Psyc 3560 (abnormal psyc) exam 1 study guide
Psyc 3560 (abnormal psyc) exam 1 study guide PSYC 3560
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kennedy Finister on Tuesday May 24, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC 3560 at Auburn University taught by Dr. Fix in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see Abnormal Psychology in Psychlogy at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 05/24/16
Abnormal Psyc Exam 1 studyguide May 27, 2016 1. Introduction to Abnormal Behavior: How is Abnormal Behavior Defined? Importance of culture in abnormal psych o Every culture has certain standards for acceptable behavior, or socially acceptable norms. Those members of a society who do not think and behave like everyone else break these norms so are often defined as abnormal. Under this definition, a person's thinking or behavior is classified as abnormal if it violates the (unwritten) rules about what is expected or acceptable behavior in a particular social group. 3 D’s of abnormality § Deviant Behavior § Psychological Distress § Debilitating DSM-5 definition of abnormal behavior o Clinically significant syndrome o Distress or disability (impaired functioning) o Not culturally sanctioned o Considered to reflect behavioral, psychological, or biological dysfunction Benefits of Classification o Provides a nomenclature for structuring information o Facilitates communication o Facilitates research § But can also impede research that is “outside of the box” o Practical reasons (resource allocation, insurance) Disadvantages of classification o Stigmatization § Stereotyping/labeling • Lead to people feeling embarrassed, less likely to get help § Loss of information § Diagnostic categories are heterogeneous • Presenting in several different ways • Criticisms of the DSM-5 (also located in chapter 4 of the book) 2. Causal Factors and Viewpoints Define etiology • The study of causation, or origination of (psychological) factors Abnormal Psyc Exam 1 studyguide May 27, 2016 Types of Causal Factors* (e.g., necessary, sufficient, contributory, distal, proximal) • Necessary Cause • Some that HAS to happen in order for something else to occur; NOT enough on its own • Examples: • Water is necessary for humans to live, but is not sufficient • Being awake while taking an exam is necessary, in order for you to pass, but it is not sufficient • Sufficient Cause • Enough to get the job done. Without more information you can’t assume that its a requirement. Not the only way that it can happen • Examples: • Taking a limo to campus is sufficient to get you there. However you can take some other form of transportation • Decapitation is sufficient to cause death, however there are other causes of death • Necessary/Sufficient Causes • Examples: • Completing all the requirements of your degree program is necessary & sufficient for earning your degree • Contributory Cause • A lot of different factors Increase the probability of a disorder developing but is not necessary or sufficient for someone to have a disorder • Most studied within psychology • Example: • Family history of alcohol use predicting alcohol dependence • Heavy smoking predicting lung cancer • Abuse predicting PTSD • Distal • Casual factors that occur a while before the onset of the disorder • Example: • Malnutrition as an infant Is associated with attention problems in adulthood • Proximal • Casual factors that occur shortly prior to the onset of a disorder • Example: • Severe marital problems leading to the onset of depression Abnormal Psyc Exam 1 studyguide May 27, 2016 Diathesis-Stress Model • Many disorders are believed to develop as the result of some kind of stressor operating on a person with a diathesis, or vulnerability, for that disorder • Example: someone has the gene for bipolar disorder something stresses them out and triggers the symptoms for the disorder. Bio-psychosocial Model • COMPLEX interaction of biological, psychological, and social/cultural factors • Genes/chemical imbalances + ways of thinking/stress level + social roles/ relationships = mental health disorder Biological Perspectives: Biological viewpoints of abnormal behavior • Disorders are diseases of the nervous and endocrine systems that are inherited or caused by some pathological process. • Disorders are the result of neurological abnormalities. • Biological factors interact with psychological and sociocultural factors. Types of biological causes • Neurotransmitter Abnormalities • Hormonal Abnormalities • Genetic Vulnerabilities • Epigenetics • Brain Dysfunction and Neural Plasticity Genotype vs. phenotype • Genotype = genetic code • Phenotype = physical traits Genetic abnormalities – polygenic • Vulnerability for mental disorders almost always polygenic • Many genes contribute to disorders, not one genes decided whether you have it or not Twin studies • Concordance = percentage of twins sharing disorder or trait • Disorder entirely due to genetics (chromosomal abnormality) • Monozygotic twins should be 100% concordant • Dizygotic twins ~50% concordant • If a disorder is entirely due to environment Abnormal Psyc Exam 1 studyguide May 27, 2016 • MZ twins and DZ twins should about equally concordant • If genes & environment play a role • MZ twins will have higher concordance than DZ twins (e.g., 50% vs. 10%) Temperament* (know the definition) • Infant personality, how will they generally behave when they’re older • A child’s characteristic emotional and arousal response to various stimuli Brain dysfunction & Neural Plasticity • Brain dysfunction • Subtle deficiencies in certain brain structures or function have been linked to various disorders • Getting into a car accident, having a brain injury and suddenly