may be due to IV but could also be due to pre existing differences btwn the groups IE males amp females Withinsubjects repeated measures design 1 Participants exposed to amp contribute data to all levels of the IV 2 Often used in studies of sensation amp perception IE MuellerLyer illusions Strengths Cons Fewer participants needed to fill all experimental conditions Don t need to worry about equivalent groups Sequenceorder effects Being exposed to one level in uences perception on other levels Progressive effects Practice effect performance improves after several trials Fatigueboredom performance worsens after several trials Carryover effects Level A amp then B has a different effect than Level B amp then A Exam 2 Review Guide PSY 290 Stuetzle Control Methods for Experimental Designs Betweensubjectsindependent groups Control designs Random assignment a method of placing participants into different groups Every participant has an equal chance of being placed in either group Spreads potentially confounding factors evenly throughout diff groups But cannot ensure equal number of participants in each condition Block randomization Used to ensure an equal number of participants per group Each condition of the study has a participant randomly assigned to it before any condition is repeated a 2nd time Matching Participants are grouped together on some trait amp then randomly distributed to different groups Especialy useful when there are too few participants available for random assignment to work well 2 conditions needed Good reason to believe that the matching variable is correlated w the DV A good way to measure the matching variable Difficult to match participants on multiple traits amp also narrows down type of participants selected may affect randomness of sample Withinsubjectsrepeated measures control design Controlling sequence effects Counterbalancing Presenting conditions in more than one sequence Primarily used to minimize progressive e ects Types of counterbalancing when testing only once per condition Complete counterbalancing Every possible sequence of conditions is used at least once not always possible Partial counterbalancing A subset of total possible sequences are used only doing some of the orders 0 k if only testing 2 di conditions not 50 ok if testing for many di conditions Reverse counterbalancing For each participant present the conditions in 1 order amp then again in the reverse order Block randomization Every condition occurs once before any condition is repeated a 2nd time Within each block the order of conditions is randomized Latin square True Latin square 5 2 criteria Each condition only occurs in each position once Each condition precedes amp follows each other condition only once Doesn39t require researchers to test every level of every variablecombination Example 10 conditions no way to test every possible order Subsets tested instead Tries to eradicate order effect Exam 2 Review Guide PSY 290 Stuetzle Ryan Hatfield amp Hofstetter 2002 Doubleblind withinsubjects study testing caffeine effects on cognitive decline Procedure Recruited seniors 65 years Participants selfreported if they were morning people amp caffeine drinkers Randomly assigned to caffeine amp decaf groups Drank caffeinated or noncaffeinated coffees at each testing session amp completed memory tests 30 min later Each subject tested twice once each time with 511 day intervals Doubebind bc experiments did not know which drinks were caffeinated either lst IV If the coffees were caffeinated or noncaffeinated 2nd IV Time of testing 8am or 4pm Controls Randomly assigned seniors to ca eine vs noncaffeine groups to create equivalency lIanipulation check made participants guess whether their co ees were caffeinated most guessed wrong Counterbalanced half the participants were first tested in the morning amp then the afternoon amp vice versa for other half I E morning afternoon vs afternoon morning Outcome Time of day did not affect shortterm memory task performance Time of day signi cantly affected performance on longerterm tasks 20 minute delay before recalling learned info Caffeine prevented the decline for the more demanding task Performance for participants drinking decaf declined in the afternoon Experimental research examples IV with levels A amp B E effects of music volume on studying Level A quiet music Level B loud music Between subjects design Each participant is observed in either level A or B Not both Each grouplevel represents a different condition of the IV Within subjects design Each participant is observed in both level A amp B Presenting Data Options Write out numbers charts Ok when IV only has 2 or 3 levels Hard to present clearly with gt3 levels Must be presented with units Make a table of results Good when you have many scores amp levels Make a graph Good for readers who prefer pictures over numbers Easier to visually depict relationships Can be misleading due to scale exaggerations or minimizations of di erences Exam 2 Review Guide PSY 290 Stuetzle impler is better when presenting data watch out for quotducksquot unnecessary decorations Tips for graphing Use bars for discrete variables lmplies bias categorization Use line graphs for continuous variables lnappropriate when variables are categoricaldiscrete Pie charts Good for many