Final Study Guide Music History
Final Study Guide Music History
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Zuri Yip on Tuesday May 24, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to at New York University taught by Leanne Dodge in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see Music History I in Music History at New York University.
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Date Created: 05/24/16
Final Exam Study Guide Music History I, Fall 2015: Friday, December 11, 2015 Listening identificati(~40%). Be able to identify the piece you hear (writing out names of composers [you must know both first and last names], compositions, and treatises), and answer shortanswer or multiple choice questions about it based on what you hear. You may hear the beginning, middle, or end of a piece. Remember that a section from a Mass must be identified by the name of the mass (e.g., Josquin des Prez, “Kyrie” is incorrect; Josquin deissa Pange linguis correct). Compositions to know: Be able to identify it by composer and title, using the information given below. Also, know in what context it was performed, its source music (if relevant) and what musical characteristics define it (form, texture, type of polyphony, the way it is put together, etc.) From the first part of the semester: NAWM 3ak: Mass for Christmas Day (plainchant) ya know…. no i donyeah you do…..V HOMOPHONIC. CHANTY NAWM 14ac: Organa from usica enchiriad(organum) Homophonic, lots of pauses, perfect 5ths, many wow much music very music history NAWM 16: Jubilemus, exultem (versus in Aquitanian polyphony) 2 voices, uber melismas NAWM 17: Leoninus, Viderunt omne (organum duplum) pedal tone, melisma in top voice, rhythmic 6LITERALLY keeps on going” NAWM 25: Philippe de VitrCum statua/Hugo, Hugo/Magister inv(motet) HOCKET/ VOICE EXCHANGE THING NAWM 26: Guillaume de Machaut,La Messe de Nostre Dame [Kyrie and Gloria] 4ths, 5ths, 8ths, open intervals ring, no imitation. Gloria HAHAHAHAHAHAHA/ HOHOHOHOHO/HEEHEEHEEHEEHEE/ AAAAAAAAAAhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhh AAAAAAaaaaaaaaaaAAAAAAaaaahaa AMMMMEEEEEEEEENNNNN NAWM 32: Franceso Landini,on avrà ma’pie(ballata) Female voices…. strophi LANDINI CADENCE TI LA DOOOOOOOO From after the midterm: NAWM 34: John Dunstable,uam pulchra es(motet) homophonic NAWM 35: Binchois,De plus en pl(rondeau) strophic, 6/8 AS FUCCKquick moving melody/slower tenor NAWM 38[a]: Guillaume Du Fay e la face ay p(ballade) performed with instrument, prominent female voice NAWM 38[b]: Du Fay,Missa Se la face ay p [Gloria] starts with GLORIA EN EXCELSIS DEOOOOOO cantus firmus mass top voices move around a lot LALALALALALALa NAWM 39: Antoine BusnoysJe ne puis vi(virelai) imitation, all parts are equally interesting NAWM 40: Jean de Ockeghem:issa Prolation[Kyrie] Double Mensuration canon, slight imitation. few dissonances, slower than Desprez, long and winding phrases NAWM 41: Henricus Isaannsbruck, ich muss dich l(Lied) homophonic, strophic, melody in top voice NAWM 44: Josquin des Pre,ve Maria … virgo se (motet) imitation, homophony NAWM 45: Josquin des PreMissa Pange linguKyrie and Credo] Kyrie: paraphrase mass Credo: homophonic Strong point of imitation, staggered entrances. NAWM 46[b]: Martin Luthun komm, der Heiden Heil(chorale) monophonic,chant like, very german words NAWM 46[c]: Martin Luthin feste B (chorale) stepwise motion, AAB form, and monophonic NAWM 47a: Loys Bourgeois, Psalm 1r sus, serviteurs du Sie(metrical psalm) few skips/leathe offering church song NAWM 48: Thomas Tallisf ye love me starts homophonic, imitaENGLISH NAWM 49: William Byr,ing joyfully unt(full anthem) imitation, hardly any homophony NAWM 51: Giovanni Perluigi da Palesope Marcellus Mas[Credo and Agnus Dei I] No imitation, super consonant, homophonic texture, initial run in the high voice in the beginning NAWM 52[a]: Tomás Luis de VictoO magnum mysterium(motet) Point of imitation in beginning, large leaps on “Magnum” NAWM 52[b]: Victorissa O magnum mysteriu[Kyrie] Polyphony, imitation, full thi Cantus firmus in t Imitation mass NAWM 53: Orlande de LassusCum essem parvulu(motet) MUCH Word painting, “parvulus” (child) in higher voices. NAWM 56: Jacques ArcadelIl bianco e dolce cmadrigal) Point of imitation clear marked rhythms NAWM 57: Cipriano de Rore la belle contrade d’o(madrigal) NAWM 58: Luca MarenzioSolo e pensos(madrigal) Top voice moves up stepwise, alone pensive deliberate footsteps. NAWM 59: Carlo Gesualdo“Io parto” e non pi(madrigal) Fast runs hocketing back and forth, chromaticism, dissonance, plucked string instrument background, fast, abrupt texture changes, NAWM 60: Claudin de Sermisy, Tant que vivr(chanson) Compound meter homophonic syllabic NAWM 64: Thomas Weelkes, A s Vesta was(madrigal) English, “came running up and down” uses word painting NAWM 65: John Dowland, Flow, my tear(air or lute song) One voice, English, plus lute and piano NAWM 66[a, b, c]: Tylman Susato, Dances froanserye Renaissance sounding lol, INSTRUMENTS!!!!! (A)TAMBOURINE