becoming paranoid and anxious all the time • Neural Plasticity • Flexibility of the brain in making changes in organization and/or function in response to pre- and post-natal experiences, stress, diet, drugs, etc… • Brains are constantly evolving Behavioral Perspective: Behavioral viewpoint on abnormal behavior, including - What influenced its emergence, origins? - What is maladaptive behavior the result of from this perspective? - Behaviorism and treatment Classical Conditioning (including all terminology) • The process by which a previously neutral stimulus comes to elicit a specific response Operant (instrumental) Conditioning • Process in which behaviors (operants) are modified based on consequences Generalization • where a conditioned response starts occurring in response to the presentation of other, similar stimuli, not just the conditioned stimulus Discrimination • organism discriminates between a learned, voluntary response and an irrelevant, non-learned response. Observational Learning Abnormal Psyc Exam 1 studyguide May 27, 2016 • Monkey see monkey do • Learning through observation alone, • Learning with no direct experience • 1960s – famous Bobo Doll experiments Attachment Perspective Ainsworth’s 3 attachment styles • Secure • Explores/plays when mom present • Distressed when mom leaves • Overjoyed when mom returns • Anxious-Resistant Insecure • Clings to mom when present • FURIOUS when she leaves • Angry when she returns • Anxious-Avoidant Insecure • Could care less about mom • Doesn’t notice that mom leaves • Ignores when returns Cognitive-Behavioral Perspective: Schemas - what are they? • Underlying representation of knowledge that guides the current processing of information • Schemas are influenced by one’s: • Temperament • Abilities • Experiences • Can be a source of psychological vulnerabilities when they become distorted or inaccurate • Assimilation and Accommodation • Assimilation • Work new experiences into our existing schemas • Reinterpreting experiences; distorting experiences to make them fit • Accommodation • Changing our existing framework to incorporate new information that doesn’t fit • Basic goal of cognitive behavior therapies Abnormal Psyc Exam 1 studyguide May 27, 2016 Attribution Theory, including attributional styles (e.g., for depressed vs. non- depressed people) • Attribution • the process of assigning causes to things that happen • Attributional Styles • Characteristic way in which an individual tends to assign causes to bad and/or good events • Can differ by situation or context • Depression – Attribute bad events to internal, global and stable causes to negative situations • Internal • “it must be my fault” • global • “nothing will ever work out” • stable • “I wont ever be able to change” Sociocultural Perspective: How do sociocultural factors influence abnormal behavior • Individual personality development often reflects that of the larger society, as well as immediate family group. Sociocultural causal factors • Low Socioeconomic Status and Unemployment • Prejudice and Discrimination in race, gender, and ethnicity • Social change and uncertainty • Urban stressors: Violence and homelessness 3. Clinical Assessment Why is it important to assess social and behavioral histories? • They may not have a mental disorder other underlying issues could be responsible for their symptoms. • For example: adhd. Someone may be having issues paying attention but if it’s a recent issues than they could have some kind of anxiety issue causing them to be antsy What do we mean by reliable and valid measures? – Reliability • Degree to which the instrument produces the same result each time it is used – Validity Abnormal Psyc Exam 1 studyguide May 27, 2016 • Extent to which a instrument actually measures what it is supposed to measure. Neuropsychological Assessments – what are they? • Assessment instruments designed to measure a person’s cognitive (e.g., memory, problem-solving), perceptual, and motor performance • Often used as clues to the extent and location of brain damage • Commonly used to test for dementia, Alzheimer's, and problems from traumatic brain injuries. Psychological Assessments – what are they? • Attempts to provide a realistic picture of an individual in interactions with his or her social environment • Often includes assessment of: – Personality – Stressors – Level of functioning – Resources – Symptoms/signs Types of Psychological Assessments – Interviews – Clinical Observation – Psychological Tests Assumptions of Projective measures • attempts to make sense of ambiguous stimuli Problems with Projective Measures • poor reliability and validity 4. Research Methods in Abnormal Psychology Epidemiology – The study of the distribution of diseases, disorders, or health-related behaviors in a given population Prevalence vs. Incidence • Prevalence – Number of active cases in population at any given period of time. • 1-year prevalence: Lifetime prevalence • Incidence – Number of new cases that occur over a given period of time (typically 1 year) Abnormal Psyc Exam 1 studyguide May 27, 2016 Correlation* • a statistical index used to represent the strength of a relationship between two factors, how much and in what way those factors vary, and how well one factor can predict the other. • does NOT provide you with cause and effect information; it will not tell you if one factor causes or is caused by the other. Comorbidity – The presence of two or more disorders in the same person – A person with one serious disorder has a 50% chance of having two or more additional disorders – Adds a lot of complexity to understanding abnormal behavior – Presents a major challenge to researchers
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