categories amp comparing size Too many categories make it unreadable also create very low percentages Often solved by quototherquot category containing low percentages or whole new pie chart for those Exam 2 Review Guide Single Factor design decision tree IV betweensubjects or withinsubjects l PSY 290 Stuetzle BehNeen Within IV manipulated or subject variable IV manipulated or subject variable I l l Manipulated by Manipulated Subject definition I l Forming GTOUPS How often tested equivalent IntrlnSICaI39Y per condition groups by not equal l 39 I 1 I Possible Once gt once Random Matchmg matching to I I assignment redqce quoton39 equwalence Completepartial Reverseblock counterbalance counterbalance v A INdeDendem MaTChed Nonequivalent Repeated groups groups groups measures ifactor ifactor 1 factor 1 factor design design design design TABLE 7 1 Attributes of Four SingleFactor Designs Minimum Independent Levels of Variable Independent Creating Types of Independent Between Variable Equivalent Design Variable or Within Type Groups Independent 2 between manipulated random groups assignment Matched groups 2 between manipulated matching N onequivalent 2 between subject matching may groups reduce nonequivalence Repeated measures 2 within manipulated n a 9 Exam 2 Review Guide Stroop Study 1935 Stroop effect Reading is an overlearnedautomatic process amp interferes with color recognition when readers are instructed to name the color of ink in which the word is written rather than read the printed word itself First two experiments were withinsubjects design with 2 levels of 1 l V lst Experiment null 2 tasks involving reading the names of color words RCNb condition Reading Color Names printed in Black Participants read 100 color names printed in black as quickly amp accurately as they can RCNd condition Reading Color Names where the color of the print amp word are Different 100 color names were printed in ink of a di erent color than the word I E GREEN was printed in red ink Participants read the words amp ignored the color of the ink Sequence effects used reverse counterbalancing Half of the participants were tested in order of Other half of an equal number were tested on difference of performance btwn RCNb amp RCNd conditions Reading the color names in RCNd condition was unaffected by having been printed 10 ABBA Divided each condition39s list into 2 sets of 50 words RCNbRCNdRCNdRCNb RCNdRCNbRCNbRCNd Resulted in no in different ink colors PSY 290 Stuetzle 2nd Experiment directional Stroop effect discovered Task required participants to name the colors of the words rather than read the words printed NC condition Naming Color test Participants named the color of square color patches NCWd Naming Color of Word test where word amp color of print are Different Participants ignored the word that was written amp named the color in which it was printed Resulted in a signi cantly larger amount of time participants needed to complete the NCWd condition discovery of stroop effect Exam 2 Review Guide PSY 290 Stuetzle Kasser amp Sheldon 2000 Blagrove 1996 Independent groups design intended to study Matched groups design testing whether sleep insecurity amp materialistic leanings deprived ppl are in uenced by leading questions Randomly assigned participants to 2 groups Recruited 3 samples of college students divided Mortality Salience into 2 levels matched by selfreported habitual Wrote about feelingsthoughts sleep durations concerning their own death Seep deprivation experimental Second group No sleep deprivation control Wrote about thoughts amp feelings All participants given standardized test listened regarding listening to music to a story then responded to misleading Both groups asked to think about their lives 15 questions years in the future Then given negative feedback about responses amp IV Topic that participants wrote about questioned again to observe for changes in DV estimates they gave of future income value answers of future homespossessions etc Outcome Prediction that mortalitysalience group would Sleep deprived participants more feel temporarily insecure amp insecurity would in uenced by leading questions trigger greater estimateshopes of future More likely to change answers financial wellbeing Most likely when sleep Outcome deprived for 43 rather than 21 Those who wrote about death estimated hrs higher future worth amp leisurely spending Second study tested for greed MS group showed higher levels Researchers determined that concern about inevitable doom creates insecurity leading to search for super cial security thru material goods amp consumption Excluded 3 outliers participants whose future salary estimates were 15 SD above the mean abnormally significant insecurity McDonald amp Flanagan 2004 Nonequivalent groups design nvestigated abilities of 34 subjects w TBI traumatic brain injury to processunderstand social interactions Seected control group subjects matched on age education amp gender Both groups viewed videos from quotThe Awareness of Social Inference Testquot Tested if subjects w TBI would be impaired in ability to Accurately detect basic emotions Distinguish sincere from sarcastic comments Distinguish diplomatic lies from lies told sarcastically Outcome Those w TBI were signi cantly impaired in abilities to recognize emotions amp