yaaaaas (instruments) (B) CALLIOPE/carnival sounding (C) CALLIOPE/carnival sounding thing. NAWM 69: William Byrd,ohn come kiss me now Harpsichord instrumental music NAWM 70: Giovanni Gabrieli,Canzon septimi toni aensemble canzona) InstrumentsGOOD <THANKS ^_^ I try Unknown listening (~510%). You will hear music not on our listening list. Using elements that you hear in the music (style, monophony vs polyphony, relationship of different voices, structure, etc), you will describe what you hear. You will identify a possible composer or source in a treatise for the excerpt. Note that you must justify your choice, and that your reasons are far more important than a correct identification. It is possible to receive full credit without correctly identifying the composer. Multiple choice(~1015%). ultiple choice questions may have more than one correct answer. In reviewing, please reference the weekly assignment sheets. The lists at the end of this study guide (concepts, musical trends, people, and terms) will also help you focus your studies. Identification(~20%) I will give you a subset of the terms listed below. You should explain the significance of the term to music history. In your studying, focus on the most important aspects of the terms, based on class discussion and your text. Each identification will be worth five points; you will receive a point for each important aspect that you correctly identify. Reformationled to new types of religious music in Protestantism. Chorale in the Lutheran churches, metrical psalms in Calvinist churches, and the anthem and Service in the Anglican church. Catholic church continued to use Gregorian chant and polyphonic masses and motets. Martin Luthersought to give audience a bigger role in services because through singing together, worshippers could unite in proclaiming their faith, which was like the beliefs of Plato and Aristotle. He also made services easier to understand by increasing the use of the vernacular. Luther used many wellknown secular tunes for chorales and substituted religious words, so the common people could learn them. He replaced elaborate polyphonic settings of the mass with simpler music like German chorales with monophonic hymn tunes. CounterReformation Also known as the Catholic Response to the Protestant Reformation. Loss of countries made this campaign urgent and the Society of Jesus or Jesuits was formed; they swore strict obedience to the pope and helped to restore some countries. Contenance angloise or “English quality” consisted especially in the use of harmonic 3rds and 6ths, often in parallel motion, resulting in pervasive consonance with dissonances. It included a preference for simple melodies, regular phrasing, primarily syllabic textsetting. They became stronger in English music of the 14th and 15th centuries. AKA English style of polyphony. Point of imitationa succession of imitative entrances. Three voices enter at twomeasure intervals with the same melody in three different octaves, then continue with free counterpoint. Paraphrase mass based on monophonic melody and paraphrased in most/all voices rather than being used as cantus firmus in one voice Imitation (parody) mass polyphonic mass in which each movement is based on same polyphonic work with cantus firmus in tenor Mass cycle Choralecongregational hymn, strophic poem Gioseffo Zarlino15171590. Italian theorist. Wrote "Le istitutioni harmoniche," banning parallel fifths and octaves; rules on counterpoint. Music printing in the Renaissance Council of Trent Church council gathered at the Council of Trent to figure out how to respond to the Reformation. They sought to restrict polyphonic music, didn’t like widespread use of instruments or dissonance. Madrigal (16t century) Madrigalism Castiglione Short essays (about concepts emphasized in class) (~20%). I will choose from the questions below: 1. What is the difference between cantus firmus, paraphrase, and imitation masses? Make sure to explain what material in each is borrowed, how it is used, and where it comes from. Also, give an example of each. Use examples from your listening list whenever possible. ● Cantus firmus mass is a polyphonic mass in which the same cantus firmus is used in each movement, usually in the tenor. (Ex. Missa se la face ay pale:Gloria Guillame du Fay ) Cantus firmus found in the tenor, and it’s modeled after Gloria ● Paraphrase mass is based on monophonic melody and paraphrased in most/all voices rather than being used as a cantus firmus in one voice. AKA only one voice is used in the new work. Ex. Missa pange lingua: Kyrie Josquin Desprez same melody is repeated in voices at different times. Modeled after the Kyrie. ● Imitation mass or parody mass: polyphonic mass in which each movement is based on the same polyphonic model, normally a chanson or motet, and all voices of the model are used in the mass, none is used as a cantus firmus. AKA all voices are used in the new work Ex. Missa O magnum mysterium: Kyrie Tomas Luis de