lack of sincerity as compared to participants wo TBI Concerns External validity To what extent did experimental subjects represent typical TBI conditions Researchers selected participants who as a group re ected usual attributes of TBI 11 Exam 2 Review Guide PSY 290 Stuetzle Lewis Terman 1921 Repeatedmeasures design One of the US39s most comprehensive longitudinal studies over 40 years Example of a longitudinal study done right Compared quotbrightquot amp quotdullquot children to see which tests can distinguish btwn them Measured IQ scores Gave each child extensive battery testsquestionnaires Took social employment cognitive measures etc Sample size of about 1470 elementaryhigh school students at the start of the study Went back to retest amp follow up on same participants 3 outcomes Broke the stereotype that gifted children struggle in social development amp quotburn outquot early in life Produced a useful database of archival info for future researchers Avoided a lot of attrition which kills many other studies Around 9298 of participants still followed thru in the rst 3 followups after the end of the study Lee amp Aronson 1974 Withinsubjects single factor repeatedmeasures design children each were exposed to both levels of IV the room moved forwards amp backwards Studied how we maintain balance in a moving environment Sample 7 children 1316 months Though 3 became distressed amp dropped out of the study IV Direction of moving the walls amp ceiling forward or backward creating the perception that one39s head is moving Hypothesis Moving the room would trigger the children to compensate by leaning in that direction DV Children39s movement swaying staggering falling ABAB alternation of conditions Ebbinghaus Forgetting Curve 1900 Singlefactor multilevel withinsubject design Intended to study the time course of forgetting Strung together sequences of consonants vowels amp consonants CVC to create nonsense syllables Spent years memorizing amp recalling lists of over 2300 nonsense syllables Varied factors like of syllables per list of study trials per list amp cramming vs spaced out studying Memorized 8 13item lists of nonsense syllables Waited amp then attempted to relearn lists w time intervals of 20 min 1 hr 9 hrs 1 day 2 days 6 days amp 31 days Used metronome to pace reading CVCs Studied lists in the same environment the same time of day Only used repetition to memorize Outcome Discovered that decline in memory was a nonlinear curve declines rapidly at rst amp then eventually tapers off Bransford amp Johnson 1972 Studied context effects on understanding reading passages Singlefactor multilevel betweensubjects independent groups study 5 groups randomly assigned participants Control group No context 1 repetition 12 Exam 2 Review Guide PSY 290 Stuetzle Listened to paragraphs on tape 14 idea units Tried to recall ideas after listening on average remembered 36 2nd group No context 2 repetitions Heard each story twice to see if repetition improves recall On average only recalled 38 ideas Ruled out repetition improving recall 3rd group Context before listening Given 30 seconds to look cartoon before listening Recalled 8 ideas out of 14 Cartoon helped participants to understand amp recall paragraph using context 4th group Context after listening Saw the cartoon after the paragraph Recalled 36 ideas Context improves recall when shown before so initial processing of info is facilitated 5th group Partial context given cartoon w rearranged details fit the story39s meaning less Recalled 4 ideas Context lacked meaningful relationship to story context only improves recall if it is meaningfully related to the paragraph Researchers added levels of IV to falsify various explanations Steele Bass Crook 1997 Replicated Rauscher39s Mozart study Singlefactor multilevel repeated measures design tested whether exposing infants to Mozart music improves cognitive abilities IV Listening to Mozart 3 levels DV Digit span memory Counterbalance order Listening to Mozart for 10 min Listening to soothing environmental sounds for 10 min Silence for 10 min 36 participants tested in each condition Implemented 3x3 Latin square 12 participants assigned to each row Tested participants on memory task of repeating sequences of numbers backwards after listening to conditions Avg of digits recalled virtually identical for each condition Outcomes Discovered practice effect Participants generally improved memorizations of the digits by their 3rd tests Mozart effect 30 min of listening to classical music stimulates some cognitive abilities Langer amp Rodin 1976 Studied on effects of personal control on health Experimental group Nursing home residents given increased control over daily planning Mentally amp physically healthier More likely to be alive by 18 month followup study Control group Daily planning done for residents by nurses 13 Exam 2 Review Guide PSY 290 Stuetzle Ethical implications for family memberspatients less likely to be alive Adler 1992 Researched effects of support groups on psychological amp physical health of women w breast cancer Found that women in support groups recovered faster amp lived longer Some researchers argued results didn39t reflect support group benefits but rather harm of control group participants feeling rejectedleft out Dunn Schwartz Hatfield Wiegele 1996 Study designed to evaluate effectiveness of psychotherapy technique Eye movement desensitization amp reprocessing EMDR Intended to treat anxiety amp PTSD Client recalls personal traumatic event while following rapid hand movements w eyes Study tested whether placebo effect was reducing stress in patients Sampled 28 college students who experience mildly traumatic events Matchedyoked on age sex amp type of traumatic event reported Randomly assigned Experimental group underwent EMDR Followed procedures until they reported minimal stress levels Control group participants Yoked in terms of how long each session lasted Looked at a colored card rather than undergoing EMDR procedure 3rd yoked group Thought about trauma but did not undergo therapy treatments Cancelled on ethical grounds too stressful Outcome No signi cant difference in stress reduction for experimental EMDR amp control colored card groups Obtained same results for each ruled out effectiveness of EMDR Factorial Designs Must have at least 2 IVs though need more Multiple IVs necessary not su icient tho Also must test for interactions btwn the variables Interaction effect where the effect of 1 IV depends onor changes with the level of the other The e ect of 1 IV on the DV di ers depending on the level of another IV Where the 2 variables cross on a graph The real advantage of factorial designs is the ability to show interaction effects No such thing as a 3x1 design Main effect overall effect of a particular IV marginal means The main effect of 1 factor involves using the data for all levels of other factors of main effects in a factorial design depends on the of variables Similar to studying each IV in a vacuum ignoring other variables Examples 3 IVs 7 possible effects 3 main effects 3 2 way effects amp 1 3 way interaction 2 x 3 x 4 design 2 factors 3 IV 4 conditions Total 24 conditions 4 IVS 14 Exam 2 Review Guide 6 2 way interactions 4 3 ways 1 4 way 15 total possible effects 2quotnumber of levelsfactors 1 of total possible effects Factorial Design Example PSY 290 Stuetzle 3 possible e ects main A main B AXB Study of social anxiety in adolescent boys Observing effects of 1 Social partner familiarity familiar vs unfamiliar 2 Sex of social partner male vs female Creates a 2x2 design Male Female Familiar 20 30 Unfamiliar 28 38 24 34 Male Familiar 30 Unfamiliar 20 Main effect of sex no Interaction of familiarity amp sex yes 25 33 If an interaction effect is present there will be a statistically signi cant difference for only 1 row 10 di erence for both the familiar amp unfamiliar row no interaction e ect IVs cancel out when averaging total SCOI39ES Relevance of factorial design reveals Female 20 30 Main effect of familiarity no interaction e ect of familiarity on sex of partner with which participants interact Factorial Decision Tree IVs between or withinS 1 All between I At least 1 of each IVs manipulated or subject variables I IVs betweenS subject or manipulated variable l All within l le manipulated or subject variables I Manipulated I Subject l Pam Groups groups by m by definition lll i Possible Random mm matching to ml nme t reduce mm independent Matched Nonequivalent groups groups groups factorial factorial factorial 15 L l m Manipulated Some manipulated some subject ll ll P x E Mixed Mixed factorial P x E factorial factorial l Manipulated by definition l How often tested per condition I Completepartial counterbalance Reverseblock counterbalance L J Repeated measures factorial Exam 2 Review Guide PSY 290 Stuetzle Subject variable particular levels of subjects gender age ethnicity etc Between subjects design Don t need to worry about order of tests Only an issue in repeated measurewithin subjects designs 2x2 withinsubjects design more powerful than 2x2 betweensubjects Random assignment Purpose group equivalencyequality Distributes subject variable factors evenly roughly across conditions PxE Person variables amp environment variables both manipulated Example 3x3 mixed factorial need 10 ppl per condition 9 conditions 90 ppl total B1 BZ 33 A1 10 participants gt gt A2 10 participants gt gt A3 10 participants gt gt I Total of 30 ppl used A groups of 10 repeated 3x each 3x5 design mixed factorial 5 being btwn subjects 10 ppl per condition For btwn subjects 50 ppl 5x10 If 3 were btwn subjects would only need 30 ppl The of participants depends on if the study is within or betweensubjects design Lewin39s Formula B fP E Behavior a jointfunction of the Person amp Environment Thus PXE factorial designs are suited for discovering interactive relationships in human behavior Gladue amp Delaney 1990 3 month long study 58 male amp 43 female participants Made attractiveness ratings for sets of photographs amp global ratings for overall attractiveness of ppl the bar Ratings done 900 1030 amp midnight Men gave signi cantly higher ratings than females did Ratings signi cantly increased as time wore on Possible confounds Alcohol researchers measured alcohol intake found no overall relationship btwn intake amp attractiveness ratings Customers groups of ppl C03 the bar may have changed btwn times when ratings were given researchers displayed same photos during time periods to get ratings Outcome Discovered quotclosing timequot main effect for men Grant et al 1998 16 Exam 2 Review