Victoria. All voices are taken from the Kyrie and used in the new work. 2. Identify the main musical genre associated with the Calvinist, Lutheran, and Anglican churches around the time of their development. Select one of these genres and explain in detail how the music reflected the musical and religious values of its tradition. The chorale is from the Lutheran church. The metrical psalm is from the Calvinist church. The anthem and the Service are from the Anglican church. When Martin Luther separated from the Catholic Church, he created the Lutheran church and he also incorporated a new musical genre called the chorale. He wanted the audience to have a bigger role during the service, so he used secular and folk tunes paired with the vernacular to write his own songs so they would be easier to learn. 3. What is the CounterReformation? What is the legend of the P ope Marcellus Mass, and what are some of the musical characteristics that support this legend? The CounterReformation was a response to the Protestant reformation, in which the Catholic Church responded with a series of initiatives in the Council of Trent which the Catholic Church tried to revert back to basic polyphony. The legend of the Pope Marcellus Mass is that it saved polyphony. The mass was written to show the Church that it was possible to write a polyphonic mass that was reverent in spirit and did not obscure the words, which saved polyphony music from condemnation by the church. It was believed to be true because the text of the mass is set so clearly. 4. How did the advent of music printing affect musical composition? Music printing made music more accessible to the public and fostered the growth of musical literacy. Since printed music was so available, a new culture emerged. People were learning notation and playing the parts from amateurs to the pros. Music was their enjoyment and printed music was purchased by both pros for their own use and also amateurs who wanted to perform in their own language. This gave way to a high demand of music which composers worked to meet. Since amateur performance sold particularly well and was in their own language it reinforced an already emerging trend toward diverse national genres and styles. Music printing allowed for more new works because new works that were improvised were written down and could later be published and as a result new genres began to emerge which includes variations, preludes, toccatas, canzonas and sonata. 5. How did the Humanist movement affect selection of text and composition of music in th 16 century madrigals and chansons? Make sure to discuss the contributions of Bembo, Vicentino, and the French Academies in your answer. The humanist movement was an intellectual movement of Renaissance. It moved away from the church and went back to classical antiquity and ancient learning specifically the Greek and Roman school of thought. People began returning to sonnets and canzoni of Petrarch under Cardinal Pietro Bembo. Bembo noted that Petrarch often revised the sound of the words without changing the imagery of meaning. Bembo identified 2 opposing qualities that Petrarch sought in his verse and categorized characteristics such as rhythm, patterns, syllables etc. in how to make a verse either pleasing or severe. Nicola Vincentino proposed reviving the chromatic and enharmonic genera of Greek music in his treatise. That is why chromaticism is a special effect seen in madrigals of Rore and Vincento and was startling and therefore effective, but it gradually became common. The French Academies was the home of musique musuree (measured music) they were trying to imitate the rhythm of Greek poetry. They sought to unite poetry and music as in ancient times and revise the ethical effects of ancient Greek music. They hoped to improve society by imposing their music on the general public. 6. Summarize the evolution and development of the motet as a genre from its origins through the end of the 16t century. ● Musicians at Notre Dame created a new genre in the early 13th century called the MOTET by adding latin text to discant clausulae’ upper voices. The MOTET replaced conductus and organum as the leading polyphonic genre in sacred and secular music. Towards the end of the 13th century Please make sure to review your assignment sheets! Additionally, you may find the lists on the following pages helpful: Concepts to review: Elements of the Mass (both Ordinary and Proper) Different compositional procedures for masses (cantus firmus, paraphrase, and imitation), and examples of each (see p. 208). Be prepared to be specific about how these procedures work in the masses on your listening list. Be able to describe the relationship between a mass setting and the source tune for relevant masses on your listening list. The Reformation and CounterReformation: what started off the Reformation, how did different Protestant traditions (Lutheran, Calvinist, Anglican) come about (general overview is fine), what music became typical for each tradition and how did it reflect the musical/religious values of each, what musical sources were used for the different genres of music associated with Protestant traditions; what is the legend of thPope Marcellus Mass (and what does it tell us about values amongst Catholic reformers?)