Guide PSY 290 Stuetzle Studied associations btwn students39 study amp testing environments 2 study conditions 2x4 design Sient room Headphones w background noise 1 Silent study silent testing 2 Noisy study noisy testing 3 Silent study noisy testing 4 Noisy study silent testing No main e ects no statistically signi cant di erence Confounds Few participants 39 Different undergrad experimenters w little experience Bene ts Ecologically valid content tested amp environments matched typical student experiences Relevant to academic life Outcome Students performed better on tests when testing environment matched study environment IE noisy noisy amp silent silent Jenkins amp Dallenbach 1924 Studied retroactive interference 2 x 4 repeatedmeasures factorial 2 whether activities intervened btwn learning amp a recall test 4 4 diff retention intervals of hrs btwn learning amp testing 2 student participants contributed data to all cells Awake condition students learned lists in the morning Asleep condition lists were studied btwn 1130 pm amp 1am awoken for recall during sleep later Confound asleep condition students didn t know when they d be subject to studying again Outcome Discovered bigger advantage for recall after sleeping Riskind amp Maddux 1993 Studied how ppl manage their emotions in frightening circumstances 2 x 4 factorial design Manipulated selfef cacy amp quotloomingquot Self e icacy conditions 2 Participants told to visualize a situation in which they were sitting in an unlocked room w a magazine amp a tarantula Participants told to imagine they were tired securely to a chair in a locked room w a newspaper out of reach Then showed participants films of 5inchlong tarantulas Tarantula conditions 2 Tarantula was stationary or moving away Tarantua was quotloomingquot moving toward them Counterbalanced repeated measures DV selfreported assessment quotSpider Looming Questionnairequot Assessed amount of fear experienced Outcomes Differences occurred for row amp column means 17 Exam 2 Review Guide PSY 290 Stuetzle Both main effects statistically signi cant lnteraction large amount of fear when lowselfef cacy situation paired w horror movie lnzlicht amp BenZeev 2000 Studied stereotype threats affecting performance Groups of 3 Brown University students were given a math test amp told their scores would be made public 2 X 2P X E betweensubjects factorial Subject variable gender Environmental factor groups of 3 ppl given a math test Samesex condition IIinority condition 2 males amp a female or 2 females amp a male Outcome Performance for subjects remained consistent Exception females in the minority condition scored signi cantly lower 2 bene ts Discovered that women may bene t from samesex math classes Educating females about stereotype threats amp describing the task as quotproblem solvingquot rather than a quottestquot improved performance Strayer amp Drews 2004 Compared young vs old drivers Compared driving with versus without using a cell phone P X E mixed betweenampwithinsubjects factorial Operationally de ned drivers as 20 young drivers btwn 1825 yrs old 20 old drivers btwn 6574 yrs old Procedure Participants in a driving simulator were instructed to follow a quotpace carquot Participants had to maintain proper distance from the pace car Pace car braked frequently 32 times in a 10 min trial DV driving speed distance from pace car reaction time Conditions 4 tenminute trials 2 with subjects driving 2 with subjects driving while carrying a cell phone conversation Counterbalanced w single amp multitasking trials taking place both in the lst amp 2nd half of trials quotBlock randomization Outcomes Younger drivers had quicker reactions overall than older drivers Undistracted drivers had quicker reactions overall than those driving while talking on the cell phone Reaction time for distracted young drivers was the same as for undistracted old drivers Bandura amp the Bobo Dolls Study 1963 1 manipulated variable 4 levels 3 experimental groups amp 1 control group Operational de nition of imitative aggressive behaviors striking the doll with a mallet punching it kicking it Exp Group 1 quotReallife aggression children observed adults aggressively hitting the doll Exp Group 2 quotHuman lm aggression children watched a lm of adults aggressively hitting the doll 18 Exam 2 Review Guide PSY 290 Stuetzle Exp Group 3 quotCartoon lm aggression children watched a cartoon of quotHerman the Cat aggressively hitting the doll Control Group No exposure to aggressive models Nonmanipulated IV Gender of participants children Manipulated IV Gender of model that participants observed Confounds controlled Size Adults modeled aggression with 5foot tal Bobo Dolls amp children were presented with 3 foot tal dolls to keep size proportional Aggression All the children were told that the toys presented to them were specially reserved for other children before presenting the Bobo doll controlled for arousal of emotion before beginning experiment Outcomes Chidren from the rst 3 experimental groups reallife human lm amp cartoon lm showed signi cantly more aggression than the control group did Tho same amount of overall aggression occurred regardless of the type of modeling Boys more aggressive than girls in all conditions 19
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