? What were some influences of the ancient Greeks on Renaissance music? Think about texts, Academies, and interest in Greek writings. Think especially about madrigals. How did patronage and education shape the musical styles of Renaissance composers (look back at Ch. 7)? How did music printing affect musical composition? Think about the financial benefits to composers as well as the spread of notated music, and the types of music manuscripts that became widespread What was the influence of English music on Burgundy in the fifteenth century? What are some common musical characteristics of different madrigals in the 16 t century? Be prepared to use at least two madrigals as examples. People (know who they are and why they are important to music history): John Dunstable Gioseffo Zarlino Thomas Tallis Guillaume Du Fay Jean de Ockeghem Pietro Bembo Binchois Heinrich Isaac Pierre Attaingnant Ottaviano Petrucci Martin Luther JeanAntoinede Baïf Tinctoris John Calvin Adriano Willaert Henry VIII Terms : Renaissance Point of imitation Humanisim Lied Counterpoint Paraphrase mass Partbooks Chorale Reformation Contrafactum CounterReformation Chorale motet Contenance angloise Metrical psalms Rota Psalter Faburden Service (great and short) Old Hall manuscript Anthem (full and verse) Fauxbourdon The Book of Common Mass cycle Prayer Plainsong mass Council of Trent Motto mass Villancico Head motive Frottola Cantus firmus mass Imitation mass Le istitutioni harmoniche(The Harmonic Foundations, 1558); by Gioseffo Zarlino; one of the most influential music theory treatises; advice to composers on how to EXPRESS EMOTIONS; The treatise, divided in four parts, includes theoretical and practical elements of music. The first two parts discuss philosophical, cosmological and mathematical aspects of music, Greek tonal system and tuning. The third and fourth parts cover the rules of counterpoint and modes, respectively. Canon composition in which voices enter successively erforming the same melody which was derived from another piece Madrigal (16t century) Throughcomposed form when a song has different music for each stanza. While, strophic form is when each stanza is set to the same music. Chromaticism The use of nondiatonic pitches in a piece. These nondiatonic notes are not meant to predict, reference, or establish a secondary key, but simply to detract from the original one. Word painting when the music reflects the meaning of the words in context Madrigalism literal depiction of individual words Musique mesurée found in chansons, in which stressed syllables are given longer notes than unstressed syllables (usually twice as long). Chanson secular song with French words, used esp. for polyphonic songs of the 1416th c. Consort song Renaissance English genre of song for voice accompanied by a consort or group of viols. Lute song English genre of solo song with lute accompaniment. Tablature system of notation used for lute that tells the player which strings to pluck and where to place the fingers on the string rather than indicating which notes will result. Sackbut Renaissance brass instrument, early version of trombone Lute plucked string instrument popular in the late Middle Ages to Baroque Period. Pavane Sixteenthcentury dance in SLOW duple meter with three repeated sections (AABBCC). Often followed by a GALLIARD. GalliardSixteenthcentury dance in FAST triple meter, often paired with the PAVANE and in the same FORM (AABBCC) IntabulationArrangement of a vocal piece for LUTE or keyboard, typically written in TABLATURE (system of notation used for lute). VariationsThe process of reworking a given MELODY, song, THEME, or other musical idea, or the resulting varied FORM of it. Virginalis denotes a composer of the socalled virginalist school, and usually refers to the English keyboard composers of the late udorand early acobean periods. Toccata Piece for keyboard instrument or LUTE resembling an IMPROVISATION that may include IMITATIVE sections or may serve as a PRELUDE to an independent FUGUE. Ricercare In the early to midsixteenth century, a PRELUDE in the style of an IMPROVISATION. (2) From the late sixteenth century on, an instrumental piece that treats one or more SUBJECTS in IMITATION. Canzona Sixteenthcentury Italian GENRE, an instrumental work adapted from a CHANSON or composed in a similar style. In the late sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries, an instrumental work in several contrasting sections, of which the first and some of the others are in IMITATIVE COUNTERPOINT. Sonata a piece to be played on one or more instruments Polychoral motet motet for two or more choirs, often including groups of instruments.
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